Academic journal publishing reform

Academic journal publishing reform is the advocacy for changes in the way academic journals are created and distributed in the age of the Internet and the advent of electronic publishing. Since the rise of the Internet, people have organized campaigns to change the relationships among and between academic authors, their traditional distributors and their readership. Most of the discussion has centered on taking advantage of benefits offered by the Internet's capacity for widespread distribution of reading material.


Before the advent of the Internet it was difficult for scholars to distribute articles giving their research results.[1] Historically publishers performed services including proofreading, typesetting, copy editing, printing, and worldwide distribution.[1] In modern times all researchers became expected to give the publishers digital copies of their work which needed no further processing.[1] For digital distribution printing was unnecessary, copying was free, and worldwide distribution happens online instantly.[1] In science journal publishing, Internet technology enabled the four major scientific publishers—Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and Informa—to cut their expenditures such that they could consistently generate profits which exceed a third of their revenue.[1]

The Internet made it easier for researchers to do work which had previously been done by publishers, and some people began to feel that they did not need to pay for the services of publishers. This perception was a problem for publishers, who stated that their services were still necessary at the rates they asked.[1] Critics began to describe publishers' practices with terms such as "corporate scam" and "racket".[2] Scholars sometimes obtain articles from fellow scholars through unofficial channels, such as posting requests on Twitter using the hashtag "#icanhazpdf" (a play on the I Can Has Cheezburger? meme), to avoid paying publishers' access charges.[3][4]

Motivations for reform

Although it has some historical precedent, open access became desired in response to the advent of electronic publishing as part of a broader desire for academic journal publishing reform. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, it contributed to causing problems in traditional publishing models.

The premises behind open access are that there are viable funding models to maintain traditional academic publishing standards of quality while also making the following changes to the field:

  1. Rather than making journals be available through a subscription business model, all academic publications should be free to read and published with some other funding model. Publications should be gratis or "free to read".[5]
  2. Rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, readers should be free to build upon the research of others. Publications should be libre or "free to build upon".[5]
  3. Everyone should have greater awareness of the serious social problems caused by restricting access to academic research.[5]
  4. Everyone should recognize that there are serious economic challenges for the future of academic publishing. Even though open access models are problematic, traditional publishing models definitely are not sustainable and something radical needs to change immediately.[5]

Open access also has ambitions beyond merely granting access to academic publications, as access to research is only a tool for helping people achieve other goals. Open access advances scholarly pursuits in the fields of open data, open government, open educational resources, free and open-source software, and open science, among others.[6]

Problems addressed by academic publishing reform

The motivations for academic journal publishing reform include the ability of computers to store large amounts of information, the advantages of giving more researchers access to preprints, and the potential for interactivity between researchers.[7]

Various studies showed that the demand for open access research was such that freely available articles consistently had impact factors which were higher than articles published under restricted access.[8][9]

Some universities reported that modern "package deal" subscriptions were too costly for them to maintain, and that they would prefer to subscribe to journals individually to save money.[10]

The problems which led to discussion about academic publishing reform have been considered in the context of what provision of open access might provide. Here are some of the problems in academic publishing which open access advocates purport that open access would address:

