Academy Juvenile Award

The Academy Juvenile Award, also known informally as the Juvenile Oscar, was a Special Honorary Academy Award bestowed at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to specifically recognize juvenile performers under the age of eighteen for their "outstanding contributions to screen entertainment".[1][2]

The honor was first awarded by the Academy at the 7th Academy Awards to 6-year-old Shirley Temple, for her work in 1934.[2] The Award continued to be presented intermittently over the next 26 years to 12 child actors and actresses. The last Juvenile Oscar was presented at the 33rd Academy Awards to Hayley Mills, one day shy of her 15th birthday, who received the child-size statuette for her performance in the 1960 film Pollyanna.[3]

The trophy itself was a miniature Academy Award statuette that stood approximately 7 inches tall,[2][4][5] roughly half the size of the standard Oscar trophy measuring 13.5 inches.[6]

Academy Juvenile Award
Oscar march50
Bobby Driscoll accepting the Juvenile Award
Awarded forAcademy Honorary Award presented for "Outstanding Juvenile Performance"
CountryUnited States
Presented byAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
First awardedFebruary 27, 1935
Last awardedApril 17, 1961
Websitewww.Oscars.org
Temple-sh 1934
Shirley Temple was honored at the 7th Academy Awards, honoring film achievements in 1934.
Judy Garland in The Wizard of Oz trailer 2
Judy Garland was honored for 1939, most notably as Dorothy in
The Wizard of Oz
Margaret O'Brien in Meet Me in St Louis trailer
Margaret O'Brien was honored for her 1944 performances.
Claude Jarman Jr in High Barbaree trailer
Claude Jarman Jr. won for 1946.

Honorary Academy Awards

In addition to its competitive Academy Awards of Merit, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) also presents "Special" or "Honorary" Academy Awards. These awards are given (typically, annually) by the Board of Governors of AMPAS to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by other existing Academy Awards categories.[7][8] This included the awards that had been presented to juvenile actors from 1934 to 1960 (known only informally as the "Juvenile Academy Awards").

Beginning with the 1st Academy Awards – celebrating film achievements of 1927 and 1928 – these awards were formally referred to as "Special Awards". The first of these Special Awards was presented to Charles Chaplin (for The Circus) and to Warner Bros. (for The Jazz Singer). Beginning with the 23rd Academy Awards – celebrating film achievements of 1950 – these Special Awards were formally renamed by the Academy as "Honorary Awards". These Honorary Awards continue to be presented today, although the "Juvenile Academy Award" proper has itself been discontinued.

History of the Academy Juvenile Award

The Academy Awards, first presented on May 16, 1929, did not initially present a Special Award for juvenile actors.[9] The very first child actor to be nominated for an Oscar was 9-year-old Jackie Cooper, who was nominated as Best Actor in 1931 for his work in the film Skippy. Cooper, however, lost that year to Lionel Barrymore.[10] Recognizing that children could be placed at an unfair disadvantage with Academy voters when nominated alongside their adult counterparts in the competitive Best Actor and Best Actress categories,[11] – and with no categories for Best Supporting Actor or Supporting Actress having yet been created[12] – the Academy saw the need to establish an Honorary "Special Award" specifically created to recognize juveniles under the age of eighteen for their work in film.[2]

On February 27, 1935, the 7th Annual Academy Awards, honoring achievements in film for the year 1934, became the first Oscar ceremony at which the Special Juvenile Award was presented.[2] Playfully dubbed the "Oscarette" by Bob Hope in 1945,[13] the statuette itself was a miniaturized Oscar, depicting an Art Deco image of a knight holding a crusader's sword and standing on a reel of film.[14] Standing approximately one-half the size of its full-sized counterpart, this rare child-sized trophy remained the prototype for the statuette throughout the history of the Award, with only relatively small modifications to its base over time.[5][15][16]

After first being presented in 1935, the Special Juvenile Award continued to be presented intermittently to a total of 12 young actors and actresses over the next 26 years.[5][17] However, there were several juvenile actors who were instead nominated in the competitive Best Supporting Actor/Actress categories during this time. These included, most notably: 14-year-old Bonita Granville as Best Supporting Actress of 1936 for These Three;[18] 11-year-old Brandon deWilde as Best Supporting Actor of 1953 for Shane;[19] 17-year-old Sal Mineo as Best Supporting Actor of 1955 for Rebel Without a Cause;[20] and 11-year-old Patty McCormack as Best Supporting Actress of 1956 for The Bad Seed.[21] All of these nominees, however, lost to their adult counterparts in their respective categories.

