Aceh Sultanate

The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam (Acehnese: Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh. It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline. Its capital was Kutaraja, the present-day Banda Aceh.

At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate of Johor and Portuguese-controlled Malacca, both on the Malayan Peninsula, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success. In addition to its considerable military strength, the court of Aceh became a noted centre of Islamic scholarship and trade.

Aceh Sultanate
Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam
كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام

1496–1904
Flag of Aceh
Alam Peudeung Mirah
of Aceh
Coat of arms
Extent of Aceh Sultanate during the reign of Iskandar Muda, 1608–1637.
Extent of Aceh Sultanate during the reign of Iskandar Muda, 1608–1637.
StatusProtectorate of the Ottoman Empire (1569–1903)
CapitalKutaraja, Bandar Aceh Darussalam (modern Banda Aceh)
Common languagesAcehnese, Malay, Arabic
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentMonarchy
Sultan 
• 1496–1528
Ali Mughayat Syah
• 1875–1903
Muhammad Daud Syah
History 
• Coronation of the first Sultan
1496
• Aceh War
1904
CurrencyNative gold and silver coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Pasai
Dutch East Indies
Today part of Indonesia
 Malaysia

Foundation and rise

Aceh's early history is unclear, but in one version it was founded by the Cham people. The Acehnese language is one of the 10 languages of the Aceh-Chamic language group. According to the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), the Champa king Syah Pau Kubah had a son Syah Pau Ling who escaped when the capital Vijaya was sacked by the Vietnamese Lê dynasty in 1471, and who later founded the Aceh kingdom.

The ruler of Aceh converted to Islam in the mid-15th century.[1] The Sultanate was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520.[2] His conquests included Deli, Pedir, and Pasai, and he attacked Aru. His son Alauddin al-Kahar (d.1571) extended the domains farther south into Sumatra, but was less successful in his attempts to gain a foothold across the strait, though he made several attacks on both Johor and Malacca,[3] with the support along with men and firearms from Suleiman the Magnificent's Ottoman Empire.[1] The Ottoman Empire sent a relief force of 15 Xebecs commanded by Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis.

On 21 June 1599 a Dutch captain, Cornelius Houtman arrived at "Acheen" aboard the Lioness as the first of three planned voyages to the East Indies. The crew stayed for three months acquiring pepper and other spices. British crew member John Davis claims the party was subsequently attacked by the local warlord with the loss of 68 dead and captured. After they arrived, they were permitted by the Sultan to purchase pepper, during the same year as representatives of the English East India Company under the command of James Lancaster arrived. He returned in 1602 bearing a letter from English Queen Elizabeth I.[4][5]

The Sultan from 1589 to 1604 was Alauddin Riayat Shah ibn Firman Shah. Internal dissension in the Sultanate prevented another powerful Sultan from appearing until 1607 when Iskandar Muda came to the position. He extended the Sultanate's control over most of Sumatra. He also conquered Pahang, a tin-producing region of the Malayan Peninsula, and was able to force the Sultans of Johor to recognise his overlordship, if temporarily. During his reign, he created a code of laws known as Adat Meukuta Alam (Adat meaning "customs", or "customary rules"). The strength of his formidable fleet was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629 when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy all his ships and 19,000 troops according to Portuguese account.[6][7][5] Aceh's forces were not destroyed, however, as Aceh was able to conquer Kedah within the same year and taking many of its citizens to Aceh.[7] The Sultan's son in law, Iskandar Thani, former prince of Pahang later became his successor. During his reign, Aceh focused on internal consolidation and religious unity.

After the reign of Sultan Iskandar Thani, Aceh was ruled by a series of female Sultana. Aceh's previous policy of taking hostages from conquered kingdoms' population[7] made them eager to seek independence, the results were Aceh's control weakened while regional rulers gained effective power. The Sultan ultimately became a largely symbolic title.[8] By the 1680s, a Persian visitor could describe a northern Sumatra where "every corner shelters a separate king or governor and all the local rulers maintain themselves independently and do not pay tribute to any higher authority."[9]

Culture and economy

Aceh Islamic plate (Ming dynasty)
A ceramic plate made by Chinese Hui Muslims found in the Aceh Sultanate in the 17th century.

