The Accademia della Crusca [akkaˈdɛːmja della ˈkruska] ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence. It is the most important research institution on the Italian language as well as the oldest linguistic academy in the world.
The Accademia was founded in Florence in 1583. It has been characterized by its efforts to maintain the purity of the Italian language. Crusca means "bran" in Italian, which conveys the metaphor that its work is similar to winnowing as it is well explained by the emblem of the Accademia della Crusca that depicts a sifter that is straining out corrupt words and structures (as wheat is separated from bran). The academy motto is "Il più bel fior ne coglie" ('She gathers the fairest flower'), a famous verse of the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca. In 1612, the Accademia published the first edition of its Dictionary, the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, which also served as the model for similar works in French, Spanish, German and English.
The academy is a member of the European Federation of National Linguistic Institutes.
|Accademia della Crusca|
The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the world.
|Motto||Il più bel fior ne coglie|
(She gathers its fairest flower)
The founders were originally called the brigata dei Crusconi and constituted a circle composed of poets, men of letters, and lawyers. The members usually assembled on pleasant and convivial occasions, during which cruscate — discourses in a merry and playful style, which have neither a beginning nor an end — were recited. The Crusconi used humour, satire, and irony to distance itself from the pedantry of the Accademia Fiorentina, protected by Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, and to contrast itself with the severe and classic style of that body. This battle was fought without compromising the primary intention of the group, which was typically literary, and expounded in high quality literary disputes.
The founders of the Accademia della Crusca are traditionally identified as Giovanni Battista Deti (‘Sollo’), Antonio Francesco Grazzini (‘Lasca’), Bernardo Canigiani (‘Gramolato’), Bernardo Zanchini (‘Macerato’), Bastiano de’ Rossi (‘Inferigno’); they were joined in October 1582 by Lionardo Salviati ('Infarinato') (1540–1589). Under his leadership, at the beginning of 1583, the Accademia took on a new form, directing itself to demonstrate and to conserve the beauty of the Florentine vulgar tongue, modelled upon the authors of the Trecento.
One of the earliest scholars to influence the work of the Crusca was Agnolo Monosini. He contributed greatly to the 1612 edition of Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, especially with regard to the influence of Greek, which, he maintained, made a significant contribution to the Fiorentine idiom of the period.
The Accademia thus abandoned the jocular character of its earlier meetings in order to take up the normative role it would assume from then on. The very title of the Accademia came to be interpreted in a new way: the academicians of the Crusca would now work to distinguish the good and pure part of the language (the farina, or whole wheat) from the bad and impure part (the crusca, or bran). From this is derived the symbolism of the Crusca: its logo shows a frullone or sifter  with the Petrarchan motto Il più bel fior ne coglie (She gathers the fairest flower). The members of the Accademia were given nicknames associated with corn and flour, and seats in the form of breadbaskets with backs in the shape of bread shovel were used for their meetings.
The linguistic purism of the Accademia found opposition in Cesare Beccaria and the Verri brothers (Pietro and Alessandro), who through their journal Il Caffè systematically attacked the Accademia's archaisms as pedantic, denouncing the Accademia while invoking for contrast no less than the likes of Galileo and Newton and even modern intellectual cosmopolitanism itself. However, since Galileo published his scientific works in his native Florentine Italian, as opposed to the Latin which was customary for academic works of the time, it has also been argued that he implicitly supported the Accademia's purpose.
The Accademia's activities carried on with both high- and low- points until 1783, when Pietro Leopoldo quit and, with several other academicians, created the second Accademia Fiorentina. In 1808, however, the third Accademia Fiorentina was founded and, by a decree of 19 January 1811, signed by Napoleon, the Crusca was re-established with its own status of autonomy, statutes and previous aims.
In the 20th century, the decree of 11 March 1923 changed its composition and its purpose. The compilation of the Vocabolario, hitherto the duty of the Crusca, was removed from it and passed to a private society of scholars; the Crusca was entrusted with the compilation of philological texts. In 1955, however, Bruno Migliorini and others began discussion of the return of the work of preparing the Vocabolario to the Crusca.
