Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS (often pronounced as am-pas), also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches.

The roster of the Academy's approximately 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret".[2] While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world.

The Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards, now officially and popularly known as "The Oscars".[3]

In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; presents Scientific and Technical Awards annually; gives Student Academy Awards annually to filmmakers at the undergraduate and graduate level; awards up to five Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting annually; and operates the Margaret Herrick Library (at the Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study) in Beverly Hills, California, and the Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, Los Angeles. The Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019.[4][5]

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences logo
AbbreviationAMPAS
FormationMay 11, 1927
TypeFilm organization
HeadquartersBeverly Hills, California, U.S.
Membership
6,687 (2017)[1]
President
John Bailey (since 2017)
Websitewww.oscars.org

History

AMPAS
Headquarters building

The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). He said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions[6] and improve the industry's image. He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, and the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time. They also established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, directors, writers, technicians, and producers.[7]

After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927.[8] That evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy.[7] Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".[9][10]

Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, and their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed.[9] That night, the Academy also bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison.[10] Initially, the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Actors, Directors, Writers and Technicians.[11]

The initial concerns of the group had to do with labor."[12] However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations."[13] One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony. By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented.[14] During July the voting system for the Awards was established, and the nomination and selection process began.[15] This "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is what we know now as the Academy Award.

The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard.[12][13] In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, which was also the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel. The screening room was not completed until April 1929.[12]

With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers.[13]

In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures. The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks (President of the Academy), D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, and Darryl F. Zanuck.[16]

1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff,[13] and by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence."[17] They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street.[13]

In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database. This is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library.[18] Another publication of the 1930s was the first annual Academy Players Directory in 1937. The Directory was published by the Academy until 2006, when it was sold to a private concern. The Academy had been involved in the technical aspects of film making since its founding in 1927, and by 1938, the Science and Technology Council consisted of 36 technical committees addressing technical issues related to sound recording and reproduction, projection, lighting, film preservation and cinematography.[13]

In 2009, the inaugural Governors Awards were held, at which the Academy awards the Academy Honorary Award and the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.

In 2016, the Academy became the target of criticism for its failure to recognize the achievements of minority professionals. For the second year in a row all 20 nominees in the major acting categories were white. The president of the Academy Cheryl Boone Isaacs,[19] the first African American and third woman to lead the Academy,[20] denied in 2015 that there was a problem. When asked if the Academy had difficulty with recognizing diversity, she replied "Not at all. Not at all."[21] When the nominations for acting were all white for a second year in a row Gil Robertson IV, president of the African American Film Critics Association called it "offensive." The actors' branch is "overwhelmingly white" and the question is raised whether conscious or unconscious racial biases played a role.[22]

Spike Lee, interviewed shortly after the all-white nominee list was published, pointed to Hollywood leadership as the root problem, "We may win an Oscar now and then, but an Oscar is not going to fundamentally change how Hollywood does business. I'm not talking about Hollywood stars. I'm talking about executives. We're not in the room."[23] Boone Isaacs also released a statement, in which she said "I am both heartbroken and frustrated about the lack of inclusion. This is a difficult but important conversation, and it's time for big changes."[24] After Boone Isaac's statement, prominent African-Americans such as director Spike Lee, actors Will Smith and Jada Pinkett Smith, and activist Rev. Al Sharpton called for a boycott of the 2016 Oscars for failing to recognize minority achievements, the board voted to make "historic" changes to its membership. The Academy stated that by 2020 it would double its number of women and minority members.[25]

In August 2017, John Bailey was elected President of the Academy to a four-year term.[26]

Galleries and theaters

Academy02
Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study building on La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California

The Academy's numerous and diverse operations are housed in three facilities in the Los Angeles area: the headquarters building in Beverly Hills, which was constructed specifically for the Academy, and two Centers for Motion Picture Study – one in Beverly Hills, the other in Hollywood – which were existing structures restored and transformed to contain the Academy's Library, Film Archive and other departments and programs.