Held on April 17, 1961, the 33rd Annual Academy Awards, honoring achievements in film for the year 1960, would be the last Oscar ceremony at which the Honorary Juvenile Award was presented.[3]

Honorees of the Academy Juvenile Award

1930s

The 7th Annual Academy Awards recognized Shirley Temple with the Academy's first Juvenile Award to honor "her outstanding contribution to screen entertainment during the year 1934."[2] Beginning her film career at the age of three, in 1934 Temple had attained child stardom in such films as Stand Up and Cheer!, Little Miss Marker, Baby Take a Bow and Bright Eyes. Just six years old on the night she accepted her honorary statuette, Temple became the youngest recipient ever to be honored by the Academy, a distinction she still holds to this day.

The 11th Annual Academy Awards recognized both Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney with the Juvenile Award honoring "their significant contribution in bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth".[22] By 1938, 16-year-old Durbin was a rising star as the singing ingenue in such films as Mad About Music and That Certain Age, and Rooney had risen to fame in the Andy Hardy comedies and received critical acclaim for his dramatic turn in Boys Town.[23] Eighteen years old on the night he accepted the accolade, Rooney would be the eldest recipient ever to be honored with the Academy's Juvenile Award.

The 12th Annual Academy Awards recognized Judy Garland with the Juvenile Award honoring "her outstanding performance as a screen juvenile during the past year."[24] In 1939, 16-year-old Garland had become one of Hollywood's brightest young starlets, appearing that year in the MGM musicals Babes in Arms and The Wizard of Oz. Although she would be nominated for an Academy Award as Best Actress of 1954,[25] and again as Best Supporting Actress of 1961,[26] the Juvenile Award would be the only honor Garland would receive from the Academy.

1940s

The 17th Annual Academy Awards recognized Margaret O'Brien with the Juvenile Award honoring her as "outstanding child actress of 1944".[4] That year, 7-year-old O'Brien had become one of the most popular child actresses of her day, starring in the films The Canterville Ghost, Music for Millions, and Meet Me In St. Louis alongside former Juvenile Award Honoree Judy Garland. Hosting the Annual ceremony that year was Bob Hope who endearingly dubbed the Juvenile Award the "Oscarette" upon presenting O'Brien with her miniature Oscar.[13]

The 18th Annual Academy Awards recognized Peggy Ann Garner with the Juvenile Award honoring her as "outstanding child actress of 1945".[27] Beginning her prolific film career at the age of six, in 1945, 13-year-old Garner appeared in Nob Hill and Junior Miss, as well as receiving critical acclaim for her dramatic role as Francie Nolan, a girl living in the Brooklyn slums with her devoted mother and alcoholic father in the 20th Century Fox drama, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn.[28]

The 19th Annual Academy Awards recognized Claude Jarman Jr. with the Juvenile Award honoring him as "outstanding child actor of 1946".[29] 12 years old in 1946, Jarman was honored with the Juvenile Oscar for his screen debut as Jody in M-G-M' family drama, The Yearling. Although the Academy didn't officially begin to present the Juvenile Award for a child's work in a specific film until two years later, The Yearling was Jarman's first and only film released in 1946.