In 2007, the website E-leo compiling 3,000 drawings and writings of Leonardo da Vinci was launched, with the linguistic help of the Accademia della Crusca to decipher some of the inventor's scribblings.
In August 2011, the existence of the Accademia was threatened when Giulio Tremonti and Silvio Berlusconi introduced a proposition to eradicate all public-funded entities with less than 70 members. In August 2015, the Accademia's website was defaced by a hacker linked to ISIS.
In February 2016, the Accademia approved the submission of an 8-year old for a new Italian word, Petaloso (full of petals).
Accademia Fiorentina or Florentine Academy may refer to:
The Platonic Academy (Florence), founded in 1460 by Marsilio Ficino
The Accademia Fiorentina, founded in Florence in 1540
The Accademia Fiorentina founded in Rome in 1673 by Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici of Florence
The Accademia Fiorentina Seconda formed in 1783 by Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo, who merged the Accademia Fiorentina, the Accademia degli Apatisti and the Accademia della Crusca
The Accademia Fiorentina delle Arti del Disegno, separated from the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze by Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo in 1784
The Accademia Fiorentina Terza, founded by Napoleon in 1808, active until 1811
The Accademia Fiorentina di Papirologia e di Studi sul Mondo AnticoAgnolo Monosini
Agnolo Monosini (Pratovecchio 1568 – Florence 1626) was an Italian scholar and cleric of the 16th and 17th centuries, who played a key role in the development of the Italian language two hundred years prior to the risorgimento.He was a native of Pratovecchio and studied with the Accademia della Crusca in Florence, where he contributed to its first Vocabolario della lingua italiana, published in 1623, in particular adding an index of Greek words.Bran (disambiguation)
Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains; it may also refer to:
PlacesBran Castle, a national monument and landmark of Romanian tourism
Bran, Brașov, a commune in Brașov County, Romania; location of Bran Castle
Bran, a village in Golăiești Commune, Iași County, Romania
Castell Dinas Brân, a castle in Llangollen, Wales
Bran, Charente-Maritime, a commune in the Charente-Maritime département in France
Bran, a place in the parish of Os Ánxeles in the Galician council of Oroso.PersonsBran Mutimirović, Serbian royalty
Bran Drobnjak, founder of the Drobnjaci clan
Bran Ardchenn, king of Leinster
Bran Becc mac Murchado, king of Leinster
Bran Ferren, American designer and inventor
Guto Nyth Brân, legendary Welsh athleteCharactersBrân the Blessed, a character in Welsh mythology
Bran Mak Morn, the last King of the Picts in Robert E. Howard's fiction
Bran mac Febail, the protagonist of Immram Brain (The Voyage of Bran), a tale from Irish mythology
Bran Stark, a character from A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. MartinMusicBranle, Baroque dance (Spanish form)OtherBroadband Radio Access Network, a European Telecommunications Standards Institute project involving low-cost, high-capacity radio links
A nickname of Brandon
Accademia della Crusca, also known as "The Bran" from the Italian word cruscaBruno Migliorini
Bruno Migliorini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbruːno miʎʎoˈriːni]; 19 November 1896 – 18 June 1975) was an Italian linguist and philologist. He was the author of one of the first scientific histories of Italian language and was president of the Accademia della Crusca.Buonaccorso da Montemagno
Buonaccorso da Montemagno was the name shared by two Italian scholars from Pistoia in Tuscany. The elder Buonaccorso da Montemagno (died 1390) was a jurisconsult and ambassador who made a compilation of Pistoia's statutes in 1371. Poems are uncertainly attributed to him.
The younger, Giovane Buonaccorso da Montemagno (Pistoia 1391/93 — Florence 16 December 1429), nephew of the elder, was a Renaissance humanist. He was a judge in the Santa Croce quarter of Florence (1421) and in September of that year was appointed Maestro in the Studio fiorentino. In his poems (Rime), if they are not his uncles', he imitated Petrarch's sonnetti d'amore, setting an example for fifteenth-century Petrarchism. The younger Buonaccorso was highly esteemed for his public orations, in which Cristoforo Landino ranked him with Boccaccio, Leone Battista Alberti, and Matteo Palmieri. In July 1428 he was sent as ambassador to the Duke of Milan to establish the terms of the peace treaty in which Florence had acted as the ally of Venice.
