Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds"[1]) are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist. The concertina and bandoneón are related; the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family.

The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds. These vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block.[notes 1] The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, and the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual.

The accordion is widely spread across the world. In some countries (for example Brazil,[2][3] Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico and Panama) it is used in popular music (for example Gaucho, Forró and Sertanejo in Brazil, Vallenato in Colombia, and norteño in Mexico), whereas in other regions (such as Europe, North America and other countries in South America) it tends to be more used for dance-pop and folk music and is often used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America. In Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music and in both solo and orchestral performances of classical music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, California.[4] Many conservatories in Europe have classical accordion departments. The oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning "harmonic, musical". Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side".[5]

Accordion
A convertor free-bass piano-accordion and a Russian bayan
A piano accordion (top) and a button accordion (bottom)
Keyboard instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification412.132
(Free-reed aerophone)
DevelopedEarly 20th century
Playing range

Depends on configuration: Left-hand manual

Left-hand manual

Related instruments

Hand-pumped: Bandoneon, concertina, flutina, garmon, trikitixa, Indian harmonium

Foot-pumped: Harmonium, reed organ

Mouth-blown: Claviola, melodica, harmonica, Laotian khene, Chinese shēng, Japanese shō

Electronic reedless instruments:

Electronium, MIDI accordion, Roland Virtual Accordion
Musicians
Accordionists (list of accordionists).
More articles
Accordion, Chromatic button accordion, Bayan, Diatonic button accordion, Piano accordion, Stradella bass system, Free-bass system, Accordion reed ranks and switches
Dominguinhos de Morais
The Brazilian Forró accordionist Dominguinhos

Construction

Accordions have many configurations and types. What may be technically possible to do with one accordion could be impossible with another:

  • Some accordions are bisonoric, producing different pitches depending on the direction of bellows movement
  • Others are unisonoric and produce the same pitch in both directions. The pitch also depends on its size.
  • Some use a chromatic buttonboard for the right-hand manual
  • Others use a diatonic buttonboard for the right-hand manual
  • Yet others use a piano-style musical keyboard for the right-hand manual
  • Some can play in different registers
  • Craftsmen and technicians may tune the same registers differently, "personalizing" the end result, such as an organ technician might voice a particular instrument

Universal components

Bellows

Squeeze boxes accordion bandoneon concertina diatonic chromatic
Bellows-Driven Instruments
Piano accordions・・・1,2,13
Diatonic button accordion・・・3
Chromatic button accordions・・・11,12,14
Digital accordions(V-Accordions,Roland Corporation)・・・11,12,13,14
Bandoneon・・・4
English concertina・・・5
Anglo-German concertinas(Anglo concertinas)・・・6,7,8,9,10

The bellows is the most recognizable part of the instrument, and the primary means of articulation. Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal.[6] It is used to create pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibrations, applied pressure increases the volume.

The keyboard touch is not expressive and does not affect dynamics: all expression is effected through the bellows. Bellows effects include:

  • Volume control and fade
  • Repeated change of direction ("bellows shake"), which has been popularized by Renato Borghete (gaucho music), also Luiz Gonzaga[7] extensively used in Forró and called resfulengo in Brazil
  • Constant bellows motion while applying pressure at intervals
  • Constant bellows motion to produce clear tones with no resonance
  • Using the bellows with the silent air button gives the sound of air moving, which is sometimes used in contemporary compositions particularly for this instrument

Body

The accordion's body consists of two wooden boxes joined together by the bellows. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals. Each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to project better. The grille for the right-hand manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is normally used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment; however, skilled players can reverse these roles.[notes 2]

The size and weight of an accordion varies depending on its type, layout and playing range, which can be as small as to have only one or two rows of basses and a single octave on the right-hand manual, to the standard 120-bass accordion and through to large and heavy 160-bass free-bass converter models.

Pallet mechanism

The accordion is an aerophone. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it:[notes 3]

Accordion button mechanism
A side view of the pallet mechanism in a piano accordion. As the key is pressed down the pallet is lifted, allowing for air to enter the tone chamber in either direction and excite the reeds; air flow direction depends on the direction of bellows movement. A similar mechanical pallet movement is used in button accordions, as well as for bass mechanisms such as the Stradella bass machine that translates a single button press into multiple pallet openings for the notes of a chord.

Variable components

The term accordion covers a wide range of instruments, with varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format. Not all have switches. The most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genres. Another type of accordion is the button accordion, which is used in several musical traditions, including Cajun, Conjunto and Tejano music, Swiss and Austro-German Alpine music, and Argentinian tango music.

Right-hand manual systems

MeguRee the duo of Dino Baffetti Chromatic Button Accordion Excelsior Piano Accordion
Piano accordionist & chromatic button accordionist at Tokyo Big Sight

Different systems exist for the right-hand manual of an accordion, which is normally used for playing the melody. Some use a button layout arranged in one way or another, while others use a piano-style keyboard. Each system has different claimed benefits[8] by those who prefer it. They are also used to define one accordion or another as a different "type":

  • Chromatic button accordions and the bayan, a Russian variant, use a buttonboard where notes are arranged chromatically. Two major systems exist, referred to as the B-system and the C-system (there are also regional variants).
  • Diatonic button accordions use a buttonboard designed around the notes of diatonic scales in a small number of keys. The keys are often arranged in one row for each key available. Chromatic scales may be available by combining notes from different rows. The adjective "diatonic" is also commonly used to describe bisonic or bisonoric accordions—that is, instruments whose right-hand-manual (and in some instances even bass) keys each sound two different notes depending on the direction of the bellows (for instance, producing major triad sequences while closing the bellows and dominant seventh or 7-9 while opening). Such is the case, for instance, with the Argentinian bandoneon, the Austro-German steirische Harmonika, the Italian organetto, the Swiss Schwyzerörgeli and the Anglo concertina.
  • Piano accordions use a musical keyboard similar to a piano, at right angles to the cabinet, the tops of the keys inward toward the bellows
  • 6-plus-6 accordions use a buttonboard with three rows of buttons in a "uniform" or "whole-tone" arrangement. The chromatic scale consists of two rows. The third row is a repetition of the first row, so there is the same fingering in all twelve scales. These accordions are produced only in special editions e.g. the logicordion produced by Harmona.
Italian Button Accordion QM r

A button key accordion made by the company Marrazza in Italy. It was brought by Italian immigrants to Australia as a reminder of their homeland.

