Accession day

An Accession Day is usually the anniversary of the date on which a monarch or executive takes office. The earliest records of accession celebrations date from the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the custom is now observed in many nations.

Accession Day in India's Jammu and Kashmir commemorates the day in 1947 when the area joined the Dominion of India.


In Belgium there are local celebrations of the reigning monarch's accession, but the anniversary of the accession of the first King of modern Belgium, Leopold I, on 21 July 1831, is celebrated as a full national holiday, known as "Belgian National Day".[1]

Indian subcontinent

Accession Day is a state holiday in India's northernmost state, Jammu and Kashmir, commemorating 26 October 1947, when Maharaja Hari Singh signed off the Instrument of Accession, in which Jammu and Kashmir joined the Dominion of India. This was part of the series of events in 1947 by which rule the Indian Empire was converted into the two new Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter having two territories separated by the whole of northern India. As a Hindu ruler of a state with both Hindu and Muslim subjects, the Maharaja's decision was crucial.

Festivities of the day include holding rallies, lighting firecrackers, singing India's national anthem, and raising the flag of India.[2][3][4]


Koninginnedag (Queen's Day) was, during the reign of Queen Beatrix, celebrated on 30 April, the date of her accession in 1980 upon the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana, whose birthday fell on 30 April). Beatrix abdicated on Koninginnedag 2013 which, led to the accession of King Willem-Alexander. As a result, the holiday became known as Koningsdag (King's Day) from 2014 and the celebration was moved three days ahead to 27 April, to instead mark the birthday of Willem-Alexander.

United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates is unusual in celebrating the accession of its President, although the President is elected from amongst the seven hereditary Emirs (ruling Princes) of the constituent states of the UAE, and is therefore also a hereditary and monarchical leader. Accession Day is a national holiday in the UAE.[5]

United Kingdom

The custom of marking this day was inaugurated during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Her accession day was celebrated in England and Wales during her reign and also, according to the 19th-century historian Thomas Lathbury, during the reigns of her successors.[6] A "Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving" to be used in churches on the anniversary of the queen's accession was published in 1576 and used until 1602.

In 1568, the tenth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth's accession was marked with the ringing of bells and 17 November became known as "Queen Elizabeth's Day" or "Queene's Day".[7] As her reign progressed, it was celebrated with increased fervour and, long after her death, it continued to be observed as a day of Protestant rejoicing and expression of anti-Catholic feeling. The observances included triumphal parades and processions, sermons against populism and the burning of the Pope in effigy.[7] After the Great Fire of London (1666), "these rejoicings were converted into a satirical saturnalia of the most turbulent kind"; the greatest excesses occurred in the years 1679–81 when wealthy members of political clubs paid for processions and bonfires to arouse the populace to political fervour.[7] The inhabitants of Berry Pomeroy in south Devon reinstated the tradition of Queene's Day in 2005 with a special church service and bonfire.[8]

On the accession of King James I of England, a form of prayer and thanksgiving was issued for use in all churches "upon his entry to this kingdom".[9] In 1625, a new service was issued which was sanctioned by Convocation in 1640 but set aside by Parliament at the Restoration when certain parts of it were included in the special service for 29 May. When King James II acceded the throne, he ordered the preparation of a special form of prayer and thanksgiving for the anniversary of his accession day and a revised version of the old service was prepared and set forth by authority in 1685. The form of words "the day on which His Majesty began his happy reign" was first used in this service and has been retained ever since. After falling out of use during the reigns of William III and Mary II, the service was revised and used again during the reign of Queen Anne.[10] King George V's accession day (reigned 1910–36) was 6 May.[11]

The present monarch, Elizabeth II's accession day is 6 February and is observed in the United Kingdom by the flying of specific flags and various official functions. In London, a Royal Salute is fired by the guns of the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery in Green Park and by the Honourable Artillery Company at the Tower of London.[12] Salutes are also fired at Woolwich, Colchester, Edinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle, Cardiff, Belfast, York, Portsmouth, Plymouth and Dover Castle.[13]

Special services are required by canon in all cathedrals, churches, and chapels of the Church of England. The Book of Common Prayer provides options for a stand-alone Accession Day service, or for special propers by which any or all of the services of Matins, Evensong and Holy Communion may be altered for the day.[14] The Church's more recent prayer book Common Worship does not provide a full form of service, but refers the user to the Book of Common Prayer; it does, however, provide propers for the Eucharist on 6 February.[15] Although not a legal requirement, special services are also held in some churches of other denominations.

