Acaxee

Acaxee was a tribe or group of tribes in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sinaloa and NW Durango. They spoke a Tarachatitian language in the Southern Uto-Aztecan language family. Their culture was based on horticulture and the exploitation of wild animal and plant life. They are now extinct as an identifiable ethnic group.[1]

Acaxee
Sinaloa prehispánica
The distribution of Indian groups in pre-Hispanic Sinaloa
Total population
Extinct
Regions with significant populations
Mexico (Sinaloa and Durango)
Languages
Acaxee Language and Spanish
Religion
Acaxee Mythology and Animism
Related ethnic groups
Xiximec, Achires, Tarahumara, Tepehuanes, and Cahita

History

In December 1601, the Acaxees, under the direction of an elder named Perico, began an uprising against Spanish rule. This revolt was called the Acaxee Rebellion. They are said to have been converted to the Catholic faith by the society of Jesuits in 1602. Early accounts by Jesuit missionaries allege continual warfare and cannibalism among the Tepehuan, Acaxee, and Xixime who inhabited Nueva Vizcaya.[2] Ethnographer Ralph Beals reported in the early 1930s that the Acaxee tribe from western Mexico played a ball game called "vatey [or] batey" on "a small plaza, very flat, with walls at the sides".[3]

Subdivisions

  • Acaxee (proper)
  • Sabaibo
  • Tebaca
  • Papudo
  • Tecaya

Notes

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2011-02-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), accessed 1 Feb 2011
  2. ^ Jose Gabriel Martinez-Serna (2009). Vineyards in the Desert: The Jesuits and the Rise and Decline of an Indian Town in New Spain's Northeastern Borderlands. Southern Methodist University. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-109-16040-6. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  3. ^ Kelley, J. Charles. "The Known Archaeological Ballcourts of Durange and Zacatecas, Mexico" in Vernon Scarborough, David R. Wilcox (Eds.): The Mesoamerican Ballgame. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1360-0, 1991, p. 98. Kelley quotes Beals: Beals, Ralph J. The Acaxe, A Mountain Tribe of Durango and Sinaloa (Iberoamerican 6) University of California Press, Berkeley: 1933.

References

  • Beals, Ralph L. 1933. The Acaxee: a Mountain Tribe of Durango and Sinaloa.

Further reading

  • Deeds, Susan. Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. (2003) University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. ISBN 0-292-70551-4
Acaxee Rebellion

The Acaxee Rebellion was an insurrection against Spanish rule in Mexico by Acaxee Indians in 1601.

Aridoamerica

Aridoamerica denotes an ecological region spanning Mexico and the Southwest United States, defined by the presence of the culturally significant staple foodstuff Phaseolus acutifolius, a drought-resistant bean. Its dry, arid climate and geography stand in contrast to the verdant Mesoamerica of present-day central Mexico into Central America to the south and east, and the higher, milder "island" of Oasisamerica to the north. Aridoamerica overlaps with both.Because of the relatively hard conditions, the pre-Columbian people in this region developed distinct cultures and subsistence farming patterns. The region has only 120 mm (4.7 in) to 160 mm (6.3 in) of annual precipitation. The sparse rainfall feeds seasonal creeks and waterholes.The term was introduced by Gary Paul Nabhan in 1985, building on prior work by anthropologists A.L. Kroeber and Paul Kirchhoff to identify a "true cultural entity" for the desert region.

Batey (game)

Batéy was the name given to a special plaza around which the Caribbean Taino built their settlements. It was usually a rectangular area surrounded by stones with carved symbols (petroglyphs).

The batey was the area in which batey events (e.g. ceremonies, the ball game, etc.) took place. The batey ceremony (also known as batu) can be viewed from some historical accounts as more of a judicial contest rather than a game. Because historical accounts of the game and court space come from (mostly Spanish) European explorers, the true nature, history, and function of the batey is still contested. Neighboring tribes may have used batey matches to resolve differences without warfare.

Canatlán Municipality

Canatlán is one of the 39 municipalities of Durango, in northwestern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Ciudad Canatlán. The municipality covers an area of 4686.1 km².

As of 2015, the municipality had a total population of 32,852.As of 2010, the city of Canatlán had a population of 11,495. Other than the city of Canatlán, the municipality had 327 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: José Guadalupe Aguilera (Santa Lucía) (1,719), Ricardo Flores Magó (1,467), Veny Carranza (Ocotán) (1,259), San José de Gracia (1,256), and Nicolás Bravo (1,253), classified as Monarch.

Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics. Anthropologists have named various cultural regions, with fluid boundaries, that are generally agreed upon with some variation. These cultural regions are broadly based upon the locations of indigenous peoples of the Americas from early European and African contact beginning in the late 15th century. When indigenous peoples have been forcibly removed by nation-states, they retain their original geographic classification. Some groups span multiple cultural regions.