Aceh saw itself as heir to Pasai, the first Islamic state in Southeast Asia, and succeeded Islamic missionary work of Malacca after it was conquered by the Roman Catholic Portuguese. It was called the "porch of Mecca," and became a centre of Islamic scholarship, where the Qur'an and other Islamic texts were translated into Malay.[1] Its notable scholars included Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsuddin of Pasai, Abdurrauf of Singkil, and the Indian Nuruddin ar-Raniri.[10]

Aceh gained wealth from its export of pepper, nutmeg, cloves, betel nuts,[11] and, once it conquered Pahang in 1617, tin. Low interest rates and the use of gold currency strengthened its economy.[12] It was always somewhat fragile economically, however, because of the difficulty in providing enough surplus food to support the military and commercial adventures of the state.[13] As Aceh lost political cohesion in the 17th century, it saw its trading importance yielded to the Dutch East India Company, who became the dominant military and economic power in the region following the successful siege of Malacca in 1641.[9]

Later years and conquest by the Dutch

In 1699 Sultan Badr al-alam Syarif Hasyim Jamal ad-din ascended to the throne, the first male to rule in almost 60 years. He was succeeded by several short-lived rulers, and in 1727 a member of the Buginese dynasty, Sultan Ala ad-din Ahmad Shah took power. In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the first Kapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam.[14] The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. Later, about 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs.[14][15]

In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world's supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the "pepper rajas" who were nominal vassals of the Sultan by playing them off against each other. He rose to power during the Sultanate of his brother, Muhammad Syah, and was able to dominate the reign of his successor Sulaiman Syah (r. 1838–1857), before taking the Sultanate himself, under the title Sultan Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah (1857–1870). He extended Aceh's effective control southward at just the time when the Dutch were consolidating their holdings northward.[16]

Britain, heretofore guarding the independence of Aceh to keep it out of Dutch hands, re-evaluated its policy and concluded the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra, which allowed for Dutch control throughout Sumatra in exchange for concessions in the Gold Coast and equal trading rights in northern Aceh. The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873, with the Dutch making the unfounded excuses that Aceh was sponsoring piracy and preparing to conclude a treaty with the United States. As the Dutch prepared for war, Mahmud Syah (1870–1874) appealed for international help, but no one was willing or able to assist.[17]

In early 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital after the palace was captured on 31 January, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh. He would die of cholera, as did many combatants on both sides, but the Acehnese proclaimed a grandson of Tuanku Ibrahim Sultan. The local rulers of Acehnese ports nominally submitted to Dutch authority to avoid a blockade, but they used their income to support the resistance.[18]

During this time, many Acehan politicians sought aid from the Ottoman Empire. Their efforts were futile, but they did serve to inspire resistance movements across south-east Asia. Local resistance in northern Sumatra then passed to the local lords and potentates, and then to the religious leaders. However, an adviser of the Sultan, Abd al-Rahman al-Zahir, soon returned to take command of the independence movement, fell out with the revolutionary leaders, and promptly agreed to surrender himself to the Dutch in exchange for a lifetime pension in Mecca.

The Dutch, now hounded by locals and cholera alike, fortified their coastal positions and began a slow siege of the entire country, conducted by General van Pel. The capital in particular was surrounded by forts connected by railways. The Dutch made another serious attempt to finally pacify the country in 1884, but it quickly slowed down and suffered from popular criticism. Dutch armies were finally able to make progress between 1898 and 1903, with each local potentate in occupied territories being forced to sign "The Short Declaration", a pledge of allegiance to the Dutch colonial overlords. Because of their co-operation, the Dutch were able establish a fairly stable government in Aceh and get the Sultan to surrender in 1903. After his exile in 1907, no successor was named, but the resistance continued to fight for some time, until 1912.[19][15]

