Accelerated Mobile Pages

The Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) Project is a website publishing technology developed by Google as a competitor to Facebook's Instant Articles.[1]


Announcement and launch

The AMP Project was announced by Google on October 7, 2015 following discussions with its partners in the European Digital News Initiative (DNI), and other news publishers and technology companies around the world, about improving the performance of the mobile web. More than 30 news publishers and several technology companies (including Twitter, Pinterest, LinkedIn and WordPress) were initially announced as collaborators in the AMP Project.

AMP pages first appeared to web users in February 2016, when Google began to show the AMP versions of webpages in mobile search results. Initially links to AMP pages were restricted to a “Top Stories” section of Google's mobile search results; by September 2016 Google started linking to AMP content in the main mobile search results area.[2] AMP links in Google search are identified with an icon.

According to one of the co-founders of the AMP Project, Malte Ubl, AMP was originally called PCU,[3] which stood for Portable Content Unit.

Growth and expansion

In February 2017, a year after the public launch of AMP, Adobe reported AMP pages accounted for 7% of all web traffic for top publishers in the United States.[4]

In May 2017, Google reported 900,000 web domains were publishing AMP pages with more than two billion AMP pages published globally.[5]

In June 2017 Twitter started linking to AMP pages from its iOS and Android apps.[6]


Online Format

AMP pages are published on-line and can be displayed in most current browsers.[7] When a standard webpage has an AMP counterpart, a link to the AMP page is usually placed in an HTML tag in the source code of the standard page. Because most AMP pages are easily discoverable by web crawlers, third parties such as search engines and other referring websites can choose to link to the AMP version of a webpage instead of the standard version.

AMP framework

The AMP framework consists of three components: AMP HTML, which is standard HTML markup with web components; AMP JavaScript, which manages resource loading; and AMP caches, which serve and validate AMP pages.[8]

Most AMP pages are delivered by Google's AMP cache, but other companies can support AMP caches. Internet performance and security company Cloudflare launched an AMP cache in March 2017.[9]

Third party integration

Any organization or individual can build products or features which will work on AMP pages, provided they comply with the AMP Project specifications. As of July 2017, the AMP Project's website listed around 120 advertising companies and around 30 analytics companies as AMP Project participants.[10]


Google reports that AMP pages served in Google search typically load in less than one second and use ten times less data than the equivalent non-AMP pages.[11] CNBC reported a 75% decrease in mobile page load time for AMP Pages over non-AMP pages,[12] while Gizmodo reported that AMP pages loaded three times faster than non-AMP pages.[13]

Parity with canonical pages

Google has announced that as of February 1, 2018, it will require the content of canonical pages and those displayed through AMP be substantially the same.[14] This is aimed at improving the experience of users by avoiding common difficulties with the user interface, and increase security and trust (see below).


General criticism

AMP has been widely criticized by many in the tech industry[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] for being an attempt by Google to exert its dominance on the Web by dictating how websites are built and monetized, and that "AMP is Google's attempt to lock publishers into its ecosystem".[22] AMP has also been linked to Google's attempt to deprecate URLs so that users will not be able to immediately see whether they are viewing a webpage on the open Web or an AMP page that is hosted on Google's servers.[23]

"There is a sense in which AMP is a Google-built version of the web," Joshua Benton, director of the Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University. "We are moving from a world where you can put anything on your website to one where you can’t because Google says so."... "AMP is an example of Google dialing up its anti-competitive practices under the nose of the competition regulators," said Ramon Tremosa, a Spanish member of the European Parliament[24]

Comparison to other formats

AMP is often compared to Facebook Instant Articles and Apple News.[25][26] All three formats were announced in 2015 with the stated goal of making mobile content faster and easier to consume.[27][28] AMP Project supporters claim that AMP is a collaborative effort among publishers and technology companies, and that AMP is designed to work on the web instead of proprietary mobile apps.

