The accolade (also known as dubbing or adoubement) (Latin: benedictio militis) was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood in the Middle Ages.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] From about 1852, the term accolade was used much more generally to mean "praise" or "award" or "honor."[8][9]


Accolade was first used in 1611 and is French, from the Occitan acolada. This, in turn, came from the Latin ad ("to") + collum ("neck") and in Occitan originally meant "embrace".[8][9]

Accolade is akin to "dubbing" or "to dub"[1] since the tap on the shoulder with the sword is accepted to be the point at which the title is awarded.[8][10]



King John II of France in a ceremony of "adoubement", early 15th century miniature

The accolade is a ceremony to confer knighthood. It may take many forms, including the tapping of the flat side of a sword on the shoulders of a candidate[1][8] or an embrace about the neck. In the first example, the "knight-elect" kneels in front of the monarch on a knighting-stool.[1] First, the monarch lays the side of the sword's blade onto the accolade's right shoulder.[1] The monarch then raises the sword gently just up over the apprentice's head and places it on his left shoulder.[1] The new knight then stands up, and the king or queen presents him with the insignia of his new order. Contrary to popular belief, the phrase "Arise, Sir ..." is not used.[11]

There is some disagreement among historians on the actual ceremony and in what time period certain methods could have been used. It could have been an embrace or a slight blow on the neck or cheek. Gregory of Tours wrote that the early kings of France, in conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the left cheek. In knighting his son Henry with the ceremony of the accolade, history records that William the Conqueror used the blow.[4]

Admiral Drake knighted by Queen Elizabeth' (Sir Francis Drake) from NPG
Francis Drake (left) being knighted by Queen Elizabeth I in 1581. The recipient is tapped on each shoulder with a sword

The blow, or colée, when first utilized was given with a bare fist, a stout box on the ear. This was later substituted for by a gentle stroke with the flat part of the sword against the side of the neck. This then developed into the custom of tapping on either the right or left shoulder, or both, which is still the tradition in the United Kingdom today.[4]

An early Germanic coming-of-age ceremony, of presenting a youth with a weapon that was buckled on him, was elaborated in the 10th and 11th centuries as a sign that the minor had come of age. Initially this was a simple rite often performed on the battlefield, where writers of Romance enjoyed placing it. A panel in the Bayeux Tapestry shows the knighting of Harold by William of Normandy, but the specific gesture is not clearly represented. Another military knight (commander of an army), sufficiently impressed by a warrior's loyalty, would tap a fighting soldier on his back and shoulder with the flat of his sword and announce that he was now an official knight.[1] Some words that might be spoken at that moment were Advances Chevalier au nom de Dieu.[1]

In medieval France, early ceremonies of the adoubement were purely secular and indicated a young noble coming of age. Around 1200, these ceremonies began to include elements of Christian ritual (such as a night spent in prayers, prior to the rite ).[12]

The increasingly impressive ceremonies surrounding adoubement figured largely in the Romance literature, both in French and in Middle English, particularly those set in the Trojan War or around the legendary personage of Alexander the Great.[13]

Promotion steps

The process of becoming a knight generally included these stages:

  • Page — A child started training at about the age of seven or eight, learning obedience, manners, and other skills.[5]
  • Squire — At twelve to fourteen the young man would observe and help other knights. Occupying a position comparable to an apprenticeship, he managed equipment and weapons such as arrows. He learned the use of weapons while hunting with the knights.[5] He went into recruit training to learn how to become a military fighter. At age 21, if judged worthy, he was bestowed the accolade of knighthood. Squires, and even soldiers, could also be conferred direct knighthood early if they showed valor and efficiency for their service; such acts may include deploying for an important quest or mission, or protecting a high diplomat or a royal relative in battle.[5]
  • Knight — A special kind of trained soldier, often cavalry, serving a lord (nobleman or royalty). Knights had particular status in feudal society.[5]

Accolade in the 21st century

Marco Kroon Queen Beatrix
Accolade performed by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands during the Military Order of William ceremony of Marco Kroon in 2009


Newly inducted military Knights of the Legion of Honour are struck on both shoulders with a sword (Army and Navy) or a dirk (Air Force), if the ceremony is presided over by a military authority.[14] Civilian members and all members of lesser orders (Merit, Arts and Letters...) are not dubbed with a bladed weapon. They receive only the accolade, which has kept in French its ancient meaning of "embrace".


