Accidental death

An accidental death is an unnatural death that is caused by an accident such as a slip and fall, traffic collision, or accidental poisoning. Accidental deaths are distinguished from death by natural causes (disease) and from intentional homicides and suicide. An accidental death can still be considered a homicide or suicide if a person was the unintentional cause.

For criminal purposes, intentional homicides are usually classified as murder. Exceptions such as self-defense vary by jurisdiction, and some cases, persons accused of murder have asserted as a defense that the deceased was actually the victim of an accidental death rather than an intentional act. However, a person who is responsible for the accidental death of another through negligence may still be criminally liable for manslaughter, and civilly liable for wrongful death. Accidental death and dismemberment insurance and similar insurance policies pay a benefit in the event of an accidental death,[1] With these policies it must be demonstrated that a given death is in fact an accident, rather than an intentional suicide or homicide (which might also involve insurance fraud).

It has been suggested that "vast majority of accidents are not really accidents of chance but rather accidents of folly, negligence, and blatant human misjudgment".[2] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that in the US in 2015, there were 146,571 "unintentional injury deaths" that year, the fourth leading cause of death. Of those, 47,478 were from unintentional poisoning, 37,757 were from traffic accidents, and 33,381 were from falls.[3]

In some countries, all accidental deaths (or apparently accidental deaths) are investigated by government bodies and sometimes a family will do a private investigation.[4] Inquests in England and Wales, for example, are held into sudden and unexplained deaths, and a fatal accident inquiry is performed for an accidental death in Scotland. A verdict of "accidental death" in such cases is returned when there is no contributory factor from an action or omission of the victim ("death by misadventure") or by another person ("unlawful killing").

Deaths during wartime due to imprecise or incorrect targeting may be euphemistically termed collateral damage or the result of friendly fire.

See also

References

  1. ^ Randy Hanzlick, Death Investigation: Systems and Procedures (2016), p. 131.
  2. ^ Clifton D. Bryant, Dennis L. Peck, Encyclopedia of Death & Human Experience (2009), p. 7.
  3. ^ "Accidents or Unintentional Injuries". Centers for Disease Control. March 17, 2017.
  4. ^ https://www.independent.ie/breaking-news/irish-news/wheres-the-justice-familys-outrage-over-collapse-of-murder-trial-37835847.html
Accident insurance

Accident insurance is a type of insurance where the policy holder is paid directly in the event of an accident resulting in injury of the insured. The insured can spend the benefit payment however they choose. Accident insurance is complementary to, not a replacement for, health insurance.

Accidental Death of an Anarchist

Accidental Death of an Anarchist (Italian title: Morte accidentale di un anarchico) is a play by Italian playwright and Nobel Prize for Literature winner Dario Fo. Considered a classic of 20th-century theater, it has been performed across the world in more than forty countries.

Accidental death and dismemberment insurance

In insurance, accidental death and dismemberment (AD&D) is a policy that pays benefits to the beneficiary if the cause of death is an accident. This is a limited form of life insurance which is generally less expensive, or in some cases is an added benefit to an existing life insurance policy.

Borough of Melton

Melton is a local government district with borough status in north-eastern Leicestershire, England. It is named after its main town, Melton Mowbray. Other settlements include Asfordby and Bottesford. It has a population of 46,861, increasing to 50,376 at the 2011 census.Melton Borough is an attractive rural area in the north-east part of Leicestershire and at the heart of the East Midlands. It is the 10th smallest district in England. The main activities of the Borough are centred on the single market town of Melton Mowbray which has a population of about 26,000.

There are some 70 small villages within the surrounding rural area and the area of the Borough is 48,138ha.

Don Fleming (American football)

Donald Denver Fleming (June 11, 1937 – June 4, 1963) was an American college and professional football player who was a defensive back in the National Football League (NFL) for three seasons during the early 1960s. Fleming played college football for the University of Florida, and thereafter, he played professionally for the Cleveland Browns of the NFL. His professional football career was cut short by his accidental death in 1963.

Electrocution

Electrocution is death caused by electric shock, electric current passing through the body. The word is derived from "electro" and "execution", but it is also used for accidental death.The term "electrocution" was coined in 1889 in the US just before the first use of the electric chair and originally referred only to electrical execution and not to accidental or suicidal electrical deaths. However, since no English word was available for non-judicial deaths due to electric shock, the word "electrocution" eventually took over as a description of all circumstances of electrical death from the new commercial electricity.