Google's Richard Gingras said:

“There's a very big difference between having a proprietary platform that says it's open, and having an open-source platform that is open to anyone to modify and adapt. It's the difference between saying come into my walled garden vs. not having a walled garden.”[29]

However, some critics believe that AMP is an impending walled garden as Google begins to host AMP-restricted versions of their websites directly on

They say AMP is not actually supporting the open web because it is a “fork” or variation on HTML and one that Google essentially controls...Some publishers have complained that as Google prioritizes AMP links—as it recently said it will do in mobile search—media companies will lose even more control because AMP pages are hosted and controlled by Google. “Our mobile search traffic is moving to be majority AMP (google hosted and not on our site) which limits our control over UI, monetization et al,” said one digital media executive.[30]

Google control

Matthew Ingram of Fortune expressed concerns about Google's role and motives regarding the AMP Project:

“In a nutshell, these publishers are afraid that while the AMP project is nominally open-source, Google is using it to shape how the mobile web works, and in particular, to ensure a steady stream of advertising revenue… More than anything else, the concerns that some publishers have about AMP seems to be part of a broader fear about the loss of control over distribution in a platform-centric world, and the risks that this poses to traditional monetization methods such as display advertising.”[29]

These charges were rebutted by Google. Madhav Chinnappa stated that AMP must be a collaborative industry initiative in order for it to succeed in the long term:

“I get a little bit irritated when sometimes people call it Google’s AMP, because it’s not … AMP was created as an open source initiative and that for me is the reason for its success.”[31]

In September 2018, Google began to transition AMP to a more open governance model, with a technical steering committee composed of AMP-using publishers.[32]


December 7, 2018, AMP announced their official WordPress plugin[33], which allowed to transform WordPress websites into include AMP-ready pages.

As AMP started to become more popular, many other WordPress developers helped to contribute towards WordPress AMP-specific resources[34].


Some publishers reported that AMP pages generate less advertising revenue per page than non-AMP pages.[35] The Wall Street Journal’s Jack Marshall said:

"AMP pages rely heavily on standardized banner ad units, and don’t allow publishers to sell highly-customized ad units, sponsorships or pop-up ads as they might on their own properties"[36]

Other publishers have reported better success with AMP monetization. The Washington Post has been able to generate approximately the same amount of revenue from AMP pages as from standard mobile pages, according to director of product Joey Marburger. CNN chief product officer Alex Wellen said AMP Pages “largely monetize at the same rate” as standard mobile pages.[37]

To improve advertising performance, the AMP Project launched the AMP Ads Initiative which includes support for more advertising formats and optimizations to improve ad load speed.[38][39]

Exploitation for malicious purposes

Some observers believe AMP allows more effective phishing attempts. One serious flaw, noted by tech writer Kyle Chayka, is that disreputable parties who misuse AMP (as well as Facebook's similar Instant Articles) enable junk websites to share many of the same visual cues and features found on legitimate sites. “All publishers end up looking more similar than different. That makes separating the real from the fake even harder,” said Chayka.[40]

In September 2017, Russian hackers used an AMP vulnerability in phishing e-mails sent to investigative journalists critical of the Russian government, and hacked into their websites.[40] Google announced on November 16, 2017 that it will stop allowing sites using AMP for formatting to bait-and-switch sites.[14] Google said beginning February 2018, AMP pages must contain content nearly identical to that of the standard page they're replicating.