PianoAccordeon

A Weltmeister piano accordion by VEB Klingenthaler Harmonikawerke

Left-hand manual systems

120-button Stradella chart
Typical 120-button Stradella bass system. This is the left-hand manual system found on most unisonoric accordions today.

Different systems are also in use for the left-hand manual, which is normally used for playing the accompaniment. These almost always use distinct bass buttons and often have buttons with concavities or studs to help the player navigate the layout despite not being able to see the buttons while playing. There are three general categories:

  • The Stradella bass system, also called standard bass, is arranged in a circle of fifths and uses single buttons for chords.
  • The Belgian bass system is a variation used in Belgian chromatic accordions. It is also arranged in a circle of fifths but in reverse order. This system has three rows of basses, three rows of chord buttons allowing easier fingering for playing melodies, combined chords, better use of fingers one and five, and more space between the buttons. This system was poorly traded outside of its native Belgium.
  • Various free-bass systems for greater access to playing melodies on the left-hand manual and to forming one's own chords. These are often chosen for playing jazz and classical music. Some models can convert between free-bass and Stradella bass; this is called converter bass. The free-bass left hand notes are arranged chromatically in three rows with one additional duplicate row of buttons.

Reed ranks and switches

Reedsinset
Accordion reed ranks with closeup of reeds

Inside the accordion are the reeds that generate the instrument tones. These are organized in different sounding banks, which can be further combined into registers producing differing timbres. All but the smaller accordions are equipped with switches that control which combination of reed banks operate, organized from high to low registers. Each register stop produces a separate sound timbre. See the accordion reed ranks and switches article for further explanation and audio samples.

All but the smallest accordions usually have treble switches. The larger and more expensive accordions often also have bass switches.

Classification of chromatic and piano type accordions

In describing or pricing an accordion, the first factor is size, expressed in number of keys on either side. For a piano type, this could for one example be 37/96, meaning 37 keys (three octaves plus one note) on the treble side and 96 bass keys. After size, the price and weight of an accordion is largely dependent on the number of reed ranks on either side, either on a cassotto or not, and to a lesser degree on the number of combinations available through register switches. Typically, these could be announced as Reeds: 5 + 3, meaning five reeds on the treble side and three on the bass, and Registers: 13 + M, 7, meaning 13 register buttons on the treble side plus a special "master" that activates all ranks, like the "tutti" on an organ, and seven register switches on the bass side.

Quito Accordion player
Accordion player in a street in the historic centre of Quito, Ecuador

Straps

The larger piano and chromatic button accordions are usually heavier than other smaller squeezeboxes, and are equipped with two shoulder straps to make it easier to balance the weight and increase bellows control while sitting, and avoid dropping the instrument while standing.

Other accordions, such as the diatonic button accordion, have only a single shoulder strap and a right hand thumb strap. All accordions have a (mostly adjustable) leather strap on the left-hand manual to keep the player's hand in position while drawing the bellows. There are also straps above and below the bellows to keep it securely closed when the instrument is not playing.

Unusual accordions

Busking Accordionist
Garmon player

Various hybrid accordions have been created between instruments of different buttonboards and actions. Many remain curiosities — only a few have remained in use:

  • The Schrammel accordion, used in Viennese chamber music and klezmer, which has the treble buttonboard of a chromatic button accordion and a bisonoric bass buttonboard, similar to an expanded diatonic button accordion
  • The Steirische Harmonika, a type of bisonoric diatonic button accordion particular to the Alpine folk music of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, the German state of Bavaria, and the Italian South Tyrol
  • The schwyzerörgeli or Swiss organ, which usually has a three-row diatonic treble and 18 unisonoric bass buttons in a bass/chord arrangement — a subset of the Stradella system in reverse order like the Belgian bass – that travel parallel to the bellows motion
  • The trikitixa of the Basque people, which has a two-row diatonic, bisonoric treble and a 12-button diatonic unisonoric bass
  • The British chromatic accordion, the favoured diatonic accordion in Scotland. While the right hand is bisonoric, the left hand follows the Stradella system. The elite form of this instrument is generally considered the German manufactured Shand Morino, produced by Hohner with the input of Sir Jimmy Shand[9]
  • Pedal harmony, a type of accordion used sometimes in Polish folk music, which has a pair of pump organ-like bellows attached

History

8 key accordion
Eight-key bisonoric diatonic accordion (c. 1830)

The accordion's basic form is believed to have been invented in Berlin, in 1822, by Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann,[notes 4][10] although one instrument has been recently discovered that appears to have been built earlier.[notes 5][11][12]

Dillner-accordion
Zitat Dillner Akkordeon

The earliest history of the accordion in Russia is poorly documented. Nevertheless, according to Russian researchers, the earliest known simple accordions were made in Tula, Russia, by Timofey Vorontsov from 1820, and Ivan Sizov from 1830.[13] By the late 1840s, the instrument was already very widespread;[14] together the factories of the two masters were producing 10,000 instruments a year. By 1866, over 50,000 instruments were being produced yearly by Tula and neighbouring villages, and by 1874 the yearly production rate was over 700,000.[15] By the 1860s, Novgorod, Vyatka and Saratov governorates also had significant accordion production. By the 1880s, the list included Oryol, Ryazan, Moscow, Tver, Vologda, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod and Simbirsk, and many of these places created their own varieties of the instrument.[16]