In the Netherlands, the knights in the exclusive Military Order of William (the Dutch "Victoria Cross") are struck on both shoulders with the palm of the hand, first by the Dutch monarch (if present) then by the other knights. The new knight does not kneel.[15]

United Kingdom

George VI knighting General Leese Jul 1944
King George VI knights General Oliver Leese in the field, 1944.

All newly created knights in the UK, that is Knights Bachelor, Knights Commanders and Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire, Royal Victorian Order, Order of Saint Michael and Saint George and Order of the Bath, Knights Companions of the Order of the Thistle and the Order of the Garter are dubbed on both shoulders with a sword by the monarch or the prince delegated by her.

Clergy receiving a knighthood are not dubbed. The use of a sword in this kind of a ceremony is believed to be inappropriate.[1]


Knights of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, an Order of chivalry under the protection of the Holy See, are dubbed in the head and on both shoulders during the investiture ceremony. The accolade is given during Holy Mass, by the officiating Prelate.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Royal insights". Archived from the original on 2008-03-23. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  2. ^ "Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournament -Glossary of Terms (letter "A")". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  3. ^ "Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournament -Glossary of Terms (letter "K")". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  4. ^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Accolade" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 121.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Castle Life - The International History Project". Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  6. ^ "Knighthood and the Knightly Orders". Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  7. ^ "Page, Squire, and Knight". Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  8. ^ a b c d "Dictionary online reference". Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  9. ^ a b "Accolade etymology". Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  10. ^ Dobson, Richard Barrie (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  11. ^ "Queen and Honours: Knighthoods". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  12. ^ Dominique Barthélemy, L'Ordre seigneurial: XIe - XIIe siècle, Collection: Nouvelle histoire de la France moderne, vol. 3, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1990, p.190. ISBN 2-02-011554-9
  13. ^ Ackerman, Robert W. "The Knighting Ceremonies in the Middle English Romances." Speculum 19(3): July 1944, 285-313, compared the abbreviated historical accounts with the sometimes fancifully elaborated episodes in the romances.
  14. ^ (in French) Art. 56, Code de la Légion d'honneur
  15. ^ Moed en Trouw door J. Van Zelm van Eldik
  • Bloch, Marc: Feudal Society, tr. Manyon. London: Routledge, Keagn Paul (1965)
  • Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre. The Knights of the Crown: the Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later Medieval Europe, 1325-1520. 2d revised ed. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2000.
  • Keen, Maurice; Chivalry, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03150-5
  • Robards, Brooks; The Medieval Knight at War, UK: Tiger Books, 1997, ISBN 1-85501-919-1

External links

Accolade (company)

Infogrames North America, Inc. (formerly Accolade, Inc.) was an American video game developer and publisher based in San Jose, California. The company was founded as Accolade in November 1984 by Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead, who had previously co-founded Activision in October 1979.

In April 1999, Accolade was acquired by French video game company Infogrames Entertainment for a combined sum of US$60 million, of which US$50 million in cash and US$10 million in growth capital, and was renamed Infogrames North America, Inc. The company chief executive officer, Jim Barnett, was named head of Infogrames Entertainment's American distribution subsidiary. In December 1999, Infogrames additionally acquired a controlling stake in GT Interactive for a total investment of US$135 million, and renamed it Infogrames, Inc.On September 11, 2000, Infogrames North America was acquired by Infogrames, Inc. for 28 million market shares transitioned to Infogrames Entertainment, effectively merging Infogrames North America into a newly founded, wholly owned subsidiary of Infogrames, Inc.In June 2017, Hong Kongese holding company Billionsoft announced that they had acquired the "Accolade" label, and announced Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back, in cooperation with developer Black Forest Games and publisher Tommo, to be the first game released under it.