  1. ^ Bohn, Dieter (February 2, 2019). "Google's Instant Articles competitor is about to take over mobile search". The Verge. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  2. ^ "Google opens the AMP fire hose". Search Engine Land. October 3, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  3. ^ Ubl, Malte. "AMP Contributor Summit 2018 Keynote". YouTube. The AMP Channel. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  4. ^ "Google AMP: One Year Later | Adobe". Digital Marketing Blog by Adobe. February 23, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  5. ^ "Turbocharging AMP – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  6. ^ "Twitter ramps up AMP". Search Engine Land. July 7, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  7. ^ "Supported Browsers". Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  8. ^ "Overview – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  9. ^ Inc., Cloudflare,. "Cloudflare Announces Ampersand, the First Open AMP Cache, to Give Publishers More Control of their Mobile-Optimized Content". GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  10. ^ "Supported Platforms, Vendors and Partners – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  11. ^ "Search results are officially AMP'd". Google. September 20, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  12. ^ "CNBC – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  13. ^ "Gizmodo – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Google will stop letting sites use AMP format to bait and switch readers". The Verge. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  15. ^ Kill Google AMP before it kills the web
  16. ^ A letter about Google AMP
  17. ^ AMP for email is a terrible idea
  18. ^ Web developers publish open letter taking Google to task for locking up with web with AMP
  19. ^ Inside Google’s plan to make the whole web as fast as AMP
  20. ^ Google claims it’s going to build its proprietary AMP using Web standards
  21. ^ Google Announces Plan to Improve URLs for AMP Pages, But Even If It Happens, Which Remains Uncertain, AMP Will Still Suck
  22. ^ Google AMP supremo whinges at being called out on team's bulls***
  23. ^ Official: Google Chrome 69 kills off the World Wide Web (in URLs)
  24. ^ Google’s mobile web dominance raises competition eyebrows
  25. ^ Novet, Jordan (August 14, 2016). "Why I prefer Google AMP pages to Facebook Instant Articles". VentureBeat. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  26. ^ Travis, Ben (December 13, 2016). "Your Guide to Mobile Publishing Formats: AMP, Facebook Instant Articles, and Apple News | Viget". Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  27. ^ "Introducing Instant Articles | Facebook Media". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  28. ^ "Apple Announces News App for iPhone & iPad". Apple Newsroom. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  29. ^ a b Ingram, Mathew. "Google Says It Wants to Help Publishers Fight Facebook". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  30. ^
  31. ^ "'It's not our project' says Google of AMP as the open format gains advantage over Facebook's Instant Articles". The Drum. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  32. ^ "Answering its critics, Google loosens reins on AMP project". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  33. ^ Medina, Alberto. "The Official AMP Plugin for WordPress – AMP". AMP Project. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  34. ^ "WPZA's AMP Guides". WPZA. WPZA. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  35. ^ "Publishers are pleasantly surprised by Google AMP traffic - Digiday". Digiday. October 14, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  36. ^ "Publishers are struggling with AMP page monetization | Search Engine Watch". Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  37. ^ Marshall, Jack (October 28, 2016). "Google AMP Gets Mixed Reviews From Publishers". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  38. ^ "AMP Ads – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  39. ^ "Growing the AMP Ads Initiative – AMP". Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  40. ^ a b "Russian hackers exploited a Google flaw — and Google won't fix it". Salon. September 24, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.

External links


Amp or AMP may refer to:

Ampere, a unit of electric current, often shortened to Amp

Amplifier, a device that increases the amplitude of a signal

CSE HTML Validator

CSE HTML Validator, now renamed to CSS HTML Validator, is an HTML editor for Windows that assists web developers in creating syntactically correct and accessible HTML, XHTML, and CSS documents (including HTML5 and CSS3) by locating errors, potential problems, and common mistakes. It is also able to check links, suggest improvements, alert developers to deprecated, obsolete, or proprietary tags, attributes, and CSS properties, and find issues that can affect search engine optimization.

CSS HTML Validator is developed, marketed, and sold by AI Internet Solutions LLC located in Texas. The first version of CSS HTML Validator was released in 1997 for Windows 95. The current version is 18.01 (as of March 1, 2018). There are four major editions of CSS HTML Validator — Enterprise, Professional, Standard, and Lite. While the application is generally a commercial product (except for the lite edition), a free version of the standard edition is available for personal, non-commercial use.

Choire Sicha

Choire Sicha (born November 19, 1971) is an American writer and blogger. As of September 2017, he became the editor of The New York Times Styles section. Previously, he served as Vox Media's director of partner platforms, co-editor at Gawker, and a co-founder of The Awl.His name is pronounced "KOR-ee SEE-kuh".