The 21st Annual Academy Awards recognized Ivan Jandl with the Juvenile Award honoring him for "the outstanding juvenile performance of 1948, as 'Karel Malik' in "The Search".[30] Born in Czechoslovakia, and beginning his relatively brief film career in 1948 at the age of eleven, Jandl was the first foreign child actor to be honored with the Juvenile Oscar. Unable to travel to the United States to attend the ceremony, Jandl's statuette was instead presented to him in his native Prague.[31]

The 22nd Annual Academy Awards recognized Bobby Driscoll with the Juvenile Award honoring him as "the outstanding juvenile actor of 1949".[32] That year, 12-year-old Driscoll had starred in the Disney tear-jerker So Dear to My Heart, as well as garnering critical acclaim for his dramatic performance in the RKO melodrama The Window. Demonstrating the prestige the Honorary Juvenile Award held for Hollywood child stars of the time, on the night of the ceremony, Driscoll nervously accepted his miniature statuette saying, "I don't ever think I've been so thrilled in my life."[33]

1950s–1960

The 27th Annual Academy Awards recognized both Jon Whiteley and Vincent Winter with the Juvenile Award honoring their "outstanding juvenile performance(s) in The Little Kidnappers".[34] Perhaps best known to audiences in their native Scotland, in 1953, Whiteley, age 8, and Winter, age 6, played Harry and Davy respectively, two boys living with their grandfather in Nova Scotia who, forbidden by their grandfather to have a dog, "kidnap" an unattended baby and care for the child as their own in the British produced family drama.

The 33rd Annual Academy Awards recognized 14-year-old Hayley Mills with what would be the last Juvenile Award, honoring her for Disney's Pollyanna as "the most outstanding juvenile performance during 1960".[3]

List of honorees

Honorees of the Academy Juvenile Award
1934 – 1960
Year Ceremony Name Age[A] Honor
1934 7th Shirley Temple 6 years, 310 days To Shirley Temple, in grateful recognition of her outstanding contribution to screen entertainment during the year 1934.
1938 11th Deanna Durbin 17 years, 81 days To Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney for their significant contribution in bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth, and as juvenile players setting a high standard of ability and achievement.
1938 11th Mickey Rooney 18 years, 153 days To Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney for their significant contribution in bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth, and as juvenile players setting a high standard of ability and achievement.
1939 12th Judy Garland 17 years, 264 days To Judy Garland for her outstanding performance as a screen juvenile during the past year.
1944 17th Margaret O'Brien 8 years, 59 days To Margaret O'Brien, outstanding child actress of 1944.
1945 18th Peggy Ann Garner 14 years, 32 days To Peggy Ann Garner, outstanding child actress of 1945.
1946 19th Claude Jarman, Jr. 12 years, 167 days To Claude Jarman, Jr., outstanding child actor of 1946.
1948 21st Ivan Jandl 12 years, 59 days To Ivan Jandl, for the outstanding juvenile performance of 1948, as "Karel Malik" in The Search.
1949 22nd Bobby Driscoll 13 years, 20 days To Bobby Driscoll, as the outstanding juvenile actor of 1949.
1954 27th Jon Whiteley 10 years, 39 days To Jon Whiteley for his outstanding juvenile performance in The Little Kidnappers.
1954 27th Vincent Winter 7 years, 91 days To Vincent Winter for his outstanding juvenile performance in The Little Kidnappers.
1960 33rd Hayley Mills 14 years, 364 days To Hayley Mills for Pollyanna, the most outstanding juvenile performance during 1960.
10
Years
10
Ceremonies
12
Honorees
13
Average Age
Column Totals
Notes
  1. ^ This list of honorees indicates the ages of the recipients at the time of the awards ceremony (not at the time of filming the movie for which they were being honored). In some cases, the awards ceremony was held more than a year after a film's original release, and as much as two years after principal photography was completed.

Post-juvenile era

In 1962, 16-year-old Patty Duke starred in The Miracle Worker and in 1963, was nominated for and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her work in the film, becoming the youngest actress at the time to ever win an Academy Award of merit and for the first time, proving that a juvenile could win in a competitive category.[35] From this point onward, child actors were recognized in the same categories as their adult counterparts, or not at all.[5]

As of 2019, a total of only three minors (including Duke) have won Oscars, all in the Best Supporting Actress category. The other two are Anna Paquin, who was 11, for The Piano (1993), and Tatum O'Neal, who was 10, for Paper Moon (1973), and as of 2019 is still the record holder as the youngest person to ever win a competitive Academy Award.

Lost and found

While only 12 actors and actresses have been awarded the rare miniature statuette, a total of 14 Juvenile Oscars are actually known to exist.