Vatican City

The Vatican counts the Anniversario dell'Elezione del Santo Padre, or the anniversary of the election of the reigning pontiff, among its statutory public holidays. Since 2014, the city-state has observed this holiday on March 13, the anniversary of Pope Francis' election in 2013.

See also


  1. ^ See page 9 of this Archived 21 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine document from the Belgian Federal Government website.
  2. ^ "Accession day is our national day: Jammu BAR". Greater Kashmir. Archived from the original on 28 October 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  3. ^ "Jammu all set to celebrate Accession Day". Sify. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  4. ^ "J&K Accession Day celebrations in Jammu & Kashmir". GroundReport. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  5. ^ Details of the celebration on 6 August.
  6. ^ "According to Lathbury, the 17th day of November, the day of the Queen's accession, was observed even after Elizabeth's death as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God for the gracious deliverance wrought out for the Church by her instrumentality." (Evan Daniel, The Prayer-Book; its history, language and contents; 26th ed. Redhill: Wells Gardner (1948), p. 535.)
  7. ^ a b c Chambers Book of Days, Edinburgh: Chambers, 2004 (ISBN 0-550-10083-0) p.553 ff.
  8. ^ "Queene's day revival continues". Western Morning News. Plymouth, Devon. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2012. (subscription required)
  9. ^ Daniel Prayer-Book, p. 535.
  10. ^ Daniel Prayer-Book, p. 536.
  11. ^ Hoe & Co's Travellers' Diary for 1927. Madras: Hoe & Co, p. 11.
  12. ^ "Gun Salutes". The official website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Honour of Royal Salute switches to Colchester town centre". Colchester Borough Council.
  14. ^ All these options are available on-line at here.
  15. ^ See "Common Worship – Festivals", Church House Publishing, 2008, page 367, which may be viewed on-line here.

Accession refers to the general idea of joining or adding to. It may also refer to:

Accession (property law)

Accession, the act of joining a treaty by a party that did not take part in its negotiations, as defined by article 15 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties


EU Accession

Accession to the throne; not to be confused with the later ceremony of Coronation

Accession Day, the day a monarch succeeds to the throne, and the anniversary thereof

Accession to elected office; inauguration

Accession number (disambiguation)

Accession number (library science), a catalogue number assigned to an object when it becomes part of a library or museum collection

Accession number (bioinformatics), a unique identifier given to a biological polymer sequence (DNA, protein) when it is submitted to a sequence database

Accession (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine)

Accession Records, a record label created by Adrian Hates

Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir), by which that state joined the Dominion of India (1947)

Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir), a public holiday

Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir)

Accession Day is a holiday in Jammu and Kashmir, commemorating 26 October 1947, when Maharaja Hari Singh signed of the Instrument of Accession, in which Jammu and Kashmir joined the Dominion of India. The festivities of the day include holding rallies, bursting of firecrackers, singing India's national anthem, and raising the flag of India. In some areas, the festivities are as big as those of the Hindu festival of Diwali.

Accession Day tilt

The Accession Day tilts were a series of elaborate festivities held annually at the court of Elizabeth I of England to celebrate her Accession Day, 17 November, also known as Queen's Day. The tilts combined theatrical elements with jousting, in which Elizabeth's courtiers competed to outdo each other in allegorical armour and costume, poetry, and pageantry to exalt the queen and her realm of England.The last Elizabethan Accession Day tilt was held in November 1602; the queen died the following spring. Tilts continued as part of festivities marking the Accession Day of James I, 24 March, until 1624, the year before his death.