Current

Academy Headquarters

The Academy Headquarters Building in Beverly Hills once housed two galleries that were open free to the public. The Grand Lobby Gallery and the Fourth Floor Gallery offered changing exhibits related to films, film-making and film personalities. These galleries have since been closed in preparation for the opening of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in 2019.

The building includes the Samuel Goldwyn Theater, which seats 1,012, and was designed to present films at maximum technical accuracy, with state-of-the-art projection equipment and sound system. The theater is busy year-round with the Academy's public programming, members-only screenings, movie premieres and other special activities (including the live television broadcast of the Academy Awards nominations announcement every January). The building once housed the Academy Little Theater, is a 67-seat screening facility, but this was converted to additional office space in a building remodel.

Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study

The Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study, located in central Hollywood and named for legendary actress and Academy founder Mary Pickford, houses several Academy departments, including the Academy Film Archive, the Science and Technology Council, Student Academy Awards and Grants, and the Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting. The building, originally dedicated on August 18, 1948, is the oldest surviving structure in Hollywood that was designed specifically with television in mind. Additionally, it is the location of the Linwood Dunn Theater, which seats 286 people.

Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study

The Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study is located at 333 S. La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills. It is home to the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library, a world-renowned, non-circulating reference and research collection devoted to the history and development of the motion picture as an art form and an industry. Established in 1928, the library is open to the public and used year-round by students, scholars, historians and industry professionals. The library is named for Margaret Herrick, the Academy's first librarian who also played a major role in the Academy's first televised broadcast, helping to turn the Oscar ceremony into a major annual televised event.[27]

The building itself was built in 1928, where it was originally built to be a water treatment plant for Beverly Hills. Its "bell tower" held water-purifying hardware.[28]

Former

Academy Theater in New York

The Academy also has a New York City-based East Coast showcase theater, the Academy Theater at Lighthouse International. The 220-seat venue was redesigned in 2011 by renowned theater designer Theo Kalomirakis, including an extensive installation of new audio and visual equipment. The theater is in the East 59th Street headquarters of the non-profit vision loss organization, Lighthouse International.[29] In July 2015, it was announced that the Academy was forced to move out, due to Lighthouse International selling the property the theater was in.[30]

Upcoming

The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures

The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures, a Los Angeles museum currently under construction, will be the newest facility associated with the Academy. It is scheduled to open in 2019 and will contain over 290,000 square feet of state-of-the-art galleries, exhibition spaces, movie theaters, educational areas, and special event spaces. The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures will be the world's premier museum devoted to exploring and curating the history and future of the moving image.[31]

Membership

Membership in the Academy is by invitation only. Invitation comes from the Board of Governors. Membership eligibility may be achieved by earning a competitive Oscar nomination, or by the sponsorship of two current Academy members from the same branch to which the candidate seeks admission.[32]

New membership proposals are considered annually in the spring. Press releases announce the names of those who have recently been invited to join. Membership in the Academy does not expire, even if a member struggles later in his or her career.[33]

Academy membership is divided into 17 branches, representing different disciplines in motion pictures. Members may not belong to more than one branch. Members whose work does not fall within one of the branches may belong to a group known as "Members at Large". Members at Large have all the privileges of branch membership except for representation on the Board. Associate members are those closely allied to the industry but not actively engaged in motion picture production. They are not represented on the Board and do not vote on Academy Awards.

According to a February 2012 study conducted by the Los Angeles Times (sampling over 5,000 of its 5,765 members), the Academy at that time was 94% white, 77% male, 86% age 50 or older, and had a median age of 62. A third of members were previous winners or nominees of Academy Awards themselves. Of the academy's 43-member board of governors, only six were female; Cheryl Boone Isaacs was the sole person of color on the board.[34]