Accolade Wines

Accolade Wines is a major global wine business with headquarters in South Australia. It has been owned by The Carlyle Group, an American private equity company, since 2018.Accolade has more than 1700 employees around the world, with operations in North America, the United Kingdom, Ireland, mainland Europe, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Asia.

Bardic name

A bardic name (Welsh: enw barddol, Cornish: hanow bardhek) is a pseudonym used in Wales, Cornwall or Brittany by poets and other artists, especially those involved in the eisteddfod movement.

The Welsh term bardd ("poet") originally referred to the Welsh poets of the Middle Ages, who might be itinerant or attached to a noble household. Some of these medieval poets were known by a pseudonym, for example Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr ("Cynddelw the Master Poet"), fl. 1155–1200 and Iolo Goch ("Iolo the Red"), c. 1320 – c. 1398. The practice seems to have very ancient antecedents, as in the names of the presumably 6th century poets Talhaearn Tad Awen, Blwchfardd and Culfardd, mentioned by the Welsh historian Nennius alongside Taliesin and Aneirin, the last referred to as Aneurin Gwenithwawd ("Aneurin of the Corn Poetry").

The revival of bardic names became something of a conceit following the reinvention of medieval tradition by Iolo Morganwg in the 18th century. The usage has also extended to Breton and Cornish poetry. In Cornwall, some of the pioneers of the Cornish language movement are referred to by their bardic names, e.g. "Mordon" for Robert Morton Nance, and "Talek" for E. G. Retallack Hooper.Many surnames in Wales derive from patronymics rather than, for instance, places of origin. Many people therefore share a limited number of surnames, and many people can share even the full name, so it was common practice to add a nickname to distinguish between people with similar names. For some people, this might be a reference to their occupation within the village, but for those with a literary reputation, whose name would be known across the land, it was common practice to take, or be awarded, a sobriquet.

For example, John Jones (Talhaiarn) took his bardic name from his place of origin, to distinguish him from contemporaries with the name John Jones. The minister Joseph Harris (Gomer) selected his bardic name from the Bible. Others, such as Hedd Wyn, used poetic inventions.

The name could be a nom de plume but it could also be an accolade. A bardic name, in the context of the eisteddfod, is a particular accolade, as it is adopted when inducted into the Orders of distinguished bards and writers.

The sobriquet could be:

added to the surname, as in William Williams Pantycelyn – as a suffixed accolade.

placed instead of the original surname, as in: William Pantycelyn – to preserve a distinction between the literary persona and the private persona. Although it is not an exact parallel, one writer had a personal life as the Lady Mallowan but continued to write murder-mysteries as (Dame) Agatha Christie and wrote non-fiction as Agatha Christie Mallowan.

stand alone, as in: Pantycelyn – in the same way that the literary name of John le Carré is widely recognised without further elaboration, possibly better known than the writer's real name of David Cornwell.

Billboard Music Award for Top Latin Artist

The Billboard Music Award for Top Latin Artist recognizes the most successful Latin artists over the past year. Colombian performer Shakira was the first female artist to win the accolade in 2011 and also won the following year in 2012, and her and Romeo Santos the only artists to have won the accolade twice. American performer Jenni Rivera is the only artist to win the award posthumously, following her death in 2012. American performer Prince Royce is the most nominated artist without a win, with five unsuccessful nominations. LOS 5 are the only group or duo to win this award.

Bob Whitehead

Robert A. "Bob" Whitehead (born November 1, 1953) is an early game designer and programmer. While working for Atari, Inc. he wrote two of the nine Atari Video Computer System launch titles: Blackjack and Star Ship. After leaving Atari, he cofounded third party video game developer Activision, then Accolade. He left the video game industry in the mid-1980s.