Culture of Bahrain

The culture of Bahrain is part of the historical region of Eastern Arabia. Thus, Bahrain's culture is similar to that of its Arab neighbours in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain is known for its cosmopolitanism, Bahraini citizens are very ethnically diverse. Though the state religion is Islam, the country is tolerant towards other religions: Catholic and Orthodox churches, Hindu temples as well as a (now-defunct) Jewish synagogue are present on the island.

Culture of Kashmir

The culture of Kashmir refers to the culture and traditions of Kashmir, a region in northern India (consisting of Jammu and Kashmir), northeast Pakistan (consisting of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan) and the Chinese Occupied territory of Aksai Chin.

The culture of Kashmir is a diverse blend and highly influenced by northern South Asian, Persian as well as Central Asian culture. Along with its scenic beauty, Kashmir is famous for its cultural heritage; it amalgamates Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist philosophies and has involved composite culture based on the values of humanism and tolerance which is collectively known as Kashmiriyat. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh each have their own distinct culture.


Dersingham is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated some 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the town of King's Lynn and 70 km (43 mi) north-west of the city of Norwich, opening onto The Wash.

The civil parish has an area of 14.5 km2 (5.6 sq mi) and in the 2001 census had a population of 4,502 in 2,110 households, the population increasing to 4,640 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk.

Sandringham House, a favoured Royal residence of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and several of her predecessors, lies just to the south of Dersingham in the parish of Sandringham. The Queen visited Dersingham Infant School to mark her Diamond Jubilee accession day on 6 February 2012.The Church of St Nicholas is a Grade I listed building. The wooden parish chest, dating from the middle of the 14th century, is carved elaborately with the symbols of the four Evangelists; on the lid, there is part of an inscription.

The nearby Dersingham Bog National Nature Reserve, managed by Natural England (formerly English Nature), contains habitats ranging from marshland to heathland and woodland. Birds such as the redpoll, crossbill, long-eared owl, tree pipit, sparrowhawk and nightjar can be found there.

Diamond jubilee

A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person (e.g. accession to the throne, wedding, etc.).

George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland

Sir George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, 13th Baron de Clifford, 13th Lord of Skipton, KG (8 August 1558 – 30 October 1605), was an English peer, naval commander, and courtier of Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was notable at court for his jousting, at the Accession Day Tilts, which were highlights of the year at court. Two famous survivals, his portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1590, now National Maritime Museum) and a garniture of Greenwich armour (now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art), reflect this important part of his life. In contrast, he neglected his estates in the far north of England, and left a long succession dispute between his heirs.

Golden jubilee

A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. It variously is applied to people, events, and nations.

Great Seal of Canada

The Great Seal of Canada (French: Grand Sceau du Canada) is a governmental seal used for purposes of state in Canada, being set on letters patent, proclamations and commissions, both to representatives of the Queen and for the appointment of cabinet ministers, senators, and judges. Many other officials, such as officers in the Canadian Armed Forces, receive commissions affixed with the Privy Seal, not the great seal. It is not for sealing up a document as letters close.

The great seal's design is changed soon after the accession of a new sovereign and is considered by the Department of Canadian Heritage to be one of the official symbols of Canada.

Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947. By executing this document under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to accede to the Dominion of India.In a letter sent to Maharaja Hari Singh on 27 October 1947, the then Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession with a remark, "it is my Government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference to the people." Lord Mountbatten's remark and the offer made by the Government of India to conduct a plebiscite or referendum to determine the future status of Kashmir led to a dispute between India and Pakistan regarding the legality of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. India claims that the accession is unconditional and final while Pakistan maintains that the accession is fraudulent.The accession to India is celebrated on Accession Day, which is held annually on 26 October.The full text of the Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir) executed by Maharaja Hari Singh on 26 October 1947 and accepted by Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India, on 27 October 1947 (excluding the schedule mentioned in its third point) is as follows:

Some scholars have questioned the official date of the signing of the accession document by the Maharaja. They maintain that it was signed on 27 October rather than 26 October. However, the fact that the Governor General accepted the accession on 27 October, the day the Indian troops were airlifted to Kashmir, is generally accepted. An Indian commentator, Prem Shankar Jha, has argued that the accession was actually signed by the Maharaja on 25 October 1947, just before he left Srinagar for Jammu.


Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry, with each participant trying hard to strike the opponent while riding towards him at high speed, breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or jousting armour if possible, or unhorsing him. The joust became an iconic characteristic of the knight in Romantic medievalism. The participants experience close to three and a quarter times their body weight in G-forces when the lances collide with their armour.The term is derived from Old French joster, ultimately from Latin iuxtare "to approach, to meet". The word was loaned into Middle English around 1300, when jousting was a very popular sport among the Anglo-Norman knighthood. The synonym tilt dates c. 1510.

Jousting is based on the military use of the lance by heavy cavalry. It transformed into a specialised sport during the Late Middle Ages, and remained popular with the nobility in England and Wales, Germany and other parts of Europe throughout the whole of the 16th century (while in France, it was discontinued after the death of King Henry II in an accident in 1559). In England, jousting was the highlight of the Accession Day tilts of Elizabeth I and of James VI and I, and also was part of the festivities at the marriage of Charles I.From 10 July to 9 August 1434, the Spanish Knight Suero de Quiñones and ten of his companions encamped in a field beside a bridge and challenged each knight who wished to cross it to a joust. This road was used by pilgrims all over Europe on the way to shrine at Santiago de Compostela, and at this time of the summer, many thousands would cross the bridge. Suero and his men swore to "break 300 lances" before moving on. The men fought for over a month, and after 166 battles Suero and his men were so injured they could not continue and declared the mission complete.Jousting was discontinued in favour of other equestrian sports in the 17th century, although non-contact forms of "equestrian skill-at-arms" disciplines survived. There has been a limited revival of theatrical jousting re-enactment since the 1970s.

List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage

This is a list of Canadian organizations with royal patronage. The practice of members of the Canadian Royal Family giving their patronage to Canadian organizations stems from that which started in the United Kingdom in pre-industrial times, when all development of the sciences and arts were under the direct control of the monarch and exercised by the foundation of colleges that today form the basis of modern universities. Today, royal patronage is a ceremonial function wherein the royal person will either volunteer their time for service or make charitable donations, in order to help bring recognition to the group's achievements and to the contributions of different sectors of public life.Any organization may apply for royal patronage, via the Office of the Governor General; however, to receive the honour, an organization must prove to be long lasting and have aims and objectives that will earn the approval of the person from whom patronage is requested. Also, patronage is typically granted to athletic, artistic, cultural, or charitable organizations; rarely to corporate or for-profit companies. Some charities and volunteer organizations have been founded as gifts to, or in honour of, some of Canada's monarchs or members of the Royal Family, such as the Victorian Order of Nurses (a gift to Queen Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897), the Canadian Cancer Fund (set up in honour of King George V's Silver Jubilee in 1935), and the Queen Elizabeth II Fund to Aid in Research on the Diseases of Children.

Pro-Pakistan sentiment

Pro-Pakistan sentiment is fondness and love of aspects of Pakistani culture, Pakistani history, Pakistani cuisine, Pakistani traditions and the people of Pakistan. The Pakistani diaspora has contributed to the country's exposure throughout Europe and the West.The like or interest of Pakistan is the opposite of Pakophobia, Pakistanophobia or Anti-Pakistan sentiment, which is the fear and dislike of things concerning Pakistan.

Public holidays in Bahrain

The following table indicates declared Bahrain government national holidays for the year 2015 only—cultural variants also provide opportunity for holidays tied to local events. In total there are 10 public holidays.

Ramesses X

Khepermaatre Ramesses X (also written Ramses and Rameses) (ruled c. 1111 BC – 1107 BC) was the ninth ruler of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. His birth name was Amonhirkhepeshef. His prenomen or throne name, Khepermaatre, means "The Justice of Re Abides."His accession day fell on 1 prt 27 (first month of the Winter season, day 27).

His highest attested regnal year is year 3. The highest attested date in his reign is either "year 3, second month of the Inundation season, day 2" or possibly "year 3, month 4 (no day given)".Since Ramesses XI came to the throne on 3 šmw 20 (third month of the Summer season, day 20), it automatically follows that Ramesses X must have lived into an as yet unattested regnal year 4.