  1. A pricing crisis called the serials crisis has been growing in the decades before open access and remains today. The academic publishing industry has increased prices of academic journals faster than inflation and beyond the library budgets.[5]
  2. The pricing crisis does not only mean strain to budgets, but also that people actually are losing access to journals.[5]
  3. Not even the wealthiest libraries in the world are able to afford all the journals that their users are demanding, and less rich libraries are severely harmed by lack of access to journals.[5]
  4. Publishers are using "bundling" strategies to sell journals, and this marketing strategy is criticized by many libraries as forcing them to pay for unpopular journals which their users are not demanding.[5]
  5. Libraries are cutting their book budgets to pay for academic journals.[5]
  6. Libraries do not own electronic journals in permanent archival form as they do paper copies, so if they have to cancel a subscription then they lose all subscribed journals. This did not happen with paper journals, and yet costs historically have been higher for electronic versions.[5]
  7. Academic publishers get essential assets from their subscribers in a way that other publishers do not.[5] Authors donate the texts of academic journals to the publishers and grant rights to publish them, and editors and referees donate peer-review to validate the articles. The people writing the journals are questioning the increased pressure put upon them to pay higher prices for the journal produced by their community.[5]
  8. Conventional publishers are using a business model which requires access barriers and creates artificial scarcity.[5] All publishers need revenue, but open access promises models in which scarcity is fundamental to raising revenue.[5]
  9. Scholarly publishing depends heavily on government policy, public subsidies, gift economy, and anti-competitive practices, yet all of these things are in conflict with the conventional academic publishing model of restricting access to works.[5]
  10. Toll access journals compete more for authors to donate content to them than they compete for subscribers to pay for the work. This is because every scholarly journal has a natural monopoly over the information of its field. Because of this, the market for pricing journals does not have feedback because it is outside of traditional market forces, and the prices have no control to drive it to serve the needs of the market.[5]
  11. Besides the natural monopoly, there is supporting evidence that prices are artificially inflated to benefit publishers while harming the market. Evidence includes the trend of large publishers to have accelerating prices increases greater than small publishers, when in traditional markets high volume and high sales enables cost savings and lower prices.
  12. Conventional publishers fund "content protection" actions which restrict and police content sharing.[5]
  13. For-profit publishers have economic incentives to decrease rates of rejected articles so that they publish more content to sell. No such market force exists if selling content for money is not a motivating factor.[5]
  14. Many researchers are unaware that it might be possible for them to have all the research articles they need, and just accept it as fate that they will always be without some of the articles they would like to read.[5]
  15. Access to toll-access journals is not scaling with increases in research and publishing, and the academic publishers are under market forces to restrict increases in publishing and indirectly because of that they are restricting the growth of research.[5]

Motivations against reform

Publishers state that if profit was not a consideration in the pricing of journals then the cost of accessing those journals would not substantially change.[11] Publishers also state that they add value to publications in many ways, and without academic publishing as an institution these services the readership would miss these services and fewer people would have access to articles.[11]

Critics of open access have suggested that by itself, this is not a solution to scientific publishing’s most serious problem – it simply changes the paths through which ever-increasing sums of money flow.[12] Evidence for this does exist and for example, Yale University ended its financial support of BioMed Central’s Open Access Membership program effective July 27, 2007. In their announcement, they stated,

The libraries’ BioMedCentral membership represented an opportunity to test the technical feasibility and the business model of this open access publisher. While the technology proved acceptable, the business model failed to provide a viable long-term revenue base built upon logical and scalable options. Instead, BioMedCentral has asked libraries for larger and larger contributions to subsidize their activities. Starting with 2005, BioMed Central article charges cost the libraries $4,658, comparable to single biomedicine journal subscription. The cost of article charges for 2006 then jumped to $31,625. The article charges have continued to soar in 2007 with the libraries charged $29,635 through June 2007, with $34,965 in potential additional article charges in submission.[13]

A similar situation is reported from the University of Maryland, and Phil Davis commented that,

The assumptions that open access publishing is both cheaper and more sustainable than the traditional subscription model are featured in many of these mandates. But they remain just that — assumptions. In reality, the data from Cornell[14] show just the opposite. Institutions like the University of Maryland would pay much more under an author-pays model, as would most research-intensive universities, and the rise in author processing charges (APCs) rivals the inflation felt at any time under the subscription model.[15]

Opponents of the open access model see publishers as a part of the scholarly information chain and view a pay-for-access model as being necessary in ensuring that publishers are adequately compensated for their work. "In fact, most STM [Scientific, Technical and Medical] publishers are not profit-seeking corporations from outside the scholarly community, but rather learned societies and other non-profit entities, many of which rely on income from journal subscriptions to support their conferences, member services, and scholarly endeavors".[16] Scholarly journal publishers that support pay-for-access claim that the "gatekeeper" role they play, maintaining a scholarly reputation, arranging for peer review, and editing and indexing articles, require economic resources that are not supplied under an open access model. Conventional journal publishers may also lose customers to open access publishers who compete with them. The Partnership for Research Integrity in Science and Medicine (PRISM), a lobbying organization formed by the Association of American Publishers (AAP), is opposed to the open access movement.[17] PRISM and AAP have lobbied against the increasing trend amongst funding organizations to require open publication, describing it as "government interference" and a threat to peer review.[18]

For researchers, publishing an article in a reputable scientific journal is perceived as being beneficial to one's reputation among scientific peers and in advancing one's academic career. There is a concern that the perception of open access journals do not have the same reputation, which will lead to less publishing.[19] Park and Qin discuss the perceptions that academics have with regard to open access journals. One concern that academics have "are growing concerns about how to promote [Open Access] publishing." Park and Qin also state, "The general perception is that [Open Access] journals are new, and therefore many uncertainties, such as quality and sustainability, exist."