June 29, 2016 saw a paradigm shift in the Academy's selection process, resulting in a new class comprising 46% women, and 41% people of color.[35] The effort to diversify the Academy was led by social activist, and Broadway Black managing-editor, April Reign.[36] Reign created the Twitter hashtag #OscarsSoWhite as a means of criticizing the dearth of non-white nominees for the 2015 Academy Awards. Though the hashtag drew widespread media attention, the Academy remained obstinate on the matter of adopting a resolution that would make demonstrable its efforts to increase diversity. With the 2016 Academy Awards, many, including April Reign, were dismayed by the Academy's indifference about representation and inclusion, as the 2016 nominees were once again entirely white. April Reign revived #OscarsSoWhite, and renewed her campaign efforts, including multiple media appearances and interviews with reputable news outlets. As a result of Reign's campaign, the discourse surrounding representation and recognition in film spread beyond the United States of America and became a global discussion. Faced with mounting pressure to modernize the Academy membership, the Academy capitulated and instituted all new policies to ensure that future Academy membership invitations would better represent the demographics of modern film-going audiences.[37] In 2016, the Academy invited 683 new members that were made up of nearly half women and people of color, but it was still disproportionately white and male (89% and 73%, respectively); it is committed to doubling the number of women and minorities in its group by 2020.[38]

Members are able to see many new films for free at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater and other facilities within two weeks of their debut, and sometimes before release; in addition, some of the screeners are available through iTunes to its members.[39][40]

Expulsions

Four people are known to have been expelled from the Academy. Academy officials acknowledge that other members have been expelled in the past, most for selling their Oscar tickets, but no numbers are available.

Academy branches

The 17 branches of the Academy are:

  1. Actors
  2. Casting Directors (created July 31, 2013)[46]
  3. Cinematographers
  4. Costume Designers (created from former Art Directors Branch)[47]
  5. Designers (created from former Art Directors Branch)[47]
  6. Directors
  7. Documentary
  8. Executives
  9. Film Editors
  10. Make-up Artists and Hairstylists
  11. Music
  12. Producers
  13. Public Relations
  14. Short Films and Feature Animation
  15. Sound
  16. Visual Effects
  17. Writers

Board of Governors

As of April 2014, the Board of Governors consists of 51 members (governors), consisting of three governors from each of the 17 Academy branches. The Makeup Artists and Hairstylists Branch, created in 2006, had only one governor until July 2013.[47] The Casting Directors Branch, created in 2013, elected its first three governors in Fall 2013.[46] The Board of Governors is responsible for corporate management, control and general policies. The Board of Governors also appoints a CEO and a COO to supervise the administrative activities of the Academy.

Original 36 founders of the Academy

From the original formal banquet which was hosted by Louis B. Mayer in 1927, everyone invited became a founder of the Academy:[48]

Actors
Directors
Lawyers
  • Edwin Loeb
  • George W. Cohen
Producers
Technicians
Writers

Presidents of the Academy

Presidents are elected for one-year terms and may not be elected for more than four consecutive terms.

# Name Term
1 Douglas Fairbanks 1927–1929
2 William C. DeMille 1929–1931
3 M. C. Levee 1931–1932
4 Conrad Nagel 1932–1933
5 J. Theodore Reed 1933–1934
6 Frank Lloyd 1934–1935
7 Frank Capra 1935–1939
8 Walter Wanger (1st time) 1939–1941
9 Bette Davis 1941 (resigned after two months)
10 Walter Wanger (2nd time) 1941–1945
11 Jean Hersholt 1945–1949
12 Charles Brackett 1949–1955
13 George Seaton 1955–1958
14 George Stevens 1958–1959
15 B. B. Kahane 1959–1960 (died)
16 Valentine Davies 1960–1961 (died)
17 Wendell Corey 1961–1963
18 Arthur Freed 1963–1967
19 Gregory Peck 1967–1970
20 Daniel Taradash 1970–1973
21 Walter Mirisch 1973–1977
22 Howard W. Koch 1977–1979
23 Fay Kanin 1979–1983
24 Gene Allen 1983–1985
25 Robert Wise 1985–1988
26 Richard Kahn 1988–1989
27 Karl Malden 1989–1992
28 Robert Rehme (1st time) 1992–1993
29 Arthur Hiller 1993–1997
30 Robert Rehme (2nd time) 1997–2001
31 Frank Pierson 2001–2005
32 Sid Ganis 2005–2009
33 Tom Sherak 2009–2012
34 Hawk Koch 2012–2013
35 Cheryl Boone Isaacs 2013–2017
36 John Bailey 2017–present