The accordion is one of several European inventions of the early 19th century that use free reeds driven by a bellows. An instrument called accordion was first patented in 1829 by Cyrill Demian, of Armenian origin, in Vienna.[notes 6] Demian's instrument bore little resemblance to modern instruments. It only had a left hand buttonboard, with the right hand simply operating the bellows. One key feature for which Demian sought the patent was the sounding of an entire chord by depressing one key. His instrument also could sound two different chords with the same key, one for each bellows direction (a bisonoric action). At that time in Vienna, mouth harmonicas with Kanzellen (chambers) had already been available for many years, along with bigger instruments driven by hand bellows. The diatonic key arrangement was also already in use on mouth-blown instruments. Demian's patent thus covered an accompanying instrument: an accordion played with the left hand, opposite to the way that contemporary chromatic hand harmonicas were played, small and light enough for travelers to take with them and used to accompany singing. The patent also described instruments with both bass and treble sections, although Demian preferred the bass-only instrument owing to its cost and weight advantages.[notes 7]

The accordion was introduced from Germany into Britain in about the year 1828.[17] The instrument was noted in The Times in 1831 as one new to British audiences[18] and was not favourably reviewed, but nevertheless it soon became popular.[19] It had also become popular with New Yorkers by the mid-1840s.[20]

After Demian's invention, other accordions appeared, some featuring only the right-handed keyboard for playing melodies. It took English inventor Charles Wheatstone to bring both chords and keyboard together in one squeezebox. His 1844 patent for what he called a concertina also featured the ability to easily tune the reeds from the outside with a simple tool.

Accordionschule1
The first pages in Adolph Müller's accordion book

The musician Adolph Müller described a great variety of instruments in his 1833 book Schule für Accordion. At the time, Vienna and London had a close musical relationship, with musicians often performing in both cities in the same year, so it is possible that Wheatstone was aware of this type of instrument and may have used them to put his key-arrangement ideas into practice.

Jeune's flutina resembles Wheatstone's concertina in internal construction and tone colour, but it appears to complement Demian's accordion functionally. The flutina is a one-sided bisonoric melody-only instrument whose keys are operated with the right hand while the bellows is operated with the left. When the two instruments are combined, the result is quite similar to diatonic button accordions still manufactured today.

Further innovations followed and continue to the present. Various buttonboard and keyboard systems have been developed, as well as voicings (the combination of multiple tones at different octaves), with mechanisms to switch between different voices during performance, and different methods of internal construction to improve tone, stability and durability.

Use in various music genres

The accordion has traditionally been used to perform folk or ethnic music, popular music, and transcriptions from the operatic and light-classical music repertoire.[21] Today the instrument is sometimes heard in contemporary pop styles, such as rock and pop-rock,[22] and occasionally even in serious classical music concerts, as well as advertisements.

Use in traditional music

Invented in 1829, its popularity spread rapidly: it has mostly been associated with the common people, and was spread by Europeans who emigrated around the world. The accordion in both button and piano forms became a favorite of folk musicians[23] and has been integrated into traditional music styles all over the world: see the list of music styles that incorporate the accordion.

Use in popular music

The accordion appeared in popular music from the 1900s to the 1960s. This half-century is often called the "golden age of the accordion".[24] Five players, Pietro Frosini, the two brothers Count Guido Deiro and Pietro Deiro and Slovenian brothers Vilko Ovsenik and Slavko Avsenik, Charles Magnante were major influences at this time.[25]

Most vaudeville theaters closed during the Great Depression, but accordionists during the 1930s–1950s taught and performed for radio. Included among this group was the concert virtuoso John Serry, Sr. [26][27][28] During the 1950s through the 1980s the accordion received significant exposure on television with performances by Myron Floren on The Lawrence Welk Show.[29] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the accordion declined in popularity due to the rise of rock and roll.[30] The first accordionist to appear and perform at the Newport Jazz Festival was Angelo DiPippo. He can be seen playing his accordion in the motion picture The Godfather. He also composed and performed with his accordion on part of the soundtrack of Woody Allen's movie To Rome With Love. He was featured twice on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson.

Antonia Begonia on Accordion
A folk accordionist 2009

Richard Galliano is an internationally known jazz accordionist. Some popular acts use the instrument in their distinctive sounds. A notable example is Grammy Award-winning parodist "Weird Al" Yankovic, who plays the accordion on many of his musical tracks, particularly his polkas. Yankovic was trained in the accordion as a child.[31]

The accordion has also been used in the rock genre, most notably by John Linnell of They Might Be Giants, featuring more prominently in the band's earlier works.[32] The instrument is still frequently used during live performances, and continues to make appearances in their studio albums.

Use in classical music

Although best known as a folk instrument, it has grown in popularity among classical composers. The earliest surviving concert piece is Thême varié très brillant pour accordéon methode Reisner, written in 1836 by Louise Reisner of Paris. Other composers, including the Russian Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the Italian Umberto Giordano, and the American Charles Ives, wrote works for the diatonic button accordion.

The first composer to write specifically for the chromatic accordion was Paul Hindemith.[33] In 1922, the Austrian Alban Berg included an accordion in Wozzeck, Op. 7. In 1937 the first accordion concerto was composed in Russia. Other notable composers have written for the accordion during the first half of the 20th century.[34] Included among this group was the Italian-American John Serry Sr., whose Concerto for Free Bass Accordion was completed in 1964.[35][36] American composer William P. Perry featured the accordion in his orchestral suite Six Title Themes in Search of a Movie (2008). The experimental composer Howard Skempton began his musical career as an accordionist, and has written numerous solo works for it. In his work Drang (1999), British composer John Palmer pushed the expressive possibilities of the accordion/bayan. Luciano Berio wrote Sequenza XIII (1995) for accordionist Teodoro Anzellotti.[37] Accordionists like Mogens Ellegaard, Joseph Macerollo, Friedrich Lips, Hugo Noth, Stefan Hussong, Italo Salizzato, Teodoro Anzellotti, Mie Miki, and Geir Draugsvoll, encouraged composers to write new music for the accordion (solo and chamber music) and also started playing baroque music on the free bass accordion.