Lineage

Jirat Soleutan Ali Mughayat Syah
Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah's tomb in Banda Aceh
Kandang XII
Sultan tomb complex from era before Iskandar Muda in Banda Aceh
Jirat Soleutan Eseukanda Muda
Sultan Iskandar Muda's tomb in Banda Aceh
Jirat Soleutan Aceh Bugeh
A complex of tomb of Acehnese sultan from Bugis descendant in Banda Aceh
Sultan of Aceh Reign
Ali Mughayat Syah c. 1514–1530
Salahuddin 1530–c. 1537/39
Alauddin al-Kahar c. 1537/39–1571
Ali Ri'ayat Syah I 1571–1579
Sultan Muda 1579
Sri Alam 1579
Zainul Abidin 1579
Alauddin Mansur Syah 1579–1585/86
Ali Ri'ayat Syah II, Raja Buyung 1585/86–1589
Alauddin Ri'ayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammal 1589–1604
Ali Ri'ayat Syah III 1604–1607
Iskandar Muda 1607–1636
Iskandar Thani 1636–1641
Ratu Safiatuddin Tajul Alam 1641–1675
Ratu Nurul Alam Naqiatuddin Syah 1675–1678
Ratu Inayat Zaqiatuddin Syah 1678–1688
Ratu Kamalat Syah 1688–1699
Badr ul-Alam Syarif Hasyim Jamaluddin 1699–1702
Perkasa Alam Syarif Lamtui Syah Johan Berdaulat 1702–1703
Jamal ul-Alam Badr ul-Munir 1703–1726
Jauhar ul-Alam 1726
Syamsul Alam 1726–1727
Alauddin Ahmad Syah 1727–1735
Alauddin Johan Syah 1735–1760
Alauddin Mahmud Syah I 1760–1781
Badr ul-Alam Syah 1764–1765
Sulaiman Syah 1773
Alauddin Muhammad Syah 1781–1795
Alauddin Jauhar ul-Alam Syah (first reign) 1795–1815
Syarif Saiful Alam Syah 1815–1819
Alauddin Jauhar ul-Alam Syah (second reign) 1819–1823
Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah I 1823–1838
Alauddin Sulaiman Ali Iskandar Syah 1838–1857
Alauddin Ibrahim Mansur Syah 1857–1870
Alauddin Mahmud Syah II 1870–1874
Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II Johan Berdaulat 1874–1903

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Barwise and White, 114
  2. ^ Ricklefs, 32
  3. ^ Ricklefs, 33
  4. ^ Michael Hicks, ‘Davis , John (c.1550–1605)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008
  5. ^ a b Ooi Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia. Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.]: ABC Clio. p. 120. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.
  6. ^ Ricklefs, 34
  7. ^ a b c *D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
  8. ^ Ricklefs, 36
  9. ^ a b Barwise and White, 117
  10. ^ Ricklefs, 51
  11. ^ Barwise and White, 115–116
  12. ^ Barwise and White, 116
  13. ^ Ricklefs, 35
  14. ^ a b Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society By Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malaysian Branch, Singapore Published by , 1996; p. 119
  15. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia By Nicholas Tarling Published by Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN 978-0-521-66370-0; pg. 260
  16. ^ Ricklefs, 143
  17. ^ Ricklefs, 144
  18. ^ Ricklefs, 145
  19. ^ Ricklefs, 146

References

  • J.M. Barwise and N.J. White. A Traveller’s History of Southeast Asia. New York: Interlink Books, 2002.
  • M.C. Ricklefs. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

External links

Abd al-Rauf al-Sinkili

Abd al-Rauf ibn Ali al-Fansuri al-Sinkili (spelling variation Abdurrauf Singkil, 1615–93 CE) was a well-known Islamic scholar and the mufti of Aceh Sultanate. He was the confidant of Sultana Safiyat al-Din. He was considered the first person to spread the Shattari Sufi order in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. Many of his students also became disseminators of Islam.Al-Sinkili was believed to be a native of Singkil, a town on the western coast of Aceh. Beside being called Al-Sinkili, his other attribution (Arabic: nisba) was Al-Fansuri, which relates him to the town of Barus. He could be related to another prominent Sufi poet and writer from that town, Hamzah Fansuri.

Acehnese people

The Acehnese (also written as Atjehnese and Achinese) are an ethnic group from Aceh, Indonesia on the northernmost tip of the island of Sumatra. The area has a history of political struggle against the Dutch. Majority of the Acehnese people are Muslims. The Acehnese people are also referred to by other names such as Lam Muri, Lambri, Akhir, Achin, Asji, A-tse and Atse. Their language, Acehnese, belongs to the Aceh–Chamic group of Malayo-Polynesian of the Austronesian language family.

A 14th century Suruaso inscription was found in Tanah Datar Regency (West Sumatra), and written in two languages, Old Malay and Tamil. Tamil merchants also assimilated with Acehnese people and do not practice Tamil culture or speak the Tamil language. Among the present day Acehnese can also be found descent from Arab and Turkish merchants.