Google Chrome version history

Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC. The development process is split into different "release channels", each working on a build in a separate stage of development. Chrome provides 4 channels: Stable, Beta, Dev, and Canary. On the stable builds, Chrome is updated every two to three weeks for minor releases and every six weeks for major releases.The following table summarizes the release history for the Google Chrome web browser.

List of Google products

The following is a list of products and services provided by Google.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet

Google is a computer software and a web search engine company that acquired, on average, more than one company per week in 2010 and 2011. The table below is an incomplete list of acquisitions, with each acquisition listed being for the respective company in its entirety, unless otherwise specified. The acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between Google and the acquisition subject. As Google is headquartered in the United States, acquisition is listed in US dollars. If the price of an acquisition is unlisted, then it is undisclosed. If the Google service that is derived from the acquired company is known, then it is also listed here. Google itself was re-organized into a subsidiary of a larger holding company known as Alphabet Inc. in 2015.

As of December 2016, Alphabet has acquired over 200 companies, with its largest acquisition being the purchase of Motorola Mobility, a mobile device manufacturing company, for $12.5 billion. Most of the firms acquired by Google are based in the United States, and, in turn, most of these are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. To date, Alphabet has divested itself of four business units: Frommers, which was sold back to Arthur Frommer in April 2012; SketchUp, which was sold to Trimble in April 2012, Boston Dynamics in early 2016 and Google Radio Automation, which was sold to WideOrbit in 2009.Many Google products originated as services provided by companies that Google has since acquired. For example, Google's first acquisition was the Usenet company Deja News, and its services became Google Groups. Similarly, Google acquired Dodgeball, a social networking service company, and eventually replaced it with Google Latitude. Other acquisitions include web application company JotSpot, which became Google Sites; Voice over IP company GrandCentral, which became Google Voice; and video hosting service company Next New Networks, which became YouTube Next Lab and Audience Development Group. CEO Larry Page has explained that potential acquisition candidates must pass a sort of "toothbrush test": Are their products potentially useful once or twice a day, and do they improve your life?Following the acquisition of Israel-based startup Waze in June 2013, Google submitted a 10-Q filing with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) that revealed that the corporation spent $1.3 billion on acquisitions during the first half of 2013, with $966 million of that total going to Waze.


Marfeel is a Spanish-based cloud-solution company offering a platform that provides website and advertisement space display optimization in mobile websites. It was founded in Barcelona in 2011 by Xavi Beumala, and Juan Margenat, with the two also acting as the company's executives. Marfeel has been acknowledged as one of the Top 100 European startups for 2015 by Wired Magazine. and one of Spain's Top 50 most promising startups by Emprendedores Magazine in 2016On April 2016, Marfeel was named a Gartner's Cool Vendor in Mobile Marketing, 2016, recognizing the company's 360 mobile solution for content publishers as innovative, Impactful & Intriguing.

Mobile Web

The mobile web, also known as mobile internet, refers to browser-based Internet services accessed from handheld mobile devices, such as smartphones or feature phones, through a mobile or other wireless network.

Traditionally, the World Wide Web has been accessed via fixed-line services on laptops and desktop computers. However, the web is now more accessible by portable and wireless devices. An early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) report said that with current growth rates, web access by people on the go – via laptops and smart mobile devices – is likely to exceed web access from desktop computers within the next five years. In January 2014, mobile internet use exceeded desktop use in the United States. The shift to mobile web access has accelerated since 2007 with the rise of larger multitouch smartphones, and since 2010 with the rise of multitouch tablet computers. Both platforms provide better Internet access, screens, and mobile browsers, or application-based user web experiences than previous generations of mobile devices. Web designers may work separately on such pages, or pages may be automatically converted, as in Mobile Wikipedia. Faster speeds, smaller, feature-rich devices, and a multitude of applications continue to drive explosive growth for mobile internet traffic. The 2017 Virtual Network Index (VNI) report produced by Cisco Systems forecasts that by 2021, there will be 5.5 billion global mobile users (up from 4.9 billion in 2016). Additionally, the same 2017 VNI report forecasts that average access speeds will increase by roughly three times from 6.8 Mbit/s to 20 Mbit/s in that same period with video comprising the bulk of the traffic (78%).