Buonaccorso's De nobilitate, an outstanding expression of the literary topos of the New Man — Homo novus — whose nobility is inherent in his own character and career, was translated into English by John Tiptoft, created Earl of Worcester and published in 1481 by William Caxton, as Here foloweth the Argument of the declamacyon which laboureth to shewe. wherein honoure sholde reste. It was rendered in play form, still in Latin, by Sixt Birck and published at Augsburg in 1538.
The language of the Orazioni and the Rime were cited in Antonio Francesco Grazzini's Vocabulario, published by the Accademia della Crusca, as exemplars of the purest Italian verse and prose.Carlo Maria Maggi
Carlo Maria Maggi (Milan, 1630 – Milan, 1699) was an Italian scholar, writer and poet. Despite being an Accademia della Crusca affiliate, he gained his fame as an author of "dialectal" works (poems and plays) in Milanese language, for which he is considered the father of Milanese literature. Maggi's work was a major inspiration source for later Milanese scholars such as Carlo Porta and Giuseppe Parini.
His prominent works belong to the commedia dell'arte theatrical genre. Some of Maggi's most famous plays in Milanese are Il manco male (1695), Il Barone di Birbanza (1696), I consigli di Meneghino (1697), Il falso filosofo (1698), and Concorso de' Meneghini (1699). This last work may be considered as a sort of manifesto of dialectal poetry, as it explicitly celebrates the virtues of the Milanese language: che apposta la pär fä / par dì la veritä ("which seems as if it was specifically designed to tell the truth"). This equation between the Milanese language (and people) and sincerity is clearly embodied in the commedia character of Meneghino, which is supposedly Maggi's creation, and was later developed by other authors (most notably Carlo Porta) to eventually become a prominent symbol of Milan and the Milanese for antonomasia. Another recurring theme of Milanese literature first established by Maggi's works is the celebration of the verzee (Milan's vegetable market) as the place where the spirit of the city was most genuinely expressed.Carlo Roberto Dati
Carlo Roberto Dati (1619–1676) was a Florentine nobleman, a disciple of Galileo (1564-1642) and, in his youth, an acquaintance of Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647).
He befriended Lorenzo Magalotti (1637-1712) and Francesco Redi (1626-1697). Redi dedicated his Esperienze intorno alla generazione degl'insetti [Experiments on the generation of insects] (Florence, 1668) to Dati. A founder of the Accademia del Cimento, Dati participated assiduously in its meetings. As Secretary of the Accademia della Crusca, he initiated the third edition of the Vocabolario (1691) and wrote the Discorso dell'obbligo di ben parlare la propria lingua (1657), in which he staunchly claimed the supremacy of Florentine Italian.
He authored many scientific works, including the Lettera ai Filaleti della vera storia della cicloide e della famosissima esperienza dell'argento vivo [Letter to the Filaleti regarding the true story of the cycloid and the well-known sterling silver experience] (Florence, 1663), written under the pseudonym of Timauro Antiate. In it, he claimed the Tuscan - and thus Medicean - priority in the correct interpretation of Torricelli's 1644 experiment, which had sparked a lively discussion all over Europe. He also published many historical, political, and literary works, including the fascinating Vite de' pittori antichi [Lives of the old painters] (1667), dedicated to Louis XIV (1638-1715).Crostata
A crostata is an Italian baked tart or pie, also known as coppi in Naples and sfogliate in Lombardy. The earliest known use of crostata in its modern sense can be traced to the cookbooks Libro de Arte Coquinaria (Book of the Art of Cooking) by Martino da Como, published circa 1465, and Cuoco napolitano (Neapolitan Cook), published in the late 15th century containing a recipe (number 94) titled Crostata de Caso, Pane, etc..A crostata is a "rustic free-form version of an open fruit tart" that may also be baked in a pie plate.Historically, it also referred to an "open-faced sandwich or canapé" because of its crusted appearance, or a chewet, a type of meat pie.Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri
Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri (16 January 1676 - 1742) was a Florentine diplomat, painter, art collector, and biographer of artists.