The Acehnese were at one time Hinduised, as evident from their traditions and the many Sanskrit words in their language. They have been Muslims for several centuries and are generally considered the most conservative Muslim ethnic group in Indonesia with the implementation of Sharia law in their home province of Aceh. The estimated number of Acehnese ranges between 3,526,000 people and at least 4.2 million peopleTraditionally, there have been a large number of Acehnese agriculturists, metal-workers and weavers. Traditionally matrilocal, their social organisation is communal. They live in gampôngs, which combine to form districts known as mukims. The golden era of Acehnese culture began in the 16th century, along with the rise of the Islamic Aceh Sultanate and later reaching its peak in the 17th century. Generally, the Acehnese people are regarded as strict adherents to the Islamic faith and also as militant fighters against the colonial conquest of the Portuguese Empire and the Dutch Empire.Aceh came to international attention as being the hardest-hit region of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake with 120,000 people dead.

Ahmad Shah II of Pahang

Sultan Ahmad Shah II ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah (died 1617) is the 11th Sultan of Pahang who reigned from 1590 to 1592. Known as Raja Ahmad before his accession, he is the only son of the tenth Sultan of Pahang, Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah, by a royal wife. He succeeded on the death of his father in 1590 and reigned under the regency of his elder half-brother, Raja Abdul Ghafur.In the interregnum period following the death of Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah in 1614, Pahang descent into chaos and was conquered by Aceh Sultanate under Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1617. The former Sultan Ahmad Shah II and his family was taken as a hostage to Aceh, where he died after 1617. Ahmad Shah's eldest son, Raja Mughal later known as Iskandar Thani was married to Iskandar Muda's daughter, the later Queen Taj ul-Alam and eventually succeeded him as the 13th Sultan of Aceh in 1636.

Alauddin Riayat Shah II of Johor

Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah (died 1564) was the first Sultan of Johor. He ruled Johor from 1528 to 1564. He founded the Johor Sultanate following the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511. He was the second son of Mahmud Shah of Malacca. Thus, Johor was a successor state of Malacca and Johor's sultans follow the numbering system of Malacca. Throughout his reign, he faced constant threats from the Portuguese as well as the emerging Aceh Sultanate.

Barus

Barus is a kecamatan (district) in Central Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra Province, Sumatra,

Indonesia. Historically, Barus was well known as a port town on the western coast of Sumatra where it was a regional trade center from around the 7th or earlier until the 17th century. It is also known by other names, namely Fansur and Barusai. The name Fansur or Pansur means "spring of water" in the local Batak language. Barus was well known for its produce camphor. In the 16th century, Barus came under attack from the rising power of Aceh, and became absorbed into the Aceh Sultanate. The earliest known Malay poet Hamzah Fansuri may be from Barus as indicated by his name.

Dutch expedition on the west coast of Sumatra

The Dutch expedition to the west coast of Sumatra was a punitive expedition of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in 1831. The United States Navy, responding to the same incident, sent a punitive expedition in 1832.

The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 limited Dutch freedom of action in the Aceh Sultanate on the island of Sumatra. The treaty assured the independence of Aceh and obligated the Dutch to ensure the safety of shipping and overland trade in and around Aceh. In 1831 some Acehnese pirates plundered the American ship Friendship in Kuala Batee. The passing Dutch schooner Dolfijn made a failed attempt to rescue the ship, but fear of open war with Aceh and a diplomatic crisis with Britain prevented a greater Dutch response. The Acehnese were emboldened, occupied Baros and attacked the Dutch posts. The Dutch response was to declare that Baros, Singkil and Tapus lay outside the Aceh Sultanate and to prepare a party to occupy them in the name of the Batavian government.

Lieutenant Colonel Roeps, the commander of Baros, was ordered to proceed on the town, only engaging the enemy when absolutely necessary. In one of those encounters, he was mortally wounded by gunfire. His replacement, Michiels, took a squadron of 700 men and fell on Baros. Lieutenant Bisschoff climbed the parapet of one of the defensive works and took down the Acehnese flag, receiving eleven klewang wounds in the act. Leaving behind their weapons and ammunition, the Acehnese retreated to Tapus and Singkil, where their main body under Mohamed Arief was waiting. Again the Acehnese were expelled and Dutch authority in Singkil was thus established.