Source: "Academy Story". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Current administration of the Academy

Academy Officers[49]
Governors[49]

See also

References

  1. ^ "2017 Oscars: Who are the 6,687 voting members of the academy?". Goldderby.com. February 13, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  2. ^ Unmasking Oscar: Academy voters are overwhelmingly white and male John Horn, Nicole Sperling and Doug Smith, The LA Times, February 19, 2012
  3. ^ ^ Pond, Steve (February 19, 2013). "AMPAS Drops '85th Academy Awards' – Now It's Just 'The Oscars'". The Wrap. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  4. ^ "Museum". oscars.org.
  5. ^ Cieply, Michael (February 15, 2017). "Delayed Again, The Academy Movie Museum Tip-Toes Into 2019". Deadline.com.
  6. ^ It all started when the original Hollywood mogul wanted to build a beach house David Thomson, Vanity Fair, February 21, 2014
  7. ^ a b Wiley, Mason, and Damien Bona. Inside Oscar. New York: Ballantine Books, 1986 pg. 2
  8. ^ Levy, Emanuel. And The Winner Is.... New York: Ungar Publishing, 1987 pg. 1
  9. ^ a b Osborne, Robert. 60 Years of The Oscar. Abbeville Press, 1989. Page 8.
  10. ^ a b "History of the Academy: How It Began". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011.
  11. ^ Osborne, Robert. 60 Years of The Oscar. Abbeville Press, 1989. Page 9.
  12. ^ a b c Osborne, Robert. 60 Years of The Oscar. Abbeville Press, 1989. Page 10.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "History of the Academy". Oscar.org. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011.
  14. ^ Osborne, Robert. 60 Years of The Oscar. Abbeville Press, 1989. Page 15.
  15. ^ Wiley, Mason, and Damien Bona. Inside Oscar. New York: Ballantine Books, 1986 pg. 3
  16. ^ Staff. "USC School of Cinematic Arts: History". cinema.usc.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  17. ^ Osborne, Robert. 60 Years of The Oscar. Abbeville Press, 1989. Page 12.
  18. ^ "Motion Picture Credits Database". Oscars.org.
  19. ^ a b "board of governors". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. February 1, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  20. ^ "Cheryl Boone Isaacs elected first African-American head of Oscars". Goldderby.com. July 31, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  21. ^ Academy Awards President Cheryl Boone Isaacs Responds After ‘Oscars So White’ Snubs On Twitter Tyler McCarthy, international Business Times, January 17, 2015
  22. ^ Oscar nominations uproar raises the question: Did racial bias, conscious or not, come into play? The LA Times, January 23, 2016
  23. ^ Another Oscar Year, Another All-White Ballot Cara B Buckley, The New York Times, January 15, 2016
  24. ^ Boone, Cheryl; Isaacs (January 18, 2016). "STATEMENT FROM ACADEMY PRESIDENT CHERYL BOONE ISAACS". Oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  25. ^ Academy Promises 'Historic' Changes to Diversify Membership Daniel Kreps, RollingStone, Jan 23, 2016
  26. ^ Tapley, Kristopher (2017-08-08). "John Bailey Elected President of the Motion Picture Academy". Variety. Retrieved 2017-08-09.
  27. ^ "About the Library". Oscars.org. AMPAS. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  28. ^ "The Beverly Hills Waterworks Building, now known as the Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  29. ^ Lester, Ahren. "HARMAN's JBL loudspeakers installed at New York's Academy Theater". Audio Pro International. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  30. ^ Feinberg, Scott (July 10, 2015). "Academy Forced Out of Longtime Theater Venue in New York". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  31. ^ The Academy Museum. Oscars.org. Retrieved on May 22, 2014.
  32. ^ "Academy Membership". February 27, 2017.
  33. ^ "Oscar voters aren't always who you might think". Los Angeles Times. February 19, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  34. ^ "Oscar voters overwhelmingly white, male". Los Angeles Times. February 19, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
  35. ^ "Academy's diverse new class includes Idris Elba, America Ferrera". June 29, 2016.
  36. ^ "Meet April Reign, the Activist Who Created OscarsSoWhite". February 27, 2016.
  37. ^ "Updates on the film academy's 2016 class: An exclusive club gets much bigger after OscarsSoWhite". L.A. Times. June 29, 2016.
  38. ^ "The movies story of 2016: The film academy and diversity". L.A. Times. December 7, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  39. ^ Hammond, Pete (March 26, 2012). "Oscar Voters Last To See 'Hunger Games'?". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  40. ^ "Academy members get screeners through iTunes".
  41. ^ "The Godfather Actor Carmine Caridi Says He Was Thrown Out of the Academy for Sharing VHS Screeners". PEOPLE.com. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  42. ^ "An Actor's Personal Tale: I Was Thrown Out of the Academy for Sharing VHS Screeners". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  43. ^ Barnes, Brooks (2017-10-14). "Harvey Weinstein Ousted From Motion Picture Academy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  44. ^ Lartey, Jamiles; London, Edward Helmore David Batty in (2017-10-14). "Harvey Weinstein expelled from Academy over sexual assault allegations". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  45. ^ https://www.thewrap.com/academy-expels-bill-cosby-roman-polanski/
  46. ^ a b "The Academy Creates Branch For Casting Directors". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. July 31, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  47. ^ a b c "Oscars shockeroo: Alex Gibney beats incumbent Michael Moore for board seat". Goldderby.com. July 15, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  48. ^ "History of the Academy: Original 36 founders of the Academy Actors". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences website. 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  49. ^ a b "Board of Governors".