He was a prominent broker for artists and collectors in Florence during the first half of the 18th century. He befriended Pierre-Jean Mariette He painted various works in Rome, including the dome of Santa Rita da Cascia alle Vergini. and Pierre Crozat. His collection of drawings and prints was bought by William Kent in 1758, and sold in London.He served as a diplomat to Granduke Cosimo Medici III. He was named a knight of the order of San Stefano, and prince of the Accademia della Crusca and prefect of the Florentine Accademia delle arti del disegno starting in 1730. In Florence, he resided and presided over the decoration of the Palazzo Vivarelli Colonna.
He wrote an unpublished Vite de' pittori relating mainly biographical details of Florentine artists.Fruitbearing Society
The Fruitbearing Society (German Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft, lat. societas fructifera) was a German literary society founded in 1617 in Weimar by German scholars and nobility. Its aim was to standardize vernacular German and promote it as both a scholarly and literary language, after the pattern of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence and similar groups already thriving in Italy, followed in later years also in France (1635) and Britain.
It was also known as the Palmenorden ("Palm Order") because its emblem was the then-exotic fruitbearing coconut palm. Caspar von Teutleben (1576–1629), Hofmarschall at the court in Weimar, was the founding father of the society. As a young man he had travelled Italy and got inspired by the Italian language academies. During the funeral celebrations of Duchess Dorothea Maria in August 1617 which were attended by several princes he took the opportunity to propose the founding of a society following the example of the Italian Accademia della Crusca. Particularly Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen who already had joined the Accademia della Crusca in 1600 took hold of the idea and became the first president of the Palm Order.The society counted a king, 153 Germanic princes, and over 60 barons, nobles, and distinguished scholars among its members. It disbanded in 1668.
The first book about the Palm Order, Der Teutsche Palmbaum, was written by Carl Gustav von Hille and published in Nuremberg in 1647.Gianfranco Contini
Gianfranco Contini (1912 – 1990) was an Italian academic and philologist.
He studied at the Collegio Mellerio Rosmini in Domodossola, then at the University of Pavia, where he graduated in 1933. Later, he studied also in Turin, where he met Giulio Einaudi, Massimo Mila, and Leone Ginzburg, who shortly after started the Einaudi's publishing company. From 1934 to 1936, he lived in Paris, following Joseph Bédier's lessons, then he was called to teach in Florence and Pisa, where he became a contributor to "Letteratura", a literary magazine where he shared his views, among others, with Eugenio Montale, and where he began to collaborate with the Accademia della Crusca. In 1938, he was called to teach Romance Philology at the University of Freiburg, as a successor of Bruno Migliorini. Among his students, there have been the critics D'Arco Silvio Avalle and Dante Isella. After 20 years of brilliant academic activity, he was appointed at the University of Florence, and to the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. He was also associated to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
He directed the Centre of Philology Studies of the Accademia della Crusca, until March 1971. He belonged to the Accademia dei Lincei, and was President of the Società Dantesca Italiana. In 1987, he went back to his home-town where he died three years later.Giovanni Battista Doni
Giovanni Battista Doni (bap. 13 March 1595 – 1647) was an Italian musicologist and humanist who made an extensive study of ancient music. He is known, among other works, for having renamed the note "Ut" to "Do" (in the "Do Re Mi ..." solfège scale).