Gocah Pahlawan

Tuanku Sri Paduka Gocah Pahlawan, titled Laksamana Khoja Bintan, was the founder of the Sultanate of Deli and the Sultanate of Serdang in North Sumatra, Indonesia. According to the tarombo (ancestor genealogy) from Deli and Serdang, Gocah Pahlawan was of keling (Indian) ethnicity, sent by Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1612 to rule in the former Aru Kingdom. He was appointed as a representative commander (wali negara, guardian of the state) of the Aceh Sultanate for the area, to fight the Portuguese influence and establish alliances with the local population, who generally were Karo peoples.Deli sources mentioned that Gocah Pahlawan came from India and his the original name was Muhammad Delikhan, while Serdang sources mentioned that his original name was Yazid and he was a descendant of the rulers of Bukit Siguntang Mahameru, who left the Pagaruyung Kingdom on an Indian merchant ship. Both sources agreed that before Gocah Pahlawan went to Deli, he was first stranded in Pasai, Aceh. He then made services to the Aceh Sultanate by leading its forces in the wars in Bengkulu, Johor, and Pahang. He successfully captured the two daughters of the king of Pahang, namely Princess Kamariah and Princess Khairul Bariah.Gocah Pahlawan married the younger sister of the Sunggal chieftain (Karo: raja urung), Datuk Itam Surbakti, who was the strongest chieftain in that area (Deli Tua), and made alliances with the other three chieftains. The name of the Sunggal chieftain's sister was Princess Nang Bulan (Baluan) beru Surbakti, and the marriage was conducted around 1632. The Karo chieftains who had converted to Islam and adopted the Malay culture then regarded him as their supreme leader (primus inter pares) for the region. The early kingdom lead by Gocah Pahlawan was then called the Bintan Kingdom. Its initial territory was from the border of the Tamiang river to the Rokan Pasir Ayam Denak river. With the help of the Karo chieftains, he expanded his power to Percut and other areas in Deli.Gocah Pahlawan died around 1641, his tomb is located in Batu Jerguk, Deli Tua. His rule was continued by his son, Tuanku Panglima Perunggit.

Hulubalang

Hulubalang (Jawi: هولوبالڠ) were the military nobility of the classical Malay kingdoms of Southeast Asia. In western sources, "Hulubalang" is roughly translated as "warlord", "commander", "general" or simply "warrior". An early literary reference to the word Hulubalang appears in the Malay Annals. It is mentioned in the text that among four senior nobles of Kingdom of Singapura (1299–1398), there was a position called Hulubalang Besar ('Grand Hulubalang'), first held by Tun Tempurung, that equivalent to chief of staff of the army, who commands several other Hulubalangs. The legendary strongman of Singapura, Badang, was among the notable Hulubalang of the kingdom, promoted to the rank during the reign of Sri Rana Wikrama.In the 15th century Melaka Sultanate, the rank of Grand Hulubalang as the head of all Hulubalangs was preserved but more commonly known with the title 'Seri Bija Diraja' in the Malay Annals. Among the most notable Seri Bija Diraja of Melaka was Tun Hamzah who lived during the reign of Mansur Shah. He was commonly known for his role along with Tun Perak, in leading the Melakan army to victory against the Siamese invaders and in the conquest of Pahang. As Melaka experiencing rapid expansion of its influence as a maritime empire in mid 15th century, it requires a similar office to control its naval forces separately, thus the rank of Laksamana ('grand admiral') was created, first held by Hang Tuah.In Aceh Sultanate, Iskandar Muda (1583–1636) established a new nobility of warlords called uleëbalang, whom he gave districts (mukim) in feudal tenure. After his reign, however, the elite often supported weaker sultans, in order to maintain their own autonomy. In Brunei Sultanate, the rank of Manteri Hulubalang (officials of defence) refers to lower ranking non-noble traditional officials.

Keumalahayati

Keumalahayati, or Malahayati (fl. 16th century), was an admiral in the navy of the Aceh Sultanate, which ruled the area of modern Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. She was the first woman admiral in the modern world (if Artemisia I is not included). Her troops were drawn from Aceh's widows and the army named the "Inong Balee", after the Inong Balee Fortress near the city of Banda Aceh. Some historians rate Keumalahayati as an equal of Semiramis and Catherine the Great, while references to her can be found in some Chinese and Western literature.

Kuta Raja

For the populated place in Sikur, Indonesia see Kota Raja

Kuta Raja also written as Koetaradja, Kotaraja and Kota Raja, was the name the Dutch gave to the capital of the Aceh Sultanate in the Aceh region of Sumatra. The name translates to mean "Kingtown" or "Princetown". It became part of the Dutch East Indies after the Aceh War. Dutch rule ended with World War II. After Indonesia became independent the city was renamed Banda Aceh.