La Ferrería

La Ferrería is an archaeological site located 7 kilometers south of the City of Durango, in the state of Durango, México, at the “Cerro de La Ferrería”, on the side of the Tunal River.In the surrounding region mainly are Mesquite and Aloe, the fauna comprises hares, rabbits, foxes, coyotes, squirrel and lizards.The first inhabitants of this region were Nahua, nomads from the North of the continent, two thousand years ago. During the postclassical period the city was occupied by Zacatecas people and their contemporaries tepehuanos, from the southeast of the Guadiana Valley up to “Nombre de Dios”.La Ferrería was first inhabited by a group that basically subsisted from farming corn, beans and squash, and were hunter-gatherers to complete their diet; because of its proximity to the Tunal river, it is assumed that hunting and fishing were common activities. It has been detected that the site was occupied several times between 875 and 1450 CE.The site includes archaeological finds such as: circular ritual spaces, bird bones and stone rings, that provide indications of ties with cultures of the American southwest and especially with Paquimé, which could hypothetically mean or suggest a fusion between late northern Mesoamerican cultures and the American southwest.

List of conflicts in Mexico

This is a list of conflicts in Mexico. Conflicts are arranged chronologically from the Pre-Columbian era (specifically: the classic and postclassic periods of Mesoamerica) to the postcolonial period of Mesoamerica. This list includes (but is not limited to) the following: Indian wars, skirmishes, wars of independence, liberation wars, colonial wars, undeclared wars, proxy wars, territorial disputes, and world wars. Also listed might be any battle that was itself only part of an operation of a campaign of a theater of a war. There may also be periods of violent civil unrest listed, such as: riots, shootouts, spree killings, massacres, terrorist attacks, and civil wars. The list might also contain episodes of: human sacrifice, mass suicide, genocides, and other related items that have occurred within the geographical area (including overseas territories) of what is today known as, the "Estados Unidos Mexicanos".

List of extinct Uto-Aztecan languages

A large number of languages known only from brief mentions are thought to have been Uto-Aztecan languages, but became extinct without being documented. The following list is based on Campbell (1997:133–135).

San Nicolás (Nicoleño): spoken in California, thought to be a Takic language.

Giamina/Omomil: Kroeber (1907) and Lamb (1964) believe Giamina may constitute a separate branch of Northern Uto-Aztecan, although Miller (1983) is uncertain about this. It was spoken in Southern California.

Vanyume: a Takic language of California

Acaxee (Aiage): closely related to Tahue, a Cahitan language, linked with Tebaca and Sabaibo.

Amotomanco (Otomoaco): uncertain classification, possibly Uto-Aztecan. (See Troike (1988) for more details.)

Cazcan (Caxcan): sometimes considered to be the same as Zacateca, although Miller (1983) would only consider these to be geographical classifications.

Baciroa: closely connected to Tepahue

Basopa

Batuc: possibly an Opata dialect

Cahuimeto

Cahuameto: probably belongs with Oguera and Nio

Chínipa: may be a Tarahumaran language close to Ocoroni, since colonial sources claim the two are mutually intelligible. It may also instead be a local name for a variety of Guarijío.

Coca: spoken near Lake Chapala.

Colotlan: a Pimic language closely related to Tepehuan, or Teul and Tepecano

Comanito: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue

Concho: probably a Taracahitic language (Troike 1988). Subdivisions include Chinarra and Chizo; Toboso is possibly related to Concho as well.

Conicari: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue

Guachichil: possibly a variant or close relative of Huichol

Guasave: possibly a Taracahitic language, or may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy (Miller 1983). Dialects include Compopori, Ahome, Vacoregue, and Achire.

Guazapar (Guasapar): probably a Tarahumara dialect, or it may be more closely related to Guarijío and Chínipa. Guazapar, Jova, Pachera, and Juhine may possibly all be dialects of Tarahumara.

Guisca (Coisa)

Hio: possibly a Taracahitic language

Huite: closely related to Ocoroni, and may be Taracahitic

Irritila: a Lagunero band

Jova (Jobal, Ova): most often linked with Opata, although some scholars classify it as a Tarahumara dialect. Miller (1983) considers it to be "probably Taracahitan."

Jumano; also Humano, Jumana, Xumana, Chouman (from a French source), Zumana, Zuma, Suma, and Yuma. Suma is probably the same language, while Jumano is possibly Uto-Aztecan.

Lagunero: may be the same as Irritila, and may also be closely related to Zacateco or Huichol.

Macoyahui: probably related to Cahita.

Mocorito: a Tahue language, which is Taracahitic.

Naarinuquia (Themurete?): Uto-Aztecan affiliation is likely, although it may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy.

Nacosura: an Opata dialect

Nio: completely undocumented, although it is perhaps related to Ocoroni.

Ocoroni: most likely a Taracahitic language, and is reported to be mutually intelligible with Chínipa, and similar to Opata. Related languages may include Huite and Nio.

Oguera (Ohuera)

Patarabuey: unknown affiliation (Purépecha region near Lake Chapala), and is possibly a Nahuatl dialect.

Tahue: may also include Comanito, Mocorito, Tubar, and Zoe. It is possibly a Taracahitic language, and is definitely not Nahuan.

Tanpachoa: unknown affiliation, and was once spoken along the Río Grande.