French composer Henri Dutilleux used an accordion in both his late song cycles Correspondances (2003) and Le Temps l'Horloge (2009). Russian-born composer Sofia Gubaidulina has composed solos, concertos, and chamber works for accordion. Astor Piazzolla's concert tangos are performed widely. Piazzolla performed on the bandoneon, but his works are performed on either bandoneon or accordion.

Australia

The earliest mention of the novel accordion instrument in Australian music occurs in the 1830s.[38] The accordion initially competed against cheaper and more convenient reed instruments such as mouth organ, concertina and melodeon. Frank Fracchia was an Australian accordion composer[39] and copies of his works "My dear, can you come out tonight"[40] and "Dancing with you"[41] are preserved in Australian libraries. Other Australian composers who arranged music for accordion include Reginald Stoneham.[42] The popularity of the accordion peaked in the late 1930s[43] and continued until the 1950s.[44] The accordion was particularly favoured by buskers.[45][46]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The accordion is a traditional instrument in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the dominant instrument used in sevdalinka, a traditional genre of folk music from Bosnia-Herzegovina. It is also considered a national instrument of the country.

Brazil

The accordion was brought to Brazil by settlers and immigrants from Europe, specially Italians and German immigrants, where mainly settled at the south (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Parana). The first instrument brought had a name of "Concertina" (a 120 button Chromatic accordion).[47]

The instrument was very popular at 1950, where was common to find 2 accordions in the same house. There are many different configurations and tunes which adapted perfectly to the culture that came from Europe.

Accordion is the official symbol instrument of the Rio Grande do Sul state, where was voted by unanimity in the deputy chamber.[48] In the boom of accordion there were around 65 factories in Brazil, where most of them (52) was settled in the south, at Rio Grande do Sul state, with only 7 outside the south. One of the most famous and genuinely Brazilian brand was Acordeões Todeschini from Bento Gonçalves-RS, closed in 1973. Todeschini accordion is very appreciated today and survive with very few maintainers.[49][50]

The most notable musicians of button accordion are Renato Borghetti, Adelar Bertussi, Albino Manique and Edson Dutra.[51]

Compared to many other countries, the instrument is very popular in mainstream pop music. In some parts of the country, such as the north-east it is the most popular melodic instrument. As opposed to most European folk accordion, a very dry tuning is usually used in Brazil.

Outside the south, the accordion (predominantly the piano accordion) is used in almost all styles of Forró (in particular in the subgenres of Xote and Baião) as principal instrument, Luiz Gonzaga (the "King of the Baião") and Dominguinhos being among the notable musicians in this style from northeast. In this musical style the typical combination is a trio of accordion, triangle and zabumba (a type of drum). This style has gained popularity recently, in particular among the student population of the south-east of the country (in the Forró Universitário genre, with important exponents today being Falamansa, and trios such as Trio Dona Zefa, Trio Virgulino and Trio Alvorada). Moreover, the accordion is the principal instrument in Junina music (music of the São João Festival), with Mario Zan having been a very important exponent of this music.

It is an important instrument in Sertanejo (and Caipira) music, which originated in the centre-west and south-east of Brazil and subsequently has gained popularity throughout the country.

Colombia

The accordion is also a traditional instrument in Colombia, commonly associated with the vallenato and cumbia genres. The accordion has been used by tropipop musicians such as Carlos Vives, Andrés Cabas, Fonseca (singer) and Bacilos, as well as rock musicians such as Juanes and pop musicians as Shakira. Vallenato, who emerged in the early twentieth century in a city known as Valledupar, and have come to symbolize the folk music of Colombia.

Every year in April, Colombia holds one of the most important musical festivals in the country: the Vallenato Legend Festival. The festival holds contests for best accordion player. Once every decade, the "King of Kings" accordion competition takes place, where winners of the previous festivals compete for the highest possible award for a vallenato accordion player: the Pilonera Mayor prize.[52] This is the world's largest competitive accordion festival.

Mexico

Norteño heavily relies on the accordion, it is a genre related to polka. Ramón Ayala known in Mexico as the "King of the Accordion" is a norteño musician. Cumbia which features the accordion is also popular with musicians such as Celso Piña creating a more contemporary style.

U.S. born Mexican musician Julieta Venegas incorporates the sound of the instrument into rock, pop and folk. She was influenced by her fellow Chicanos Los Lobos who also use the music of the accordion.[53]

North Korea

According to Barbara Demick in Nothing to Envy, the accordion is known as "the people's instrument" and all North Korean teachers were expected to learn the accordion.[54]

Use in heavy metal music

Accordionists in heavy metal music make their most extensive appearances in the folk metal subgenre, and are otherwise generally rare. Full-time accordionists in folk metal seem even rarer, but they are still utilized for studio work, as flexible keyboardists are usually more accessible for live performances.

Notably, the Finnish symphonic folk-metal band Turisas used to have a full-time accordionist, employing classical and polka sensibilities alongside a violinist. One of their accordionists, Netta Skog, is now a member of Ensiferum, another folk-metal band. Another Finnish metal band, Korpiklaani, invokes a type of Finnish polka called humppa, and also has a full-time accordionist. Sarah Kiener, the former hurdy-gurdy player for the Swiss melodic-death-folk metal band Eluveitie, played a Helvetic accordion known as a zugerörgeli.

Manufacturing process

The most expensive accordions are always fully hand-made, particularly the reeds; completely hand-made reeds have a far better tonal quality than even the best automatically-manufactured ones. Some accordions have been modified by individuals striving to bring a more pure sound out of low-end instruments, such as the ones improved by Yutaka Usui,[55] a Japanese-born craftsman.