In his day, he was a well-known lawyer, classical scholar, critic and musical theorist, and from 1640 to 1647 he occupied the Chair of Eloquence at the University of Florence and was a prominent member of the city's Accademia della Crusca, one of the early semi-scientific/academic societies that flourished in Italy at the time. They had published the first Italian-language dictionary in 1612.Italian grammar
Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language. Italian words can be divided into the following lexical categories: articles, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.Linguistic purism
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties. Linguistic purism was institutionalized through language academies (of which the 1572 Accademia della Crusca set a model example in Europe), and their decisions often have the force of law. Purism is a form of linguistic prescriptivism.The perceived or actual decline identified by the purists may take the form of change of vocabulary, syncretism of grammatical elements, or loanwords. The unwanted similarity is often with a neighboring language whose speakers are culturally or politically dominant. The abstract ideal may invoke logic, clarity, or the grammar of "classic" languages. It is often presented as conservative, as a "protection" of a language from the "aggression" of other languages or of "conservation" of the national Volksgeist, but is often innovative in defining a new standard. It is sometimes part of governmental language policy which is enforced in various ways.Lionardo Salviati
Lionardo Salviati (1539-1589) was a leading Italian philologist of the sixteenth century. He came from an illustrious Florentine family closely linked with the Medici. Salviati became consul of the Florentine Academy in 1566, and played a key role in the founding of the Accademia della Crusca, with its project of creating a dictionary, which was completed after his death.Salviati immersed himself in philological and linguistic research from a young age and produced a number of works. Some of these were published during his lifetime, such as the Oration in Praise of Florentine Speech (1564) and Remarks on the Language of the Decameron (2 vols, 1584-1586). Salviati also published two comedies, The Crab (1566) and The Thorn (1592), lessons, treatises, and editions of texts by other authors. He also wrote numerous polemical pamphlets against Torquato Tasso under different pseudonyms, mostly using the nickname he adopted on joining the Accademia della Crusca, 'Infarinato' ('covered in flour'). Other works remained unpublished and exist only in manuscript form, such as his grammar Rules of Tuscan Speech (1576-1577), a translation and commentary on Aristotle's Poetics (preserved at the National Library of Florence), a collection of Tuscan proverbs (preserved at the Biblioteca Comunale Ariostea in Ferrara) and linguistic corrections to Il Pastor Fido by Giovanni Battista Guarini (1586).Salviati was recognized by his contemporaries as a master of oratory and many of his speeches were published both as one-off pamphlets and in a larger anthology: The first book of the Speeches of Cavalier Lionardo Salviati (Florence 1575). Particularly noteworthy are his speeches delivered at important events, in particular at the funerals of Benedetto Varchi, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Piero Vettori and the Grand Duke Cosimo de 'Medici.Luca Serianni
Luca Serianni (Italian pronunciation: [ˈluːka seˈrjanni]) (born 30 October 1947) is an Italian linguist and philologist.Nicoletta Maraschio
Nicoletta Maraschio is an academic teacher of "History of Italian Language" at University of Florence. She has been the first women in charge of Accademia della Crusca, from 2008 to 2014, succeeded to Francesco Sabatini.Vincenzo Antinori
Vincenzo Antinori (1792–1865) was a science administrator in Italy.
From 1829 to 1859, Antinori was director of the Regal Museum of Physics and Natural History in Florence where he worked with Leopoldo Nobili on electromagnetic induction. He had originally attracted Nobili to Florence to teach physics, as he had Giovanni Battista Amici to teach astronomy.
He was one of the promoters of the Congress of Italian Scientists in Pisa in 1839 and in Florence in 1841 and was responsible for bringing permanence, order and security to the Italian legacy of meteorological data by founding the Italian Meteorological Archive.
Antinori was a member of the Accademia della Crusca and wrote many entries for the Crusca dictionary on scientific topics. He had a particular interest in preserving and interpreting documents and artefacts from the work of Galileo Galilei and his followers.
Bibliografía: "Antonio Meucci e la città di Firenze. Tra scienza, tecnica e ingegneria". Editado por Angotti, Franco, Giuseppe PelosiVocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca
The Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca was the first dictionary of the Italian language, published in 1612 by the Accademia della Crusca. It was also only the second dictionary of a modern European language, being just one year later than the Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española by Sebastián de Covarrubias in Spain in 1611.