Tecuexe: speakers were possibly part of a "Mexicano" (Nahua) colony.

Teco-Tecoxquin: an Aztecan language

Tecual: closely related to Huichol. According to Sauer (1934:14), the "Xamaca, by another name called Hueitzolme [Huichol], all ... speak the Thequalme language, though they differ in vowels."

Témori: may be a Tarahumara dialect.

Tepahue: possibly a Taracahitic language. Closely related languages or dialects include Macoyahui, Conicari, and Baciroa.

Tepanec: an Aztecan language.

Teul (Teul-Chichimeca): a Pimic language, possibly of the Tepecano subgroup.

Toboso: grouped with Concho.

Topia: perhaps the same as Xixime (Jijime).

Topiame: possibly a Taracahitic language.

Totorame: grouped with Cora.

Xixime (Jijime): possibly a Taracahitic language. Subdivisions are Hine and Hume. Its links with Acaxee are uncertain.

Zacateco: often considered the same as Acaxee, although this is uncertain. It is possibly related to Huichol, although Miller (1983) leaves it as unclassified.

Zoe: possibly a Taracahitic language, with Baimena as a subdivision. It is possibly affiliated with Comanito.

List of indigenous peoples of Mexico and Central America

This is a list of known Native American peoples throughout the modern nations of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica & Panama which existed during the colonial era. The various tribal entities are listed. The alphabetical section includes all known names of the tribes. Tribes that formed after 1900 are not included, nor are nations with a nexus only in the United States or South America. Due to the history, a special section will be dedicated to extinct cultures, as well.

This list does not include sub-tribes or tribal districts.

List of revolutions and rebellions

This is a list of revolutions and rebellions.

List of unclassified languages of North America

A number of languages of North America are too poorly attested to classify. These include Adai, Beothuk, Calusa, Cayuse, Karankawa, Solano.

There are other languages which are scarcely attested at all.

List of wars involving Spain

This is a list of wars fought by the Kingdom of Spain or on Spanish territory.

Mexican Indian Wars

The Mexican Indian Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Spanish, and later Mexican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Salvadoran and Belizean forces against Amerindians in what is now called Mexico and surrounding areas such as Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Southern/Western United States. The period begins with Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1519 and continued until the end of the Caste War of Yucatán in 1933.

Millenarianism

Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin mīllēnārius "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming fundamental transformation of society, after which "all things will be changed". Millenarianism exists in various cultures and religions worldwide, with various interpretations of what constitutes a transformation.These movements believe in radical changes to society after a major cataclysm or transformative event and are not necessarily linked to millennialist movements in Christianity and Zorastrianism.

Millenarianist movements can be secular (not espousing a particular religion) or religious in nature.

Salinero Apaches

The Salinero Apaches were an Apache group closely associated with the Mescalero Apaches who lived in the area of what is now western Texas, eastern New Mexico and northern Chihuahua in the 18th century.The name Salinero,"salt producer", was frequently used by the Spanish to refer to various unrelated Indian groups of northern Mexico (present Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Chihuahua) and Texas, that exploited local sources of salt.

The main base of the Salinero Apaches was along the Pecos River in Texas, and their range extended northward along this river into southeastern New Mexico. Sometimes these Salinero Indians were equated with the Natages (Nadahéndé - ″Mescal People″), a powerful band of the Mescalero Apache which ranged between the Pecos River and Rio Grande. It is clear therefore that the Salineros were Apache Indians and that they were among the groups that eventually became known as Mescalero Apache. The Pecos River was therefore called by the Spanish Rio Salado or also Rio del Natagee after the Salinero Apache or Natages.

The term is often used for other unrelated groups who lived in what is today Tamaulipas.

In the early 17th century, some of the Salinero people of northern Mexico allied with the Acaxee in their war with the Spanish.

Sinaloa

Sinaloa (Spanish pronunciation: [sinaˈloa] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and Durango to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit to the south. To the west, Sinaloa faces Baja California Sur across the Gulf of California.

The state covers an area of 58,328 square kilometers (22,521 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio.

In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include Mazatlán and Los Mochis.

Tepehuán

The Tepehuán are an indigenous people of Mexico. They live in Northwestern, Western, and some parts of North-Central Mexico. The indigenous Tepehuán language has three branches: Northern Tepehuan, Southeastern Tepehuan, Southwestern Tepehuan. The heart of the Tepehuan territory is in the Valley of Guadiana in Durango, but they eventually expanded into southern Chihuahua, eastern Sinaloa, and northern Jalisco, Nayarit, and Zacatecas. By the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, Tepehuan lands spanned a large territory along the Sierra Madre Occidental. Tepehuán groups are divided into the Ódami (Northern Tepehuán), Audam (Southwestern Tepehuán), and O'dam (Southeastern Tepehuán), each with their own language, culture, and beliefs.

Tepehuán Revolt

The Tepehuán Revolt broke out in Mexico in 1616. The Tepehuán Indians attempted to break free from Spanish rule. The revolt was crushed by 1620 after a large loss of life on both sides.

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