External links

91st Academy Awards

The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), will honor the best films of 2018 and will take place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony will be held on February 24, 2019. During the ceremony, AMPAS will present Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony will be televised in the United States by American Broadcasting Company (ABC), produced by Donna Gigliotti and Glenn Weiss, with Weiss also serving as director.

Academy Award for Best Actor

The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actress winner.

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Emil Jannings receiving the award for his roles in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.In the first three years of the awards, actors were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots. The following year, this system was replaced by the current system in which an actor is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year.Since its inception, the award has been given to 80 actors. Daniel Day-Lewis has received the most awards in this category with three Oscars. Spencer Tracy and Laurence Olivier were nominated on nine occasions, more than any other actor. As of the 2018 ceremony, Gary Oldman is the most recent winner in this category for portraying former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour.

Academy Award for Best Actress

The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actor winner.

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. In the first three years of the awards, actresses were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots.The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year. One actress has been nominated posthumously, Jeanne Eagels. Only three film characters have been nominated more than once in this category: Elizabeth I of England (twice by Cate Blanchett), Leslie Crosbie in The Letter, and Esther Blodgett in A Star Is Born. Seven women on the list have received an Honorary Academy Award for their acting; they are Greta Garbo, Barbara Stanwyck, Mary Pickford, Deborah Kerr, Gena Rowlands, Cicely Tyson and Sophia Loren.Since its inception, the award has been given to 75 actresses. Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars. Meryl Streep, who has a total of 21 Oscar nominations (three wins), has been nominated in this category on 17 occasions, resulting in two awards. As of the 2018 ceremony, Frances McDormand is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Mildred Hayes in Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri.

Academy Award for Best Animated Feature

The Academy Awards are given each year by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS or the Academy) for the best films and achievements of the previous year. The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature is given each year for animated films. An animated feature is defined by the Academy as a film with a running time of more than 40 minutes in which characters' performances are created using a frame-by-frame technique, a significant number of the major characters are animated, and animation figures in no less than 75 percent of the running time. The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature was first awarded in 2002 for films made in 2001.The entire AMPAS membership has been eligible to choose the winner since the award's inception. If there are sixteen or more films submitted for the category, the winner is voted from a shortlist of five films, which has happened nine times, otherwise there will only be three films on the shortlist. Additionally, eight eligible animated features must have been theatrically released in Los Angeles County within the calendar year for this category to be activated.