Journal article authors are generally not directly financially compensated for their work beyond their institutional salaries and the indirect benefits that an enhanced reputation provides in terms of institutional funding, job offers, and peer collaboration.[20]

There are those, for example PRISM, who think that open access is unnecessary or even harmful. David Goodman argued that there is no need for those outside major academic institutions to have access to primary publications, at least in some fields.[21]

The argument that publicly funded research should be made openly available has been countered with the assertion that "taxes are generally not paid so that taxpayers can access research results, but rather so that society can benefit from the results of that research; in the form of new medical treatments, for example. Publishers claim that 90% of potential readers can access 90% of all available content through national or research libraries, and while this may not be as easy as accessing an article online directly it is certainly possible."[22] The argument for tax-payer funded research is only applicable in certain countries as well. For instance in Australia, 80% of research funding comes through taxes, whereas in Japan and Switzerland, only approximately 10% is from the public coffers.[22]

For various reasons open access journals have been established by predatory publishers who seek to use the model to make money without regard to producing a quality journal. The causes of predatory open access publishing include the low barrier to creating the appearance of a legitimate digital journal and funding models which may include author publishing costs rather than subscription sales. Research reviewer Jeffrey Beall publishes a "List of Predatory Publishers" and an accompanying methodology for identifying publishers who have editorial and financial practices which are contrary to the ideal of good research publishing practices.[23][24]

Reform initiatives

Public Library of Science

The Public Library of Science is a nonprofit open-access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. The founding of the organization had its origins in a 2001 online petition calling for all scientists to pledge that from September 2001 they would discontinue submission of papers to journals which did not make the full-text of their papers available to all, free and unfettered, either immediately or after a delay of several months.[25] The petition collected 34,000 signatures but the publishers took no strong response to the demands. Shortly thereafter, the Public Library of Science was founded as an alternative to traditional publishing.[25]


HINARI is a 2002 project of the World Health Organization and major publishers to enable developing countries to access collections of biomedical and health literature online at reduced subscription costs.[26]

Research Works Act

The Research Works Act was a bill of the United States Congress which would have prohibited all laws which would require an open access mandate when US-government-funded researchers published their work. The proposers of the law stated that it would "ensure the continued publication and integrity of peer-reviewed research works by the private sector".[27] Critics of the law stated that it was the moment that "academic publishers gave up all pretence of being on the side of scientists."[28] In February 2012, Elsevier withdrew its support for the bill. Following this statement, the sponsors of the bill announced they will also withdraw their support.[29]

The Cost of Knowledge

The Cost of Knowledge is a campaign begun in 2012 specifically targeting the scientific publishing company Elsevier.[30] It was begun by a group of prominent mathematicians who each made a commitment to not participate in publishing in Elsevier's journals.[30]


Access2Research is a 2012 United States-based campaign in which open access advocates appealed to the United States government to require that taxpayer-funded research be made available to the public under open licensing.


PeerJ is an open-access journal launched in 2012 that charges publication fees per researcher, not per article, resulting in what has been called "a flat fee for 'all you can publish'".[31]

Public Knowledge Project

Since 1998, PKP has been developing free open source software platforms for managing and publishing peer-reviewed open access journals and monographs, with Open Journal Systems used by more than 7,000 active journals in 2013.

Schekman boycott

2013 Nobel Prize winner Randy Schekman called for a boycott of traditional academic journals including Nature, Cell, and Science.[32] Instead he promoted the open access journal eLife.[32]