Erotic asphyxiation

Erotic asphyxiation (variously called asphyxiophilia, hypoxyphilia or breath control play) is the intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for the purposes of sexual arousal. The term autoerotic asphyxiation is used when the act is done by a person to him- or herself. Colloquially, a person engaging in the activity is sometimes called a gasper.The erotic interest in asphyxiation is classified as a paraphilia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association.

Erotic asphyxiation can lead to accidental death due to asphyxia.

Fritz Wunderlich

Friedrich "Fritz" Karl Otto Wunderlich (26 September 1930 – 17 September 1966) was a German lyric tenor, famed for his singing of the Mozart repertory and various lieder. He died in an accident when he was only 35.

Gavin Richards

Gavin Richards (born 3 July 1946 in London) is an English actor, writer and director.

He is best known for adapting, directing and starring in the West End production of Dario Fo's Accidental Death of an Anarchist. He also played Captain Alberto Bertorelli in the BBC sitcom 'Allo 'Allo! from 1987 to 1989, and Terry Raymond in the BBC soap opera EastEnders between 1996 and 2002.

Inquest

An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death. Conducted by a judge, jury, or government official, an inquest may or may not require an autopsy carried out by a coroner or medical examiner. Generally, inquests are conducted only when deaths are sudden or unexplained. An inquest may be called at the behest of a coroner, judge, prosecutor, or, in some jurisdictions, upon a formal request from the public. A coroner's jury may be convened to assist in this type of proceeding. Inquest can also mean such a jury and the result of such an investigation. In general usage, inquest is also used to mean any investigation or inquiry.

An inquest uses witnesses, but suspects are not permitted to defend themselves. The verdict can be, for example, natural death, accidental death, misadventure, suicide, or murder. If the verdict is murder or culpable accident, criminal prosecution may follow, and suspects are able to defend themselves there.

Since juries are not used in most European civil law systems, these do not have any (jury) procedure similar to an inquest, but medical evidence and professional witnesses have been used in court in continental Europe for centuries.Larger inquests can be held into disasters, or in some jurisdictions (not England and Wales) into cases of corruption.

Jeff Russel

Jeffrey Cameron Russel (1900-1926) was a star Canadian football player remembered as a star with the Montreal AAA Winged Wheelers and his early accidental death.

Life insurance

Life insurance (or life assurance, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations) is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the benefit) in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person (often the policy holder). Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness can also trigger payment. The policy holder typically pays a premium, either regularly or as one lump sum. Other expenses, such as funeral expenses, can also be included in the benefits.

Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events. Specific exclusions are often written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer; common examples are claims relating to suicide, fraud, war, riot, and civil commotion.

Modern life insurance bears some similarity to the asset management industry and life insurers have diversified their products into retirement products such as annuities.Life-based contracts tend to fall into two major categories:

Protection policies: designed to provide a benefit, typically a lump sum payment, in the event of a specified occurrence. A common form—more common in years past—of a protection policy design is term insurance.

Investment policies: the main objective of these policies is to facilitate the growth of capital by regular or single premiums. Common forms (in the U.S.) are whole life, universal life, and variable life policies.

Mel Shapiro

Mel Shapiro is an American theatre director and writer, college professor, and author.

Trained at Carnegie-Mellon University, Shapiro began his professional directing career at the Pittsburgh Playhouse and then as resident director at Arena Stage in Washington, D.C.. He was co-producing director at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis and has worked as guest director at the Hartford Stage Company, the Center Theatre Group in Los Angeles (where he directed the American Premiere of Dario Fo's Accidental Death of an Anarchist), the National Playwright's Conference of the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center and the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Canada.

Shapiro's off-Broadway productions include the original staging of John Guare's The House of Blue Leaves, which won the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best American Play in 1971, and Rachel Owen's The Karl Marx Play for the American Place Theatre. London productions include the musicals Two Gentlemen of Verona and Kings and Clowns.