Animated films can also be nominated for other categories, but have rarely been so; Beauty and the Beast (1991) was the first animated film ever nominated for Best Picture. Up (2009) and Toy Story 3 (2010) also received Best Picture nominations after the Academy expanded the number of nominees from five to ten.

Waltz with Bashir (2008) is the only animated film ever nominated for Best Foreign Language Film (though it did not receive a nomination for Best Animated Feature). The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) and Kubo and the Two Strings (2016) are the only two animated films to ever be nominated for Best Visual Effects.

Academy Award for Best Costume Design

The Academy Award for Best Costume Design is one of the Academy Awards presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for achievement in film costume design.The award was first given for films made in 1948. Initially, separate award categories were established for black-and-white films and color films. Since the merger of the two categories in 1967, the Academy has traditionally avoided giving out the award to films with a contemporary setting.

Academy Award for Best Director

The Academy Award for Best Director (officially known as the Academy Award for Best Directing) is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry.

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories; Frank Borzage and Lewis Milestone won for 7th Heaven and Two Arabian Knights, respectively. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony. That rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter. The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been very closely linked throughout their history. Of the 90 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 64 have also been awarded Best Director.Since its inception, the award has been given to 69 directors or directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins for West Side Story in 1961 and Joel and Ethan Coen for No Country for Old Men in 2007. The Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. As of the 2018 ceremony, Guillermo del Toro is the most recent winner in this category for his work on The Shape of Water.

Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay

The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon previously published material. It was created for 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from Writing (Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen) to Writing (Original Screenplay).See also the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations.

Academy Award for Best Original Song

The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given annually to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is presented to the songwriters who have composed the best original song written specifically for a film. The performers of a song are not credited with the Academy Award unless they contributed either to music, lyrics or both in their own right. The songs that are nominated for this award are performed during the ceremony and before this award is presented.

The award category was introduced at the 7th Academy Awards, the ceremony honoring the best in film for 1934. Nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers, and the winners are chosen by the Academy membership as a whole.

Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor

The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor (often referred to as the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor) is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actress winner.

At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Walter Brennan was the first winner of this award for his role in Come and Get It. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, however, winners received full-sized statuettes. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.Since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actors. Brennan has received the most awards in this category with three awards. Brennan, Jeff Bridges, Robert Duvall, Arthur Kennedy, Jack Nicholson, and Claude Rains were nominated on four occasions, more than any other actor. As of the 2018 ceremony, Sam Rockwell is the most recent winner in this category for his role as Officer Jason Dixon in Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri.

Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress

The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner.

At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of this award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.Since its inception, the award has been given to 80 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each. Despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress. As of the 2018 ceremony, Allison Janney is the most recent winner in this category for her role as LaVona Golden in I, Tonya.

Academy Film Archive

The Academy Film Archive is part of the Academy Foundation, established in 1944 with the purpose of organizing and overseeing the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ educational and cultural activities, including the preservation of motion picture history. Although the current incarnation of the Academy Film Archive began in 1991, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences acquired its first film in 1929.

Located in Hollywood, California at the Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study, the Archive has a diverse range of moving image material. The Archive's collection comprises 85,000 titles and 190,000 separate items, including early American cinema, a vast collection of documentary films, filmed and taped interviews, amateur and private home movies of Hollywood legends, makeup and sound test reels, and a wide selection of experimental film, as well as Academy Award-winning films, Academy Award-nominated films, and a complete collection of every Academy Awards show since 1949.Since acquiring the Packard Humanities Institute Collection, the Archive has the world's largest known trailer collection. The Archive is also concerned with the preservation and restoration of films, as well as new technologies and methods of preservation, restoring over 800 titles of historical and artistic importance.

Argentine Academy of Cinematography Arts and Sciences Awards

The Argentine Academy of Cinematography Arts and Sciences Awards are given by the Argentine Academy of Cinematography Arts and Sciences (Spanish: Academia de las Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas de la Argentina) to honor achievement in Argentine cinema by Argentina-based filmmakers.