Initiative for Open Citations

Initiative for Open Citations is a CrossRef initiative for improved citation analysis. It was supported by majority of the publishers effective from April 2017.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Taylor, Mike (21 February 2012). "It's Not Academic: How Publishers Are Squelching Science Communication". Discover. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  2. ^ Monbiot, George (29 August 2012). "Academic publishers make Murdoch look like a socialist". The Guardian. London: GMG. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  3. ^ "How #icanhazpdf can hurt our academic libraries". The Lab and Field.
  4. ^ "Interactions: The Numbers Behind #ICanHazPDF -".
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Suber 2012, pp. 29–43
  6. ^ Suber 2012, pp. xi
  7. ^ Odlyzko, Andrew M. (January 1995). "Tragic Loss or Good Riddance? The Impending Demise of Traditional Scholarly Journals" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society: 49–53. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  8. ^ Antelman, Kristin (September 2004). "Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?". College & Research Libraries. 65 (5): 372–382. doi:10.5860/crl.65.5.372. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  9. ^ Lawrence, Steve (31 May 2001). "Free online availability substantially increases a paper's impact". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 411 (6837): 521. Bibcode:2001Natur.411..521L. doi:10.1038/35079151. PMID 11385534. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  10. ^ Mayor, S. (2004). "US universities review subscriptions to journal "package deals" as costs rise". BMJ. 328 (7431): 68. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7431.68. PMC 1150298. PMID 14715586.
  11. ^ a b Beschler, Edwin F. (November 1998). "Pricing of Scientific Publications: A Commercial Publisher's Point of View" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society: 1333–1343. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  12. ^ "Yale University Libraries Cancel BioMed Central Membership in the Face of Spiraling Costs - Depth-First".
  13. ^ Science Libraries News | Yale University Library Archived June 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Calculating the Cost per Article in the Current Subscription Model".
  15. ^ "Open Access Voted Down at Maryland". The Scholarly Kitchen.
  16. ^ Anderson, Rick. "Open access – clear benefits, hidden costs". The Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  17. ^ Leonard, Andrew (August 28, 2007). "Science publishers get even stupider". Salon. Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
  18. ^ Rachel Deahl AAP Tries to Keep Government Out of Science Publishing. Publishers Weekly. 23 August 2007
  19. ^ Park, Ji-Hong; Jian Qin (2007). "Exploring the Willingness of Scholars to Accept Open Access: A Grounded Theory Approach". Journal of Scholarly Publishing. 2. 38 (2): 30. doi:10.1353/scp.2007.0009.
  20. ^ Nicholas, D.; Rowlands, I. (2005). "Open Access publishing: The evidence from the authors". The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 31 (3): 179–181. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2005.02.005.
  21. ^ DLIST – Goodman, David (2005) Open Access: What Comes Next. (2005-11-27). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
  22. ^ a b Worlock, Kate (2004). "The Pros and Cons of Open Access". Nature Focus. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
  23. ^ Beall, Jeffrey (1 December 2012). "Criteria for Determining Predatory Open-Access Publishers (2nd edition)". Scholarly Open Access. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  24. ^ Butler, D. (2013). "Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing". Nature. 495 (7442): 433–435. Bibcode:2013Natur.495..433B. doi:10.1038/495433a. PMID 23538810.
  25. ^ a b "Early History of PLoS". 2012. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  26. ^ Long, Maurice (December 2003). "Bridging the knowledge gap The HINARI programme" (PDF). The Biochemist. Biochemical Society: 27–29. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  27. ^ 112th Congress (2011) (Dec 16, 2011). "H.R. 3699". Legislation. Retrieved February 26, 2012. Research Works Act
  28. ^ Taylor, Mike (16 January 2012). "Academic publishers have become the enemies of science". The Guardian. London: GMG. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  29. ^ Howard, Jennifer. "Legislation to Bar Public-Access Requirement on Federal Research Is Dead". The Chronicle.
  30. ^ a b Flood, Alison (2 February 2012). "Scientists sign petition to boycott academic publisher Elsevier". The Guardian. London: GMG. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012.
  31. ^ Van Noorden, R. (2012). "Journal offers flat fee for 'all you can publish'". Nature. 486 (7402): 166. Bibcode:2012Natur.486..166V. doi:10.1038/486166a. PMID 22699586.
  32. ^ a b Sample, Ian (9 December 2013). "Nobel winner declares boycott of top science journals". Retrieved 16 December 2013.

External links

Academic publishing

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form. The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature". Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.

Most established academic disciplines have their own journals and other outlets for publication, although many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. There is also a tendency for existing journals to divide into specialized sections as the field itself becomes more specialized. Along with the variation in review and publication procedures, the kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions to knowledge or research differ greatly among fields and subfields.

Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, as it makes the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. An important trend, particularly with respect to journals in the sciences, is open access via the Internet. In open access publishing, a journal article is made available free for all on the web by the publisher at the time of publication. Both open and closed journals are sometimes funded by the author paying an Article processing charge, thereby shifting some fees from the reader to the researcher or their funder. Many open or closed journals fund their operations without such fees. The Internet has facilitated open access self-archiving, in which authors themselves make a copy of their published articles available free for all on the web. Some important results in mathematics have been published only on arXiv.


Access2Research is a campaign in the United States for academic journal publishing reform led by open access advocates Michael W. Carroll, Heather Joseph, Mike Rossner, and John Wilbanks.On May 20, 2012, it launched a petition to the White House to "require free access over the Internet to journal articles arising from taxpayer-funded research". The White House has committed to issue an official response to such petitions if they reach 25,000 signatures within 30 days. Access2Research reached this milestone within two weeks. On February 22, 2013, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and announced an executive directive ordering all US Federal Agencies with research & development budgets over $100M to develop public access policies within twelve months.