Lost Garland award

Judy Garland had reportedly lost her award over the years, and in June 1958 contacted the Academy to obtain a replacement at her own expense.[15][36] The Academy obliged, but asked Garland to sign its well-known right of first refusal agreement covering the duplicate Oscar as well as her original, should it ever turn up.[15] The agreement, put into implementation by the Academy in 1950, states that Oscar recipients or their heirs who want to sell their statuettes must first offer the Academy the opportunity to buy the Oscar back for the sum of $10. (An amount which was subsequently dropped to $1 in the 1980s.)[15][36]

After her death in 1969, many of Garland's personal effects came into the possession of her former husband, Sidney Luft who attempted to sell a miniature Oscar statuette at a Christie's auction in 1993.[15][37] Upon learning of the impending auction, the Academy quickly filed a legal injunction to halt the sale of the Award and, after some research, determined that the statuette in question was Garland's 1958 replacement Oscar, using photographs that showed the original 1940 statuette's unique base differed from the one being put up for auction.[15][38] The courts ruled in the Academy's favor in 1995 and ordered Luft to return the 1958 statuette to the Academy; prompting Luft to instead turn the award over to daughter Lorna Luft who had expressed a desire to keep it in the family.[15]

In 2000, a second statuette was put up for auction, which the Academy determined this time to be Garland's long-lost "original" 1940 Oscar.[15][39] After once again tracing the auction back to Sidney Luft, the Academy again took legal action to halt the sale claiming the 1940 statuette fell under the terms of the agreement Garland had signed in 1958.[15][39] The Academy again won its lawsuit in 2002 and Luft was ordered to turn the 1940 statuette over to the Academy.[15] In February 2010, Garland's original 1940 Juvenile Oscar was put on display to the public at an exhibit held by the Academy in New York City called "Meet The Oscars".[40] As of 2011, its 1958 replacement is believed to still be in the possession of Garland's youngest daughter, Lorna Luft.[16][41]

Lost O'Brien award

Throughout her childhood, Margaret O'Brien's awards were displayed in a special room. One day in 1954, the family's maid asked to take O'Brien's Juvenile Oscar and two other awards home with her to polish, as she had done in the past.[42] After three days, the maid failed to return to work, prompting O'Brien's mother to discharge her, requesting that the awards be returned.[13] Shortly thereafter, O'Brien's mother, who had been sick with a heart condition, suffered a relapse and died.[42] In mourning, 17 year-old O'Brien forgot about the maid and the Oscar until several months later when she tried to contact her, only to find that the maid had moved and had left no forwarding address.[13][42]

Several years later, upon learning that the original had been stolen, the Academy promptly supplied O'Brien with a replacement Oscar, but O'Brien still held onto hope that she might one day recover her original Award.[13][42] In the years that followed, O'Brien attended memorabilia shows and searched antique shops, hoping she might find the original statuette, until one day in 1995 when Bruce Davis, then executive director of the Academy, was alerted that a miniature statuette bearing O'Brien's name had surfaced in a catalogue for an upcoming memorabilia auction.[42] Davis contacted a mutual friend of his and O'Brien's, who in turn phoned O'Brien to tell her the long-lost Oscar had been found.[13][42]

Memorabilia collectors Steve Neimand and Mark Nash were attending a flea market in 1995 when Neimand spotted a small Oscar with Margaret O'Brien's name inscribed upon it.[43] The two men decided to split the $500 asking price hoping to resell it at a profit and lent it to a photographer to shoot for an upcoming auction catalogue.[42] This led to Bruce Davis' discovery that the statuette had resurfaced and, upon learning of the award's history, Nash and Neimand agreed to return the Oscar to O'Brien.[42] On February 7, 1995, almost fifty years after she'd first received it, the Academy held a special ceremony in Beverly Hills to return the stolen award to O'Brien.[42][43] Upon being reunited with her Juvenile Oscar, Margaret O'Brien told the attending journalists:

"For all those people who have lost or misplaced something that was dear to them, as I have, never give up the dream of searching – never let go of the hope that you'll find it because after all these many years, at last, my Oscar has been returned to me."[44]