The awards, known as Premios Sur, are given annually by the Academy, whose members include Argentine actors, directors, producers, and industry film technicians.There are eighteen awards given and, as of February 2007, 220 members in the association vote on the awards.

To qualify the film must be released from October 1 - September 30 in Argentina.

Frank Lloyd

Frank William George Lloyd (2 February 1886 – 10 August 1960) was a British-born American film director, scriptwriter, producer, and actor. He was among the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, and was its president from 1934 to 1935.

John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awards the John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation upon the recommendation of its Scientific and Technical Awards Committee. The medal is awarded with a citation reading "in appreciation for outstanding service and dedication in upholding the high standards of the Academy." The inaugural Medal of Commendation was given at the 50th Academy Awards, in April 1978, and is given irregularly.

List of Academy Awards for Walt Disney

Walt Disney (1901–1966) won or received a total of twenty-six Academy Awards, and holds the record for most Academy Awards in history. He won twenty-two competitive Academy Awards from a total of fifty-nine nominations, and also holds the records for most wins and most nominations for an individual in history.Disney won his first competitive Academy Award and received his first Honorary Academy Award at the 5th Academy Awards (1932). He received the Honorary Academy Award for the creation of Mickey Mouse and won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject (Cartoon) for the film Flowers and Trees. In the seven Academy Award ceremonies that followed (6th–12th), Disney consecutively earned nominations and won in the same category.Disney received three more Honorary Academy Awards, one in 1939 and two in 1942. At the 26th Academy Awards (1954), Disney won the Academy Award in all four categories in which he was nominated: Best Short Subject (Cartoon), Best Short Subject (Two-reel), Best Documentary (Feature), and Best Documentary (Short Subject). In 1965, Disney earned his sole Best Picture nomination, for the film Mary Poppins. He was posthumously awarded his final Academy Award in 1969 for Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day.

List of Croatian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

Independent Croatia has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1992. The award is handed out annually by the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains primarily non-English dialogue. It was not created until the 1956 Academy Awards, in which a competitive Academy Award of Merit, known as the Best Foreign Language Film Award, was introduced for non-English speaking films, and has been given annually since.Since achieving independence from Yugoslavia, Croatia has submitted 27 films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film as of 2018, but none have been nominated for an Oscar. Croatia also unsuccessfully tried to submit a film in 1991 while the country was in the process of achieving international recognition. Since independence, five Croatian directors have had multiple films submitted to the Academy for review. Directors Branko Schmidt, Arsen Anton Ostojić and Zrinko Ogresta had three of their films selected, and two other directors had two films submitted – Vinko Brešan and Dalibor Matanić.

Prior to independence, Croatian actors and filmmakers participated in the Yugoslav film industry and several films made by Croatian filmmakers or produced by Croatian-based film studios were submitted for Oscar consideration representing Yugoslavia. Of these films, two received a nomination: The Road a Year Long directed by Giuseppe De Santis in 1958 (co-produced by Croatian film companies Croatia Film and Jadran Film), and The Ninth Circle directed by France Štiglic in 1960 (produced by Jadran Film).

List of Polish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

Poland has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film on a regular basis since 1963. The Oscar is handed out annually by the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains primarily non-English dialogue. It was not created until the 1956 Academy Awards, in which a competitive Academy Award of Merit, known as the Best Foreign Language Film Award, was created for non-English speaking films, and has been given annually since.

List of Soviet submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

The Soviet Union submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film between 1963 and 1991. The Foreign Language Film award is handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains primarily non-English dialogue.Each year, the Academy invites countries to submit their best films for competition, with only one film being accepted from each country. The Soviet Union had a strong record in the category, receiving a total of nine nominations between 1968–1984, including three winners – War and Peace, Dersu Uzala and Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears. Eight of the nominees, including all three winners, were produced by Russian film studios. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, films representing the Russian Federation won a further five nominations, including one Oscar win for Burnt by the Sun.

Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting

The Don and Gee Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting is a fellowship program founded in 1986 to aid screenwriters. It is administered by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

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