For Broadway, Shapiro co-wrote the book (with Guare) and directed the 1971 musical adaptation of Two Gentlemen of Verona and directed the 1978 revival of Stop the World - I Want to Get Off with Sammy Davis Jr. as well as John Guare's 1979 play Bosoms and Neglect. He has staged works at Lincoln Center, including Václav Havel's The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, which won an Obie Award for Best Foreign Play and Shakespeare's Richard III. His relationship with Joseph Papp spanned six years at the New York Shakespeare Festival Public Theater. Among his productions there are Guare's Rich and Famous, Marco Polo Sings a Solo, and John Ford Noonan's Older People.

Shapiro was one of the founding members of New York University's Tisch School of the Arts and served as the head of the Carnegie Mellon School of Drama. He was the head of graduate acting for the Theatre Department at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has taught and directed at the Queensland University of Technology's Theatre School in Brisbane, Australia, and the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney, Australia, in Fall, 2011. He has served on the boards of the Pittsburgh Public Theater, the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, and the Fund for New American Plays at the Kennedy Center and Theatre of Latin America.

Shapiro is the author of The Director's Companion and An Actor Performs.

Ordinary People

Ordinary People is a 1980 American drama film that marked the directorial debut of actor Robert Redford. The film stars Donald Sutherland, Mary Tyler Moore, Judd Hirsch, and Timothy Hutton.

The story concerns the disintegration of an upper-middle class family in Lake Forest, Illinois, following the accidental death of one of their two sons and the attempted suicide of the other. The screenplay by Alvin Sargent was based upon the 1976 novel Ordinary People by Judith Guest.

The film received six Academy Awards nominations and won four: the Academy Award for Best Picture, Best Director for Redford, Adapted Screenplay for Sargent, and Supporting Actor for Hutton. In addition, it won five Golden Globe Awards: Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director (Redford), Best Actress in a Drama (Tyler Moore), Best Supporting Actor (Hutton), and Best Screenplay (Sargent).

Preventable causes of death

The World Health Organization has traditionally classified death according to the primary type of disease or injury. However, causes of death may also be classified in terms of preventable risk factors—such as smoking, unhealthy diet, sexual behavior, and reckless driving—which contribute to a number of different diseases. Such risk factors are usually not recorded directly on death certificates, although they are acknowledged in medical reports.

Socialist Labour Party (Canada)

The Socialist Labour Party was a political party in Canada that was formed in 1898 by Canadian supporters of the ideas of American socialist Daniel De Leon and the Socialist Labor Party of America. The party never won any seats. The party ran only a small number of candidates (listed below), all of whom placed last in their respective elections.

The party dissolved in 2005 following the accidental death of its national secretary, Doug Irving.

UltrAslan

ultrAslan is a football firm associated with Galatasaray S.K., the largest group of its kind in Turkey.

The firm was founded on 20 January 2001, after various smaller groups of fans decided that, Galatasaray, which could be seen as a European top club after their success in the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup, needed a large, organised fan group. This led to the creation of ultrAslan under the leadership of Alpaslan Dikmen, the main coordinator until his accidental death on 27 September 2008. The name of the organisation is a portmanteau word combining the concepts of "Ultras" and "Aslan" (the lion).

ultrAslan are renowned for their creative choreography and use of flares. After the derby match against Fenerbahçe S.K. was interrupted due to the use of over 3000 flares on 4 December 2001, the use of flares was completely forbidden in the Turkish leagues, with the introduction of stiff fines for offenses.In contrast to many other European fan groups, ultrAslan, although patriotic, is generally apolitical in nature. It is quite critical of the club management, and has a major influence on the transfer policy of the club. It strictly declines any financial support or supply of free tickets from the club, and is financed by donations by members as well as by the sale of self-produced articles. Similarly to other Ultra-groups in Europe, they oppose the commercialisation of football.

Unlawful killing

In English law, unlawful killing is a verdict that can be returned by an inquest in England and Wales when someone has been killed by one or several unknown persons. The verdict means that the killing was done without lawful excuse and in breach of criminal law. This includes murder, manslaughter, infanticide and causing death by dangerous driving. A verdict of unlawful killing generally leads to a police investigation, with the aim of gathering sufficient evidence to identify, charge and prosecute those responsible.

The inquest does not normally name any individual person as responsible. The standard of proof is that the unlawful killing must be beyond reasonable doubt. If this standard is not met, a verdict of accidental death or death by misadventure on the balance of probabilities may be returned.

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