Kuta Raja is now the name a district in the city of Banda Aceh. Villages in the district include:

Lampaseh City

Merduati

Keudah

Peulanggahan

Java Gampong

Gampong Pande

Lamuri Kingdom

Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century. The area was inhabited by Hindu population around the seventh century. There is also evidence of Buddhism. The region is also thought to be one of the earliest places of arrival of Islam in the Indonesian archipelago, and in its later period its rulers were Muslims.

Lamuri is generally considered to be located in the Aceh province near Banda Aceh. Its location has been suggested to be in today's Lambaro to the west of Bandar Aceh where submerged ruins of buildings and tombstones have been found, although some now associate Lamuri with Lam Reh where there are ancient tombstones. Accounts of Lamuri have been given in various sources from the 9th century onwards, and it is thought to have become absorbed into the Aceh Sultanate by the early 16th century.

List of Acehnese people

This is a list of notable Acehnese people.

Ottoman expedition to Aceh

The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca. The expedition followed an envoy sent by the Acehnese Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahhar (1539–71) to Suleiman the Magnificent in 1564, and possibly as early as 1562, requesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese.

Perunggit

Tuanku Panglima Perunggit, also titled Kejuruan Padang, was the second ruler (1641-1700) of the Sultanate of Deli (now in North Sumatra, Indonesia). He continued the rule of his father Tuanku Panglima Gocah Pahlawan, who was the representative commander (wali negara) of the Aceh Sultanate to rule former area of the conquered Aru Kingdom. His mother's name was Putri Nang Bulan beru Surbakti, a sister of the Sunggal chieftain (Karo: raja urung), Datuk Itam Surbakti, one of the rulers of the Karo people in Deli Tua.As the Aceh Sultanate's influence was the weakening in various regions of Sumatra, Perunggit took the opportunity to make Deli independent. He first gained support from the Dutch East India Company in Malacca, and in 1667 sent envoys directly to its headquarters in Batavia. In 1669, Perunggit announced that Deli was independent from Aceh's realm.Perunggit was married to the sister of the Sukapiring chieftain. After he died, his rule was continued by his son, Tuanku Panglima Paderap.

Second Aceh Expedition

The Dutch dispatched a second expedition in Aceh in late 1873 during the Aceh War following the failed First Aceh Expedition of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army to Aceh.

At that time this expedition was one of the largest Dutch ever launched in the Indonesian archipelago, the expedition consisted of 8,500 troops, 4,500 servants and coolies, and a reserve of 1,500 troops was later added. Both the Dutch and Acehnese suffered from disease (mostly cholera) during this time. 1,400 colonial soldiers died between November 1873 and April 1874. After the Acehnese abandoned their capital, Banda Aceh, the Dutch moved into the capital in January 1874 thinking the Acehnese had surrendered and they had had won the war. They announced that the Aceh Sultanate was dissolved and that Aceh was annexed.

Foreign powers thus refrained from interference, however, Acehnese resistance remained. Sultan Mahmud Syah and his followers withdrew to the hills and jungles territory of Aceh, where Sultan Mahmud eventually died of cholera. The Acehnese proclaimed a young grandson of Tuanku Ibrahim, named Tuanku Muhammad Da'ud, as Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II (r. 1875-1903) and continued their struggle in the hills and jungles territory as guerrillas.

Sulaiman Shah II of Kedah

Paduka Sri Sultan Sulaiman Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mudzaffar Shah III (died 28 February 1626) was the 12th Sultan of Kedah. His reign was from 1602 to 1626. Raided from Aceh Sultanate has destroyed black pepper plantation in Langkawi in order to monopolize the industry. Build Kota Kuala Bahang as fortress from Aceh raid with the assistant from the Portuguese Empire. A huge raided from Aceh in 1619 has destroyed the fortresses and forced the Portuguese to evacuated.

Teungku Chik di Tiro

Muhamad Saman (1836 – 21 January 1891), better known as Teungku Chik di Tiro (usually spelt Cik di Tiro in Indonesia), was an Acehnese guerrilla fighter. On 6 November 1973 he was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.

Ulèë Lheuë

Ulèë Lheuë is an area in Meuraxa sub-district, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It was the former main seaport of Aceh. Ulèë Lheuë is made of two words. Ulèë means "head" and lheuë means little peninsula. Ulèë Lheuë is indeed a coastal town sitting on the tip of Sumatra Island.

This town was most popular during the reign of Aceh Sultanate as a busy international seaport for spice trading.

The area was reconstructed in 2005. A new ferry terminal has been built, funded by the Australian Government (implemented by UNDP).

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