See also

References

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  7. ^ "Honorary Award: About". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
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  17. ^ "10 Bygone Academy Awards". MentalFloss.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
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  22. ^ "11th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  23. ^ "Mickey Rooney a Star in 'Boys Town'". Prescott Courier. September 16, 1938.
  24. ^ "12th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  25. ^ "27th Academy Awards - Winners". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  26. ^ "34th Academy Awards - Winners". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  27. ^ "18th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  28. ^ Denton, James F (April 29, 1945). "A Star Grows in Hollywood". Los Angeles Times.
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  32. ^ "22nd Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
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External links

12th Academy Awards

The 12th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best in film for 1939. The ceremony was held on February 29, 1940, at a banquet in the Coconut Grove at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. It was hosted by Bob Hope (in his first of nineteen turns as host).

David O. Selznick's production Gone with the Wind received the most nominations of the year with thirteen. Other films receiving multiple nominations included: Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Wuthering Heights; Goodbye, Mr. Chips; Stagecoach; Love Affair; The Wizard of Oz; The Rains Came; The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex; Ninotchka; Of Mice and Men; and Dark Victory.

This was the first year in which an Academy Award (also known as an Oscar) was awarded in the category of special effects. (Previously, however, "special achievement" awards for effects had occasionally been conferred.) This was also the first time that two awards for cinematography were presented (one for a color film and another for a black-and-white film).

Hattie McDaniel became the first African-American to receive an Academy Award, winning in the Best Supporting Actress category for Gone with the Wind.

17th Academy Awards

The 17th Academy Awards marked the first time the complete awards ceremony was broadcast nationally, on the Blue Network (ABC Radio). Bob Hope hosted the 70-minute broadcast, which included film clips that required explanation for the radio audience. This tradition ended abruptly after the 1948 ceremony as a result of the Paramount antitrust decrees, only to return gradually since the late 1960s.This is the first year that the Best Picture category was limited to five pictures. This was also the first and only time an individual was nominated for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor for playing the same role in the same film: Barry Fitzgerald for the character of Father Fitzgibbon in Going My Way. He won for Best Supporting Actor.

18th Academy Awards

The 18th Academy Awards was the first such ceremony after World War II. As a result, the ceremony featured more glamour than had been present during the war. Plaster statuettes that had been given out during the war years were replaced with bronze statuettes with gold plating. Despite this, director Billy Wilder's grim and socially significant drama The Lost Weekend took the top honors. It became the first film to win both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Palme d'Or. Joan Crawford was absent, claiming she had pneumonia (although it was said it was because she was sure she would not win the Oscar for Best Actress for Mildred Pierce). As it turned out she did win, and the award was delivered to her while in bed that night.This was the first year in which every film nominated for Best Picture won at least one Oscar.

19th Academy Awards

The 19th Academy Awards continued a trend through the late-1940s of the Oscar voters honoring films about contemporary social issues. The Best Years of Our Lives concerns the lives of three returning veterans from three branches of military service as they adjust to life on the home front after World War II.

The Academy awarded Harold Russell—a World War II veteran who had lost both hands in the war and who, despite not being an actor, portrayed Homer Parrish in The Best Years of Our Lives—an Honorary Academy Award for "bringing hope and courage to his fellow veterans," believing he would not win the Best Supporting Actor award for which he was nominated. As it happened, he did win the competitive award, making him the only person to receive two Oscars for the same performance.

This was the first time since the 2nd Academy Awards that every category had at most 5 nominations.

22nd Academy Awards

The 22nd Academy Awards was held on March 23, 1950, at the RKO Pantages Theatre and awarded Oscars for the best in films in 1949. This was the final year in which all five Best Picture nominees were in black and white, and the first year in which every film nominated for Best Picture won multiple Oscars.

33rd Academy Awards

The 33rd Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 1960, were held on April 17, 1961, at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California. They were hosted by Bob Hope. This was the first ceremony to be aired on ABC television, which has aired the Academy Awards ever since (save for the period between 1971 and 1975, when they were aired on NBC for the first time since the previous year.)

The Apartment was the last black-and-white film to win Best Picture until Schindler's List (1993).