Brit Award for International Breakthrough Act

The Brit Award for International Breakthrough Act was an award given by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), an organisation which represents record companies and artists in the United Kingdom. The accolade used to be presented at the Brit Awards, an annual celebration of British and international music. The winners and nominees are determined by the Brit Awards voting academy with over one-thousand members, which comprise record labels, publishers, managers, agents, media, and previous winners and nominees.The award was first presented in 1988 as awards as "International Newcomer" which were won by Terence Trent D'Arby.

In 2003 the award was renamed to "International Breakthrough Act".

The accolade was not handed out at the 2008 and 2009 ceremonies and has been defunct as of 2013.

Brit Award for International Female Solo Artist

The Brit Award for International Female Solo Artist is an award given by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), an organisation which represents record companies and artists in the United Kingdom. The accolade is presented at the Brit Awards, an annual celebration of British and international music. The winners and nominees are determined by the Brit Awards voting academy with over one-thousand members, which comprise record labels, publishers, managers, agents, media, and previous winners and nominees.The award was first presented in 1989 as International Female Solo Artist. The accolade was not handed out at the 1990, 1992 and 1993 ceremonies, with the award for International Solo Artist (given to a male or female artist) being awarded instead. The award for International Female Solo Artist was reinstated in 1994, and has been given ever since.Björk is the artist with the most wins and nominations in the category, with four awards won out of nine nominations. Artists from the United States have won the accolade eleven times, more than any other country.

Brit Award for Soundtrack/Cast Recording

The Brit Award for Soundtrack/Cast Recording is an award given by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), an organisation which represents record companies and artists in the United Kingdom. The accolade is presented at the Brit Awards, an annual celebration of British and international music. The winners and nominees are determined by the Brit Awards voting academy with over one-thousand members, which comprise record labels, publishers, managers, agents, media, and previous winners and nominees.The award was first presented in 1986 as Soundtrack/Cast Recording.

The accolade was not handed out at the 1987 ceremonie and has been defunct as of 2001.

Chrysler LH platform

The LH platform served as the basis for the Chrysler Concorde, Chrysler LHS, Chrysler 300M, Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, and the final Chrysler New Yorker. A Plymouth to be called the "Accolade" was planned, but never saw production. The platform pioneered Chrysler's "cab-forward" design; featured on some Chrysler, Dodge, and Eagle cars in the 1990s and early 2000s.

Distinctive Software

Distinctive Software Inc. (DSI) was a Canadian video game developer established in Burnaby, British Columbia, by Don Mattrick and Jeff Sember after their success with the game Evolution. Mattrick (age 17) and Jeff Sember approached Sydney Development Corporation, who agreed to publish Evolution in 1982. Distinctive Software was the predecessor to EA Canada.Distinctive Software was best known in the late 1980s for their ports, racing and sports games, including the Test Drive series and Stunts.

DSI also made sports games like 4D Boxing, and the second title in the Hardball series, Hardball II.

In 1991, DSI was acquired by Electronic Arts in a deal worth US$10 million and became EA Canada.