The theory put forward on astronomical grounds by Richard Parker that Ramesses X may have reigned for 9 years, has since been abandoned.

Likewise, the suggested ascription of Theban graffito 1860a to a hypothetical year 8 of Ramesses X is no longer supported.The English Egyptologist Aidan Dodson once wrote in a 2004 book:

"No evidence is known to indicate the relationship between the final kings Ramesses IX, X and XI. If they were a father-son succession, Tyti, who bears the titles of King's Daughter, King's Wife and King's Mother, would seem [to be] a good candidate for the wife of Ramesses X, but little else can be discerned."However, Dodson's hypothesis here on Tyti's position must now be discarded since it has been proven in 2010 that Tyti was rather a queen of a previous 20th dynasty pharaoh instead. She is mentioned in the partly fragmented Harris papyrus to be Ramesses III's wife as Dodson himself acknowledges.

Ramesses X is a poorly documented king. His year 2 is attested by Papyrus Turin 1932+1939 while his third year is documented in the Necropolis Journal of the Workmen of Deir El Medina. This diary mentions the general idleness of the necropolis workmen, at least partly due to the threat posed by Libyan marauders in the Valley of the Kings. It records that the Deir El-Medina workmen were absent from work in Year 3 IIIrd Month of Peret (i.e., Winter) days 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 21 and 24 for fear of the "desert-dwellers" (i.e., the Libyans or Meshwesh) who evidently roamed through Upper Egypt and Thebes at will. This is partly a reflection of the massive Libyan influx into the Western Delta region of Lower Egypt during this time. Ramesses X is also the last New Kingdom king whose rule over Nubia is attested from an inscription at Aniba.His KV18 tomb in the Valley of the Kings was left unfinished. It is uncertain if he was ever buried there, since no remains or fragments of funerary objects were discovered within it.

Royal Swans

The Royal Swans are a flock of swans of two varieties—the mute swan and black swan—the original six pairs of which were a gift to the city of Ottawa from Queen Elizabeth II in 1967, to commemorate the Canadian Centennial. Since then, the number of Royal Swans has increased such that they now occupy the waters of the Rideau River between Carleton University and Cummings Bridge.


A tiltyard (or tilt yard or tilt-yard) was an enclosed courtyard for jousting. Tiltyards were a common feature of Tudor era castles and palaces.

The Horse Guards Parade in London was formerly the tiltyard constructed by Henry VIII as an entertainment venue adjacent to Whitehall Palace; it was the site of the Accession Day tilts in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I.

Henry VIII also constructed a tiltyard at Hampton Court Palace, where one of the towers, known as the Tiltyard Tower, was used for viewing the tournaments below.The Tiltyard at Whitehall was "a permanent structure and apparently had room for 10-12,000 spectators, accommodated in conditions which ranged from the spartan to the opulent." Ambitious young aristocrats participated in the Accession Day events for the Elizabeth I in 1595 where "the whole chivalric nature of the tournament with its mock combat and heroic connotations was peculiarly appealing." The aristocrats who attended wore elaborate costumes "designed and made for themselves and their servants."Another tiltyard used during the reign of Queen Elizabeth existed at Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire. It was constructed on top of one of the dams that formed part of the water defences between the outer bailey and the bridgehead. Today it forms the main walkway to the castle.A modern tiltyard was constructed outside the Royal Armouries in Leeds for demonstrations of medieval martial pursuits, including jousting reenactment and falconry.

William Segar

Sir William Segar (c. 1554–1633) was a portrait painter and officer of arms to the court of Elizabeth I of England; he became Garter King of Arms under James I.

Like other artists of the Tudor court, Segar was active in more than one medium, painting portraits of luminaries of the court in addition to his duties in the College of Arms. He painted Elizabeth's favourite the Earl of Essex in his "Sable sad" (black) armour for the Accession Day tilt of 1590. The famous "Ermine Portrait" of Elizabeth is sometimes attributed to Segar.

Canadian royal symbols

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