Gary Cooper was selected by the Academy Board of Governors to be the year's recipient of the Academy Honorary Award "for his many memorable screen performances and the international recognition he, as an individual, has gained for the motion picture industry." Cooper was too ill to attend the ceremony, though his condition was not publicly disclosed, save for his family and close friends. At the awards ceremony James Stewart, a close friend of Cooper, accepted the Honorary Oscar on his behalf. Stewart's emotional speech hinted that something was seriously wrong, and the next day newspapers ran the headline, "Gary Cooper has cancer." Less than four weeks later, on May 13, 1961, six days after his 60th birthday, Cooper died.

Young and rising star Hayley Mills was selected by the Academy Board of Governors to be the year's recipient of the Academy Juvenile Award for her breakthrough and acclaimed performance in Walt Disney's production of Pollyanna. Mills became the last recipient of the award, as the Academy retired the award afterwards. From 1963 onward, juvenile actors could officially compete in competitive acting awards with their adult counterparts. This was the first year a red carpet would line the walk into the theater.

7th Academy Awards

The 7th Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 1934, was held on February 27, 1935, at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California. They were hosted by Irvin S. Cobb.

Frank Capra's influential romantic comedy It Happened One Night became the first film to perform a "clean sweep" of the top five award categories: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Screenplay. This feat would later be duplicated by One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in 1976 and The Silence of the Lambs in 1992. It also was the first romantic comedy to be named Best Picture, and the first to win two acting Oscars.

For the first time, the Academy standardized the practice – still in effect – that the award eligibility period for a film would be the preceding calendar year.

This was also the first of only two years in which write-in candidates were allowed by the Academy as a tacit response to the controversy surrounding the snub of Bette Davis' performance in Of Human Bondage.

The categories of Best Film Editing, Best Original Score, and Best Original Song were first introduced this year.

This was the last time that those in the Best Actor category were all first time nominees, as well as the last time until the 43rd Academy Awards where either leading acting category had all first time nominees (All nominees in the Best Actress category that year were all first timers, the only other time this had occurred since the 2nd Academy Awards).

Shirley Temple received the first Juvenile Award at age six, making her the youngest Oscar recipient ever.

Bobby Driscoll

Robert Cletus Driscoll (March 3, 1937 – March 30, 1968) was an American child actor and artist known for a large body of cinema and TV performances from 1943 to 1960. He starred in some of the Walt Disney Studios' most popular live-action pictures of that period, such as Song of the South (1946), So Dear to My Heart (1949), and Treasure Island (1950). He served as animation model and provided the voice for the title role in Peter Pan (1953). In 1950, he received an Academy Juvenile Award for outstanding performance in feature films of 1949, for his roles in So Dear to My Heart and The Window, both released in 1949.

In the mid 1950s, Driscoll's acting career began to decline, and he turned primarily to guest appearances on anthology TV series. He became addicted to narcotics and was sentenced to prison for illicit drug use. After his release, he focused his attention on the avant-garde art scene. In ill health due to his substance abuse, and with his funds depleted, he died in 1968 in an abandoned building, alone and destitute, not long after his 31st birthday.

Claude Jarman Jr.

Claude Jarman Jr. (born September 27, 1934) is an American former child actor.

Deanna Durbin

Edna Mae Durbin (December 4, 1921 – April 17, 2013), known professionally as Deanna Durbin, was a Canadian-born actress and singer, later settled in France, who appeared in musical films in the 1930s and 1940s. With the technical skill and vocal range of a legitimate lyric soprano, she performed many styles from popular standards to operatic arias.

Durbin made her first film appearance with Judy Garland in Every Sunday (1936), and subsequently signed a contract with Universal Studios. Her success as the ideal teenaged daughter in films such as Three Smart Girls (1936) was credited with saving the studio from bankruptcy. In 1938, at the age of 17, Durbin was awarded the Academy Juvenile Award.

As she matured, Durbin grew dissatisfied with the girl-next-door roles assigned to her, and attempted to portray a more womanly and sophisticated style. The film noir Christmas Holiday (1944) and the whodunit Lady on a Train (1945) were, however, not as well received as her musical comedies and romances had been. Durbin retired from acting and singing in 1949, and withdrew from public life, granting no interviews for the remainder of her life, except for one in 1983. She married film producer-director Charles Henri David in 1950, and the couple moved to a farmhouse near Paris.