List of Sega Genesis games

The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive (Japanese: メガドライブ, Hepburn: Mega Doraibu) in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit video game console that was developed and sold by Sega. First released in Japan in 1988, in North America in 1989 and in PAL regions in 1990, the Genesis is Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System. The system supports a library of more than 700 games created both by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers and delivered on ROM cartridges. It can also play the complete library of Master System games when the separately sold Power Base Converter is installed. The Sega Genesis also benefited from numerous peripherals, including the Sega CD and Sega 32X, several network services, and multiple first-party and third-party variations of the console that focused on extending its functionality. The console and its games continue to be popular among fans, collectors, video game music fans, and emulation enthusiasts. Licensed third party re-releases of the console are still being produced, and several indie game developers continue to produce games for it. Many games have also been re-released in compilations for newer consoles and offered for download on various digital distribution services, such as Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, and Steam.The Genesis library was initially modest, but eventually grew to contain games to appeal to all types of players. The initial pack-in title was Altered Beast, which was later replaced with Sonic the Hedgehog. Top sellers included Sonic the Hedgehog, its sequel Sonic the Hedgehog 2, and Disney's Aladdin. During development for the console, Sega Enterprises in Japan focused on developing action games while Sega of America was tasked with developing sports games. A large part of the appeal of the Genesis library during the console's lifetime was the arcade-based experience of its games, as well as more difficult entries such as Ecco the Dolphin and sports games such as Joe Montana Football. Compared to its competition, Sega advertised to an older audience by hosting more mature games, including the uncensored version of Mortal Kombat.This is an alphabetical list of released games for the Sega Genesis. Titles listed do not include releases for the Sega CD and Sega 32X add-ons. Included in this list are titles not licensed by Sega, including releases in Taiwan by several developers such as Gamtec, as well as releases by Accolade before being licensed following the events of Sega v. Accolade. This list also includes titles developed by unlicensed third-party developers after the discontinuation of the Genesis, such as Pier Solar and the Great Architects.

A few games were only released exclusively on the Sega Channel subscription service, which was active from 1994 to 1998, in the US. This means that, whilst cartridges were officially released for use on PAL and Japanese consoles, they were unavailable physically in the US. While few games were released this way, some of them are considered to be staples in the Genesis library, such as Pulseman and Mega Man: The Wily Wars.

List of musical symbols

Musical symbols are marks and symbols used since about the 13th century in musical notation of musical scores. Some are used to notate pitch, tempo, metre, duration and articulation of a note or a passage of music. In some cases, symbols provide information about the form of a piece (e.g., how many repeats of a section) or about how to play the note (e.g., with violin family instruments, a note may be bowed or plucked). Some symbols are instrument-specific notation giving the performer information about which finger, hand or foot to use.

PFA Team of the Year

The Professional Footballers' Association Team of the Year (often called the PFA Team of the Year, or simply the Team of the Year) is an annual award given to a set of 55 footballers across the top four tiers of men's English football; the Premier League, the Championship, League One and League Two, as well as the women's FA WSL, who are seen to be deserving of being named in a "Team of the Year". Peter Shilton currently holds the most appearances in the PFA Team of the Year in the top division with 10 appearances. Steven Gerrard currently holds the most appearances in the PFA Team of the Year in the Premier League era with eight appearances.

The award has been presented since the 1973–74 season and the shortlist is compiled by the members of the players' trade union, the Professional Footballers' Association (PFA), in January of every year, with the winners then being voted for by the other players in their respective divisions. The award is regarded by players in the Football League as the highest accolade available to them, due to it being picked by their fellow professionals. In 2014, a team for female players competing in the FA WSL was selected for the first time.

Sega Genesis

The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis is Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, and later as the Genesis in North America in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, and Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and later the Super Aladdin Boy.Designed by an R&D team supervised by Hideki Sato and Masami Ishikawa, the Genesis was adapted from Sega's System 16 arcade board, centered on a Motorola 68000 processor as the CPU, a Zilog Z80 as a sound controller, and a video system supporting hardware sprites, tiles, and scrolling. It plays a library of more than 900 games created by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers delivered on ROM-based cartridges. Several add-ons were released, including a Power Base Converter to play Master System games. It was released in several different versions, some created by third parties. Sega created two network services to support the Genesis: Sega Meganet and Sega Channel.

In Japan, the Mega Drive fared poorly against its two main competitors, Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine, but it achieved considerable success in North America, Brazil, and Europe. Contributing to its success were its library of arcade game ports, the popularity of Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog series, several popular sports franchises, and aggressive youth marketing that positioned the system as the cool console for adolescents. The North American release in 1991 of the Super Famicom, rebranded as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe that has often been termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence. Controversy surrounding violent games such as Night Trap and Mortal Kombat led Sega to create the Videogame Rating Council, a predecessor to the Entertainment Software Rating Board.