The manufacture of an accordion is only a partly automated process. In a sense, all accordions are handmade, since there is always some hand assembly of the small parts required. The general process involves making the individual parts, assembling the subsections, assembling the entire instrument, and final decorating and packaging.[56]

Famous centres of production are the Italian cities of Stradella and Castelfidardo, with many small and medium size manufacturers especially at the latter. Castelfidardo honours the memory of Paolo Soprani who was one of the first large-scale producers. The French town of Tulle has hosted Maugein Freres since 1919, and the company is now the last complete-process manufacturer of accordions in France. German companies such as Hohner and Weltmeister made large numbers of accordions, but production diminished by the end of the 20th century. Hohner still manufactures its top-end models in Germany, and Weltmeister instruments are still handmade by HARMONA Akkordeon GmbH in Klingenthal. Cheaper student models are often made in China.

Other audio samples

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For the accordion's place among the families of musical instruments, see Henry Doktorski's Taxonomy of Musical Instruments (The Classical Free-Reed, Inc.) Also on this page is Diarmuid Pigott's The Free-Reed Family of Aerophones
  2. ^ Guido Deiro claimed he was the first accordionist to play a solo with the left hand: Sharpshooter's March (1908) Guido Deiro, Guido Deiro's Own Story of Sharpshooters March, The Pietro Musicordion, Volume 6, Number 2 (May–June 1948)
  3. ^ Illustration made with reference from a similar illustration that can be found in both Det levende bælgspil (p. 9) by Jeanette & Lars Dyremose (2003), and Harmonikaens historie (p. 35a) by Bjarne Glenstrup (1972, The University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Music)
  4. ^ There is not a single document to back up this belief, Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann was 16 years old at that time and we do have some handwriting of C.F. Buschschmann and his Father, but without any related notice within. First time of mentioned a aeoline was in a writing dated 1829.
  5. ^ This is the accordion owned by Fredrik Dillner of Sweden, which has the name F. Löhner Nürnberg engraved (stamped) on it. The instrument was given to Johannes Dillner in 1830 or earlier
  6. ^ A summary and pictures of this patent can be found at www.ksanti.net/free-reed/history/demian.html (Version of 20 Okt 4 – 19 Jun 09 Using Way Back Machine to Display: The Classical Free-Reed, Inc.)
  7. ^ German Text: "Mit den Dekel des Balges, läßt sich das ganze Instrument verdoppeln, so daß man dadurch die Accorde vermehrt, oder auch mit einzelne Töne spielen kann, in diesem Fall, muß ein zweyter Einsatz mit Federn, und auch eine 2te Claviatur dazu kommen, der Blasebalg bleibt in der Mitte, jede Hand dirigirt abwechselnd, entweder die Claves, oder den Balg. Durch eine obengenannte Verdoplung des Instruments oder durch Vermehrung der Accorde, würde niemand etwas verbessern, oder was neues liefern, weil nur die Bestandtheile dadurch vermehrt, das Instrument theurer und schwerer wird." Translation of this snip: With the Cover of the bellows the instrument can be duplicated, so the amount of Chords or single notes can be enlarged, or one can sound single notes, in this case, a second part with springs (free reeds) and also a second keyboard must be added, the bellows are in between these two parts, both hands push buttons and push and pull the bellows at the same time or alternatively. Through this doubling or increasing of chords within the instrument nothing new is invented or improved by someone else, because only the amount of similar parts is increased and the Instrument is heavier and more expensive.German full text