The petition builds on previous campaigns asking scholars, publishers, funders, governments and the general public to remove paywalls to publicly funded scholarly research. It follows initiatives previously targeted at academics such as The Cost of Knowledge calling for lower prices for scholarly journals and to promote increased access to scientific information. The campaign refers to the NIH Public Access Policy as an example of a mandate that should be expanded to all federally funded research.

Access to Knowledge movement

The Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.


BookFi is a Russian-based eBook library created by SPbSU Masters in early 2010. The main goal of the project is to create the most complete non-profit online library. BookFi was once temporarily pulled off from the Internet as the publish giant Elsevier had beated them in the New York District Court. Nevertheless, BookFi along with other partners believing in open-source movement and free-culture movement soon gained support from many scientists and scholars who also appealed to the public for the notion that access to academic researches should not be controlled by large academic publishers with price tag. Upon that, BookFi resumed operation few days subsequent to the court order.

Calibre (software)

Calibre (stylised calibre) is a cross-platform open-source suite of e-book software. Calibre supports organizing existing e-books into virtual libraries, displaying, editing, creating and converting e-books, as well as syncing e-books with a variety of e-readers. Editing books is supported for EPUB and AZW3 formats. Books in other formats like MOBI must first be converted to those formats, if they are to be edited.

Health information on the Internet

Health information on the Internet refers to all communication related to health done on the Internet.

Heather Joseph

Heather Joseph is a United States-based advocate for open access and particularly academic journal publishing reform. She is the Executive Director of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and a member of the PLOS Board of Directors.


#ICanHazPDF is a hashtag used on Twitter to request access to academic journal articles which are behind paywalls. It began in 2011 by scientist Andrea Kuszewski. The name is derived from the meme I Can Has Cheezburger?.

Mike Rossner

Mike Rossner is a United States-based advocate for academic journal publishing reform and open access. He was the director of the Rockefeller University Press from December, 2006 to May, 2013.

Open access

Open access (OA) is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other barriers, and, in its most precise meaning, with the addition of an open license applied to promote reuse.Academic articles (as historically seen in print-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.

Randy Schekman

Randy Wayne Schekman (born December 30, 1948) is an American cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and former editor-in-chief of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he was announced as the editor of eLife, a new high-profile open-access journal published by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust launching in 2012. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1992. Schekman shared the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with James Rothman and Thomas C. Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking.

Reinventing Discovery

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science is a book written by Michael Nielsen and released in October 2011. It argues for the benefits of applying the philosophy of open science to research.

Rocket eBook

The Rocket eBook is an early commercial handheld e-reader that was produced by NuvoMedia in late 1998; it uses a LCD screen and can store up to ten e-books. E-books are loaded on the device by connecting it to a computer and the device has two page turn buttons. Rocket-compatible e-books were sold online at Barnes & Noble and Powell's Bookstore. It had a retail price of $499.

The Rocket eBook was manufactured by NuvoMedia until 2000, when it was purchased by Gemstar-TV Guide International for $187 million. After purchasing NuvoMedia and merging it with SoftBook, Gemstar released an e-reader called the RCA eBook Reader.

Serials crisis

The term serials crisis has become a common shorthand to describe the chronic subscription cost increases of many serial publications such as scholarly journals. The prices of these institutional or library subscriptions have been rising much faster than the Consumer Price Index for several decades, while the funds available to the libraries have remained static or have declined in real terms. As a result, academic and research libraries have regularly canceled serial subscriptions to accommodate price increases of the remaining current subscriptions.

United States v. Swartz

In United States of America v. Aaron Swartz, Aaron Swartz, an American computer programmer, writer, political organizer and Internet activist, was prosecuted for many violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 (CFAA), after downloading a great many academic journal articles through the MIT computer network from a source (JSTOR) for which he had an account as a Harvard research fellow. Facing trial and the possibility of imprisonment, Swartz committed suicide, and the case was consequently dismissed.

University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System.

The University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, and operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, and it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960.In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents. Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll both undergraduate and graduate students; one campus, UC San Francisco, enrolls only graduate and professional students in the medical and health sciences. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is legally affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is entirely autonomous from the rest of the system.

The University of California also manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).Collectively, the colleges, institutions, and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in almost every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017.

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