30.75 million first-party Genesis units were sold worldwide. In addition, Tec Toy sold an estimated three million licensed variants in Brazil, Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million licensed variants of the system in the United States, and much smaller numbers were sold by Samsung in South Korea. By the mid-2010s, licensed third-party Genesis rereleases were still being sold by AtGames in North America and Europe. Many games have been rereleased in compilations or on online services such as the Nintendo Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, and Steam. The Genesis was succeeded in 1994 by the Sega Saturn.

Sega v. Accolade

Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade, Inc., 977 F.2d 1510 (9th Cir. 1992), is a case in which the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit applied American intellectual property law to the reverse engineering of computer software. Stemming from the publishing of several Sega Genesis games by video game publisher Accolade, which had disassembled Genesis software in order to publish games without being licensed by Sega, the case involved several overlapping issues, including the scope of copyright, permissible uses for trademarks, and the scope of the fair use doctrine for computer code.The case was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, which ruled in favor of Sega and issued an injunction against Accolade preventing them from publishing any more games for the Genesis and requiring them to recall all the existing Genesis games they had for sale. Accolade appealed the decision to the Ninth Circuit on the grounds that their reverse engineering of the Genesis was protected under fair use. The Ninth Circuit reversed the district court's order and ruled that Accolade's use of reverse engineering to publish Genesis titles was protected under fair use, and that its alleged violation of Sega trademarks was the fault of Sega. The case is frequently cited in matters involving reverse engineering and fair use under copyright law.

Star Control

Star Control: Famous Battles of the Ur-Quan Conflict, Volume IV or just simply Star Control is a science fiction video game developed by Toys for Bob and published by Accolade in 1990. It was originally released for Amiga and MS-DOS in 1990, followed by a Mega Drive/Genesis port in 1991. Simple ported versions were also released for the Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC and ZX Spectrum.

A sequel, Star Control II was released in 1992. Star Control II has been lauded as one of the best games on the PC.

Ulmus 'Morton' = Accolade

Ulmus 'Morton' (selling name Accolade) is an elm cultivar cloned from a putative intraspecific hybrid planted at the Morton Arboretum in 1924, which itself originated as seed collected from a tree at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts. Although this tree was originally identified as Ulmus crassifolia, it is now believed to have been a hybrid of the Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana var. japonica) and Wilson's elm (formerly Ulmus wilsoniana, but also sunk as U. davidiana var. japonica).

Ulmus 'Morton Red Tip' = Danada Charm

Ulmus 'Morton Red Tip' (selling name Danada Charm) is a hybrid cultivar raised by the Morton Arboretum from an open pollination of Accolade. The tree has occasionally been reported as a hybrid of Accolade with the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila, an error probably owing to the commercial propagation of the tree by grafting onto U. pumila rootstocks.

Visiting scholar

In US academia, a visiting scholar, visiting researcher, visiting fellow, visiting lecturer or visiting professor is a scholar from an institution who visits a host university and is projected to teach, lecture, or perform research on a topic the visitor is valued for. In many cases the position is not salaried because the scholar typically is salaried by their home institution (or partially salaried, as in some cases of sabbatical leave from US universities), while some visiting positions are salaried.

Typically, a position as visiting scholar is for a couple of months or even a year, though it can be extended. It is not unusual that host institutions provide accommodation for the visiting scholar. Typically, a visiting scholar is invited by the host institution. Being invited as a visiting scholar is often regarded as a significant accolade and recognition of the scholar's prominence in the field. Attracting prominent visiting scholars often allows the permanent faculty and graduate students to cooperate with prominent academics from other institutions, especially foreign ones.

In the UK, a visiting scholar or visiting academic usually has to pay a so-called bench fee to the university, which will give them access to a shared office space and other university facilities and resources (such as the library). Bench fee amounts vary across the UK universities.


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