References

  1. ^ accordion, entry in Online Etymology Dictionary
  2. ^ "TOP FIVE – OS MAIORES SANFONEIROS DA MÚSICA SERTANEJA ATUAL - Blognejo".
  3. ^ "Novo disco de Michel Teló junta sanfona, música sertaneja, eletrônica e ritmos dançantes". Divirta-se - Tudo sobre entretenimento, cinema, shows, celebridades e promoções.
  4. ^ "City Makes Accordion San Francisco's Official Instrument". Associated Press. Associated Press. 24 April 1990. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  5. ^ Dyremose, Jeanette & Lars, Det levende bælgspil (2003), p.133
  6. ^ How To Repair Bellows Ike's Accordion
  7. ^ Dougan, John. "Luiz Gonzaga:Biography by John Dougan". All Music. RhythmOne group. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  8. ^ Dan Lindgren. "Piano Accordion vs. Chromatic Button Accordion" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009.
  9. ^ Howard, Rob (2003). An A to Z of the Accordion and related instruments. Stockport: Robaccord Publications. ISBN 978-0-9546711-0-5.
  10. ^ Campacci, Claudio. Século Xix (in Portuguese). Clube de Autores. p. 14. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Interview with Fredrik Dillner—The Owner of What May Be ohe World's Oldest Accordion". The Free-Reed Journal, 22 June 2006
  12. ^ Müller, Mette & Lisbet Torp (red.) Musikkens tjenere. Forsker, Instrument, Musiker - Musikhistorisk Museums 100 års Jubilæumsskrift 1998, 297 s., indb rigt illustreret ISBN 978-87-7289-466-9 Serie: Meddelelser fra Musikhistorisk Museum og Carl Claudius Samling ISSN 0900-2111
  13. ^ Mirek, Alfred. Garmonika. Proshloe i nastoiashchee. Nauchno-istoricheskaia entsyklopedicheskaia kniga. Moscow, 1994. p.50
  14. ^ Etnograficheskii sbornik Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva. Vol.2, Saint Petersburg, 1854. p.26, 162.
  15. ^ Mirek, Alfred. Iz istorii akkordeona i baiana. Moscow, 1967. p.43-45
  16. ^ Banin, A.A. (1997). Russkaia instrumentalnaia muzyka folklornoi traditsii (in Russian). Moscow. p. 144.
  17. ^ The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol I, A-Arcesilaus, London, George Woodfall and Son, 1847, p.107.
  18. ^ The Times, Thursday 9 June 1831; pg. 5; Issue 14560; col A: (Review of a performance by a flautist, Mr. Sedlatzek) "At the close of the concert Mr. Sedlatzek performed on a new instrument called the Accordion or Aeolian, which, however, has little beside its novelty to recommend it."
  19. ^ The Times, Wednesday, 26 April 1837; pg. 5; Issue 16400; col C : “GREAT CONCERT-ROOM – KING’S THEATRE...There was also a novelty in the shape of an instrument called “a concertina,” an improvement on the accordion, which has been such a favourite musical toy for the last two or three years."
  20. ^ New York Times, 19 May 1907:- 'The Lay of the Last of the Old Minstrels: Interesting Reminiscences of Isaac Odell, Who Was A Burnt Cork Artist Sixty Years Ago': “While we were drawing big crowds to the Palmer House on Chambers Street Charley White was making a great hit playing an accordion in Thalia Hall on Grand Street. In those days"(i.e. mid-1840s) "accordions were the real attraction to the public".
  21. ^ Henry Doktorski, CD booklet notes for "Guido Deiro: Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 1," Archeophone Records (2007)
  22. ^ Sometimes in modern pop music the accordion is not actually played, but its sound is heard by use of a MIDI instrument and sampled sound module.
  23. ^ Christoph Wagner, "A Brief History of How the Accordion Changed the World," CD booklet notes for Planet Squeezebox, performed by various artists, (Roslyn, New York: Ellipsis Arts, 1995), 6
  24. ^ Jacobson, Marion (21 February 2012). Squeeze This: A Cultural History of the Accordion in America. University of Illinois. p. 174. ISBN 9780252093852. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  25. ^ "Slovenia is Grieving for the Legendary Musician Slavko Avsenik". Slovenia.si. 8 July 2015. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  26. ^ The Los Angeles Examiner 9 October 1938, P. 1
  27. ^ Jacobson, Marion (21 February 2012). Squeeze This: A Cultural History of the Accordion in America. University of Illinois Press, Chicago, Il. 2012, Pg. 61. ISBN 978-0-252-03675-0
  28. ^ Settel, Irving.A Pictorial History of Radio. Grosset & Dunlap, New York City, New York 1960 & 1967, P. 146, Library of Congress # 67-23789
  29. ^ Myron Floren and Randee Floren, Accordion Man, with a foreword by Lawrence Welk (The Stephen Greene Press, Brattleboro, Vermont: 1981)
  30. ^ Kafka, Alexander (2012). "Accordion File". The Chronicle of Higher Education – via Proquest.
  31. ^ Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (2012). Rock 'n' Roll Myths: The True Stories Behind the Most Infamous Legends. MBI Publishing Company. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-61058-571-2.
  32. ^ "Accordion - TMBW: The They Might Be Giants Knowledge Base". tmbw.net. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  33. ^ Accordion Composers in German Accordion Online
  34. ^ Henry Doktorski, "The Classical Squeezebox: A Short History of the Accordion and Other Free-Reed Instruments in Classical Music," The Classical Free-Reed, Inc. (1997)
  35. ^ Library of Congress Copyright Office, "Concerto in C Major for Bassetti Accordion", Composer: John Serry, June 4, 1968, Copyright # EP247602.
  36. ^ Accordion World, Bedford Hills, NY, 1968.
  37. ^ "Luciano Berio: Sequenza XIII".
  38. ^ "THE COLONIAL TIDES. THE REGATTA DINNER". Trumpeter General (29). Tasmania. 7 March 1834. p. 2. Retrieved 2 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  39. ^ "Advertising". Cairns Post (13, 660). Queensland, Australia. 12 December 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 2 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  40. ^ Fracchia, F; Sproule, Nellie, (lyricist.) (1930), My dear, can you come out tonight, retrieved 2 December 2018 – via National Library of AustraliaCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  41. ^ Fracchia, F; Sproule, Nellie, (lyricist.) (1944), Dancing with you, retrieved 2 December 2018 – via National Library of AustraliaCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  42. ^ Stoneham, Reginald A. A., 1879–1942; Humphries, Don; Adams, Les; Bowden, Charles, Memories of a lovely lei [music] / Reg. Stoneham, Reginald Stoneham Publishing HouseCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ "ACCORDION CRAZE". The Daily News. LI, (17, 892). Western Australia. 16 July 1932. p. 4 (HOME (SEMI-FINAL) EDITION). Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  44. ^ "Piano Accordion Club Popular". Southern Cross. LXII, (3105). South Australia. 10 March 1950. p. 8. Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  45. ^ "GOSSIP OF THE DAY". The Evening News (4117). Queensland, Australia. 24 January 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  46. ^ "AUSTRALIANALITIES". Daily Advertiser. New South Wales, Australia. 9 April 1940. p. 3. Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  47. ^ "Cia do Acordeon - História do Acordeon". ciadoacordeon.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  48. ^ Legislativo, Departamento de Assessoramento. "DetalheVotacao". www2.al.rs.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  49. ^ "noticias". www.acordeom.com.br. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  50. ^ "Todeschini a História". www.lojamanomonteiro.com.br. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  51. ^ "Cia do Acordeon - História do Acordeon". ciadoacordeon.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  52. ^ Smithsonian Channel, "The Accordion Kings", 15 August 2010.
  53. ^ "Julieta Venegas: Life and songs in two cultures".
  54. ^ "20 incredible things you didn't know about North Korea". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  55. ^ Yutaka Usuai, Japanese-born accordion craftsman.
  56. ^ how-products-encyclopedia_accordion Old way Back link to: how-products-encyclopedia accordion

External links

Accordion (solitaire)

Accordion is a solitaire game using one deck of playing cards. The object is to compress the entire deck into one pile like an accordion.