The distinction between mobile web applications and native applications is anticipated to become increasingly blurred, as mobile browsers gain direct access to the hardware of mobile devices (including accelerometers and GPS chips), and the speed and abilities of browser-based applications improve. Persistent storage and access to sophisticated user interface graphics functions may further reduce the need for the development of platform-specific native applications.

The mobile web has also been called Web 3.0, drawing parallels to the changes users were experiencing as Web 2.0 websites proliferated.Mobile web access today still suffers from interoperability and usability problems. Interoperability issues stem from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, mobile operating systems, and browsers. Usability problems are centered on the small physical size of the mobile phone form factors (limits on display resolution and user input/operating). Despite these shortcomings, many mobile developers choose to create apps using mobile web. A June 2011 research on mobile development found mobile web the third most used platform, trailing Android and iOS.In an article in Communications of the ACM in April 2013, Web technologist Nicholas C. Zakas noted that mobile phones in use in 2013 were more powerful than Apollo 11's 70 lb (32 kg) Apollo Guidance Computer used in the July 1969 lunar landing. However, in spite of their power, in 2013, mobile devices still suffer from web performance with slow connections similar to the 1996 stage of web development. Mobile devices with slower download request/response times, the latency of over-the-air data transmission, with "high-latency connections, slower CPUs, and less memory" force developers to rethink web applications created for desktops with "wired connections, fast CPUs, and almost endless memory."

The mobile web was first popularized by a silicon valley company known as Unwired Planet. In 1997, Unwired Planet, Nokia, Ericsson, and Motorola started the WAP Forum to create and harmonize the standards to ease the transition to bandwidth networks and small display devices. The WAP standard was built on a three-layer, middleware architecture that fueled the early growth of the mobile web, but was made virtually irrelevant with faster networks, larger displays, and advanced smartphones based on Apple's iOS and Google's Android software.

Nogoom Masrya

Nogoom Masrya (Arabic: نجوم مصرية‎, IPA: [nudʒuːm masˤriːah], meaning Egyptian Stars) is an Arabic Egyptian independent news web portal founded in September 2009 by Abdelrahman Ellithy. The website is best known for being the first revenue sharing platform in the Arab world Nogoom Masrya started as an Internet forum in September 2009 with domain name and focus on celebrity news. Then, it became popular during the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and launched a news portal in 2013 in the Middle East.Nogoom Masrya launched its news app on App Store for iPhone and iPad users and another app on Google play for Android users in April 2018.Nogoom Masrya applied new internet technologies like for example: AMP (Accelerated mobile pages), using HTTPS internet protocol and web push notifications. Nogoom Masrya was one of the early sites that adopted these technologies, and this helped in having fast loading pages for users.

Richard Gingras

Richard Gingras is an American Internet executive and entrepreneur, who has focussed on emerging digital media since 1979, including efforts at Google, Apple Computer, Salon Media Group and the Public Broadcasting Service. He has been an outspoken proponent for journalistic innovation on the Internet.

Trust Project

The Trust Project is a complex international consortium involving approximately 120 news organizations including the The Economist, The Globe and Mail, the Independent Journal Review, Mic, Italy’s La Repubblica, and La Stampa working towards greater transparency and accountability in the global news industry. The Project was started in 2015 by Sally Lehrman, a journalist and director of Santa Clara University's journalism ethics program at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics and launched in November 2017. Richard Gingras, head of Google News is a co-founder. The Project is funded by Craigslist founder Craig Newmark’s Philanthropic Fund, Google, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the Democracy Fund, and the Markkula Foundation.

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