Hayley Mills

Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills (born 18 April 1946) is an English actress. The daughter of Sir John Mills and Mary Hayley Bell, and younger sister of actress Juliet Mills, Mills began her acting career as a child and was hailed as a promising newcomer, winning the BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her performance in the British crime drama film Tiger Bay (1959), the Academy Juvenile Award for Disney's Pollyanna (1960) and Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress in 1961. During her early career, she appeared in six films for Walt Disney, including her dual role as twins Susan and Sharon in the Disney film The Parent Trap (1961). Her performance in Whistle Down the Wind (a 1961 adaptation of the novel written by her mother) saw Mills nominated for BAFTA Award for Best British Actress.

During the late 1960s Mills began performing in theatrical plays, and played in more mature roles. The age of contracts with studios soon passed. For her success with Disney she received the Disney Legend Award. Although she has not maintained the box office success or the Hollywood A-list she experienced as a child actress, she has continued to make films and TV appearances, including a starring role in the UK television mini-series The Flame Trees of Thika in 1981, the title role in Disney's television series Good Morning, Miss Bliss in 1988, and as Caroline, a main character in Wild at Heart (2007–2012) on ITV in the UK.

Ivan Jandl

Ivan Jandl (24 January 1937 – 21 November 1987) was a Czech child actor.

He appeared in the 1948 film The Search as a nine-year-old Czech boy who had survived Auschwitz and was searching for his mother in post-war Germany. The movie was filmed on location in Germany and at a studio in Zurich, Switzerland, from June to November, 1947. The boy spoke no English and had to learn his lines phonetically. He was awarded an Academy Juvenile Award for his work, but was not permitted by the then communist government of Czechoslovakia to travel to the USA to accept it. At the Academy Awards ceremony in 1949, his Oscar was accepted on stage on his behalf by the director of The Search, Fred Zinnemann. He was also awarded a Golden Globe for his performance in the film and both statuettes are now preserved in the Czech National Film Archive. He appeared in some Czech films in 1949 and 1950, then left acting to continue his studies. He tried unsuccessfully to continue his acting career in his late teens, and eventually found work in radio.

Jon Whiteley

Jon Whiteley (born 19 February 1945 in Monymusk, Scotland) is a former child actor and art historian.

Whiteley appeared in five films during his brief acting career, and it was for the second of these, The Kidnappers (US: The Little Kidnappers, 1953) that he, along with co-star Vincent Winter, was awarded an Academy Juvenile Award for this film. He appeared in only three more films, including The Spanish Gardener (1956), before his film acting career was effectively put on hold when his mother insisted on him passing the Eleven plus exam. After appearing twice more for TV credits, his acting career ended.

Whiteley is now a respected art historian at the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England. He wrote his doctorate on the French painter Paul Delaroche. He has catalogued all the French Drawings in the Ashmolean, and authored and co-authored several books on artists including Ingres, Puvis de Chavannes and Claude Lorrain. He published a book on the Ashmolean's Stringed Instruments in 2009, and is working on a catalogue of the later French paintings in the Museum.

His wife is art historian Linda Whiteley; the couple have two children. He was made a chevalier (knight) of the French Order of Arts and Letters in May 2009.

List of awards and honors received by Judy Garland

Judy Garland received numerous awards and honors during her 40-year career. Garland won or was nominated for awards for her work in motion pictures, television, music recording, and on stage. She was twice nominated for an Academy Award, and was awarded a special Academy Juvenile Award in 1940. Garland won a Golden Globe Award, and was nominated for a second and a third one for The Judy Garland Show in 1964, and she received a special Tony Award for her record-breaking concert run at New York's Palace Theatre. Garland won two Grammy Awards for her concert album Judy at Carnegie Hall.

Garland has also received a number of posthumous awards and honors. She was the recipient of a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. She has twice been honored on United States postage stamps, and has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The American Film Institute has repeatedly recognized her talent, placing Garland eighth on its list of the top 100 female stars of all time and placing five of her recordings in its list of the 100 best songs from films, including "Over the Rainbow" at number one.