Aughafatten

Aughafatten or Aghafatten (from Irish Achadh Pheatan/Pheatáin, meaning 'Peatan's field') is a small village and townland between Carnlough and Broughshane in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is in Mid and East Antrim District Council and part of the North Antrim constituency for local and European elections. It enjoys an excellent view of Slemish mountain.

Local services include an Orange Hall,The local accordion band Aughafatten Coronation Accordion Band take part in regular Orange Order parades. They take part in various parades across Northern Ireland and are affiliated to the Braid District of the Orange Order.

Bayan (accordion)

The bayan (Russian: бая́н, IPA: [bɐˈjan]) is a type of chromatic button accordion developed in Russia in the early 20th century and named after the 11th-century bard Boyan.

Button accordion

A button accordion is a type of accordion on which the melody-side keyboard consists of a series of buttons rather than piano-style keys of a piano accordion. The first button accordion is credited to Franz Walther in 1850. Button accordions of various types are used especially in European countries and overseas countries where European people settled.

Cajun music

Cajun music (French: Musique cadienne), an emblematic music of Louisiana played by the Cajuns, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Acadians of Canada. Cajun music is often mentioned in tandem with the Creole-based zydeco music, both of Acadiana origin, and both of which have influenced the other in many ways. These French Louisiana sounds have influenced American popular music for many decades, especially country music, and have influenced pop culture through mass media, such as television commercials.

Concertina

A concertina is a free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica. It consists of expanding and contracting bellows, with buttons (or keys) usually on both ends, unlike accordion buttons, which are on the front.

The concertina was developed in England and Germany. The English version was invented in 1829 by Sir Charles Wheatstone, while Carl Friedrich Uhlig announced the German version five years later, in 1834. Various forms of concertina are used for classical music, for the traditional musics of Ireland, England, and South Africa, and for tango and polka music.

Diatonic button accordion

A melodeon or diatonic button accordion is a member of the free-reed aerophone family of musical instruments. It is a type of button accordion on which the melody-side keyboard contains one or more rows of buttons, with each row producing the notes of a single diatonic scale. The buttons on the bass-side keyboard are most commonly arranged in pairs, with one button of a pair sounding the fundamental of a chord and the other the corresponding major triad (or, sometimes, a minor triad).

Diatonic button accordions are popular in many countries, and used mainly for playing popular music and traditional folk music, and modern offshoots of these genres.

E Street Band

The E Street Band is an American rock band, and has been musician Bruce Springsteen's primary backing band since 1972. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014.

The band members have also performed and recorded (both individually and as a band) with a wide range of other artists including Bob Dylan, The Rolling Stones, Meat Loaf, Neil Young, Lou Reed, Bonnie Tyler, Air Supply, Dire Straits, David Bowie, Peter Gabriel, Stevie Nicks, Tom Morello, Sting, Ian Hunter, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, Ray Davies, Ronnie Spector, Gary U.S. Bonds, Darlene Love, Southside Johnny, The Grateful Dead, Santana, Lucinda Williams, Steve Earle, Emmylou Harris, Tracy Chapman, Lady Gaga, Aretha Franklin, and Bob Seger.

When not working with Springsteen, members of the band have recorded solo material and have pursued successful careers as session musicians, record producers, songwriters, actors and other roles in entertainment. The most highly visible in their separate careers are drummer Max Weinberg, who has led his own band, first on Late Night with Conan O'Brien and then on the Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, from 1993 to 2010, and guitarist Steven Van Zandt, who starred as Silvio Dante in the HBO television series, The Sopranos, from 1999 to 2007, and as Frank "The Fixer" Tagliano in the 2012-2014 Netflix series, Lilyhammer.

Garmon

The garmon (Russian: гармо́нь, IPA: [gɐˈrmonʲ], from garmonika (Russian: гармо́ника, IPA: [gɐˈrmonʲɪkə]), which means "harmonicа") is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument. A garmon has two rows of buttons on the right side, which play the notes of a diatonic scale, and at least two rows of buttons on the left side, which play the primary chords in the key of the instrument as well as its relative harmonic minor key. Many instruments have additional right-hand buttons with useful accidental notes, additional left-hand chords for playing in related keys, and a row of free-bass buttons, to facilitate playing of bass melodies.

The garmons can be of two major classes: unisonoric, meaning that each button plays the same note or chord when the bellows is being expanded as it does when compressed, and bisonoric, in which the note depends on the direction of the bellowswork. Examples of unisonoric type are livenka (ливенка, after Livny, Oryol Oblast) and Khromka (Russian: Хромка, for "chromatic"). Bisonoric garmons are, e.g., Tula accordion (Russian: Тульская гармонь, after Tula) and talyanka (тальянка, "Italian")

Beside Russian folk music, the garmon is an important musical instrument for Caucasian (Ossetian, Azeri, Armenia, Georgian, Cherkess, etc.) and Mari folk in Volga and Ural regions. It's also used in popular music.

Known also as the Harmonika (see Steirische Harmonika) it is very popular in Slovenia. Modern music is also played on the Garmon, with some artists achieving popularity in Europe and the United States of America. The Slovenian style of play differs from the Russian. There are over 300 popular ensembles in Slovenia, one ensemble often consisting of several singers and an accordionist, the musicians very often being young or middle-aged.

John Serry Sr.

John Serry Sr. (born Giovanni Serrapica; January 29, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American concert accordionist, arranger, composer, organist, and educator. He performed on the CBS Radio and Television networks and contributed to Voice of America's cultural diplomacy initiatives during the Golden Age of Radio. He also concertized on the accordion as a member of several orchestras and jazz ensembles for nearly forty years between the 1930s and 1960s.

List of musical instruments

This is a list of musical instruments.