Margaret O'Brien

Margaret O'Brien (born Angela Maxine O'Brien; January 15, 1937) is an American film, radio, television, and stage actress. Beginning a prolific career as a child actress in feature films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer at the age of four, O'Brien became one of the most popular child stars in cinema history and was honored with a Juvenile Academy Award as the outstanding child actress of 1944. In her later career, she appeared on television, on stage, and in supporting film roles.

Mickey Rooney

Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule Jr.; September 23, 1920 – April 6, 2014) was an American actor, vaudevillian, comedian, producer and radio personality. In a career spanning nine decades and continuing until shortly before his death, he appeared in more than 300 films and was one of the last surviving stars of the silent film era.At the height of a career that was marked by precipitous declines and raging comebacks, Rooney performed the role of Andy Hardy in a series of 15 films in the 1930s and 1940s that epitomized American family values. A versatile performer, he became a celebrated character actor later in his career. Laurence Olivier once said he considered Rooney "the best there has ever been". Clarence Brown, who directed him in two of his earliest dramatic roles, National Velvet and The Human Comedy, said he was "the closest thing to a genius I ever worked with".Rooney first performed in vaudeville as a child and made his film debut at the age of six. At 14 he played Puck in the play and later the 1935 film adaptation of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Critic David Thomson hailed his performance as "one of the cinema's most arresting pieces of magic". In 1938, he co-starred in Boys Town. At 19 he was the first teenager to be nominated for an Oscar for his leading role in Babes in Arms, and he was awarded a special Academy Juvenile Award in 1939. At the peak of his career between the ages of 15 and 25, he made 43 films, which made him one of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's most consistently successful actors and a favorite of MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer.

Rooney was the top box-office attraction from 1939 to 1941 and one of the best-paid actors of that era, but his career would never again rise to such heights. Drafted into the Army during World War II, he served nearly two years entertaining over two million troops on stage and radio and was awarded a Bronze Star for performing in combat zones. Returning from the war in 1945, he was too old for juvenile roles but too short to be an adult movie star, and was unable to get as many starring roles. Nevertheless, Rooney's popularity was renewed with well-received supporting roles in films such as Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962), It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963), and The Black Stallion (1979). In the early 1980s, he returned to Broadway in Sugar Babies and again became a celebrated star. Rooney made hundreds of appearances on TV, including dramas, variety programs, and talk shows, and won an Emmy in 1982 plus a Golden Globe for his role in Bill (1981).

At his death, Vanity Fair called him "the original Hollywood train wreck". He struggled with alcohol and pill addiction. Ava Gardner was his first wife, and he would go on to marry an additional seven times. Despite earning millions during his career, he had to file for bankruptcy in 1962 due to mismanagement of his finances. Shortly before his death in 2014 at age 93, he alleged mistreatment by some family members and testified before Congress about what he alleged was physical abuse and exploitation by family members. By the end of his life, his millions in earnings had dwindled to an estate that was valued at only $18,000. He died owing medical bills and back taxes, and contributions were solicited from the public.

Peggy Ann Garner

Peggy Ann Garner (February 3, 1932 – October 16, 1984) was an American actress.

As a child actress, Garner had her first film role in 1938. At the 18th Academy Awards, Garner won the Academy Juvenile Award, recognizing her body of contributions to film in 1945, particularly in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn and Junior Miss.Featured roles in such films as Black Widow (1954) did not help to establish her in mature film roles, although she progressed to theatrical work and she made acting appearances on television as an adult.

Pollyanna (1960 film)

Pollyanna is a 1960 live action drama Walt Disney Productions feature film, starring child actress Hayley Mills, Jane Wyman, Karl Malden, and Richard Egan, in a story about a cheerful orphan changing the outlook of a small town. Based on the novel Pollyanna (1913) by Eleanor H. Porter, the film was written and directed by David Swift. The film marks Mills's first of six films for Disney, and it won the actress an Academy Juvenile Award.

Vincent Winter

Vincent Winter (29 December 1947 – 2 November 1998) was a Scottish film actor who was successful as a child actor. As an adult, he continued to work in the film industry as a production manager and in other activities.

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