Norteño (music)

Norteño (Spanish pronunciation: [noɾˈteɲo], northern), also called música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music related to polka and corridos. As its names indicates, Norteño is a musical expression from Northern Mexico. The accordion and the bajo sexto are norteño's most characteristic instruments. Norteño music developed in the late 19th century, as a mixture between German folk music (which was introduced to Mexico with the arrival of German migrant workers in those years), and local Northern Mexican music.

The genre is popular in both Mexico and the United States, especially among the Mexican and Mexican-American community, and it has become popular in many Latin American countries as far as Chile and Colombia and in Spain. Though originating from rural areas, norteño is popular in both urban and rural areas.

Some popular norteño artists include Ramón Ayala, Intocable, Calibre 50, Los Cadetes de Linares, Los Alegres de Terán, Los Tigres del Norte, Los Huracanes del Norte, Los Rieleros del Norte, La Leyenda, and Los Tucanes de Tijuana. Local radio stations have continued to be a major influence in popularizing norteño in the Mexican-American community.

A conjunto norteño is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. It mostly includes diatonic accordion, bajo sexto, electric bass or double bass, and drums, and sometimes saxophone.

Piano accordion

A piano accordion is an accordion equipped with a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano or organ. Its acoustic mechanism is more that of an organ than a piano, as they are both wind instruments, but the term "piano accordion"—coined by Guido Deiro in 1910—has remained the popular nomenclature. It may be equipped with any of the available systems for the left-hand manual.

In comparison with a piano keyboard, the keys are more rounded, smaller, and lighter to the touch. These go vertically down the side, pointing inward, toward the bellows, making them accessible to only one hand while handling the accordion.The bass piano accordion is a variation of a piano accordion without bass buttons and with the piano keyboard in an octave lower. They typically have around 3 octaves.

Pleat

A pleat (older plait) is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. It is commonly used in clothing and upholstery to gather a wide piece of fabric to a narrower circumference.Pleats are categorized as pressed, that is, ironed or otherwise heat-set into a sharp crease, or unpressed, falling in soft rounded folds.

Pleats sewn into place are called tucks.

Polka

The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic. The polka remains a popular folk music genre in many European countries, and is performed by folk artists in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Finland, and to a lesser extent in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Hungary, Italy, Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, Russia, and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, Spain's Basque Country, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Latin America and the United States.

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot

"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" is an American negro spiritual. The earliest known recording was in 1909, by the Fisk Jubilee Singers of Fisk University.

In 2002, the Library of Congress honored the song as one of 50 recordings chosen that year to be added to the National Recording Registry. It was also included in the list of Songs of the Century, by the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts.

Tejano music

Tejano music or Tex-Mex music (Texan-Mexican music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-American populations of Central and Southern Texas. With roots in the late 19th century, it became a music genre with a wider audience in the late 20th century thanks to artists such as Selena (often referred to as "The Queen of Tejano"), Mazz, La Mafia, La Sombra, Elida Reyna, Elsa García, Laura Canales, Oscar Estrada, Jay Perez, Emilio Navaira, Esteban "Steve" Jordan, Gary Hobbs, Shelly Lares, Stefani Montiel, David Lee Garza, Jennifer Peña, and La Fiebre.

Trikiti

The trikiti (standard Basque, pronounced [trikiti]), trikitixa (dialectal Basque, pronounced [trikitiʃa]) or eskusoinu txiki ("little hand-sound", pronounced [es̺kus̺oɲu tʃiki])) is a two-row Basque diatonic button accordion with right-hand rows keyed a fifth apart and twelve unisonoric bass buttons. The onomatopoeia trikiti, apparently stemming from the sound emitted by the tambourine, originally referred to a traditional Basque ensemble, made up of the instrument which now bears the name as well as alboka, txistu and other instruments.

Probably introduced by French or Italian immigrants coming from the Alps, the trikiti's first written evidence is attested late in the 19th century, exactly in 1889, when diatonic accordion was used for music in a popular pilgrimage festivity of Urkiola (Biscay). In 1890, a trikiti appears in a picture taken in Altsasu (Navarre), a railway junction. Therefore, some point to the instrument's import to the Basque Country from Italy through the port of Bilbao, while other sources suggest that this kind of diatonic accordion was brought in by Italian or French railway workers from the Alps. The diatonic button accordion itself was devised in Vienna in 1829, expanding thereafter all over Europe.

The pair of diatonic button accordion along with tambourine gradually grew in popularity and was adopted to perform in local and popular festivities, where the young danced to its tunes (fandangos, arin-arin etc.), despite the Catholic Church's resistance, who dubbed it "hell's bellows" on the grounds that its dance-inciting and lively music would lead Basque youths into temptation.

That playing pattern remained unchanged up to the 1980s, when Kepa Junkera and Joseba Tapia started to develop unprecedented ways of playing trikiti. While both authors came in for much criticism for their novelties and experimenting, they caught on and both styles, traditional and modern trikiti, have found their way and consolidated their separate paths. Both performers remain nowadays key figures of trikiti accordion. There have been influences of Tejano artists like Flaco Jiménez and other international players. Other renowned players include Alaitz Telletxea, Iñaki Malbadi, Maixa Lizarribar, Xabi Aburruzaga, Iker Goenaga and Carles Belda.

Currently traditional style ensembles consist of a pair playing trikiti (diatonic button accordion), tambourine and voice. Players typically use a highly ornamented and swift style, along with staccato triplets.

Vallenato

Vallenato (Spanish pronunciation: [baʝeˈnato]), along with cumbia, is a popular folk music of Colombia. It primarily comes from the Colombia's Caribbean region. Vallenato literally means "born in the valley". The valley influencing this name is located between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía de Perijá in north-east Colombia. The name also applies to the people from the city where this genre originated: Valledupar (from the place named Valle de Upar – "Valley of Upar"). In 2006, Vallenato and cumbia were added as a category in the Latin Grammy Awards. Colombia’s traditional Vallenato music is Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, according to UNESCO.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.