An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg (the first editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society), is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."
The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed.
The first academic journal was Journal des sçavans (January 1665), followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (March 1665), and Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences (1666). The first fully peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations (1733).
The idea of a published journal with the purpose of "[letting] people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo (under the pseudonym "Sieur de Hédouville") and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, and obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans. The journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, and had four main objectives:
Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, and the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more strongly focused on scientific communications. By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany (304 periodicals), France (53), and England (34). Several of those publications however, and in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived (under 5 years). A.J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, and 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what exactly counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003.
In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first fully peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the quality and pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature (1869) and Science (1880), the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, and the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, and unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who typically remain anonymous. The number of these peer reviewers (or "referees") varies according to each journal's editorial practice – typically, no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content, style, and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are generally confidential, some journals and publishers also practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication. Even accepted articles are often subjected to further (sometimes considerable) editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months.
Review articles, also called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, and others do not publish review articles. Such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a given subject; others are selective, including only what they think worthwhile. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field. Some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions, sometimes planned years in advance. They are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field.
Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the research books published by scholars; unlike articles, book reviews tend to be solicited. Journals typically have a separate book review editor determining which new books to review and by whom. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editor's request for a book review, he or she generally receives a free copy of the book from the journal in exchange for a timely review. Publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook and trade book review.
An academic journal's prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline, there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, and therefore can be selective in choosing their content. Yet, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality.
In the natural sciences and in the social sciences, the impact factor is an established proxy, measuring the number of later articles citing articles already published in the journal. There are other quantitative measures of prestige, such as the overall number of citations, how quickly articles are cited, and the average "half-life" of articles. Clarivate Analytics' Journal Citation Reports, which among other features, computes an impact factor for academic journals, draws data for computation from the Science Citation Index Expanded (for natural science journals), and from the Social Sciences Citation Index (for social science journals). Several other metrics are also used, including the SCImago Journal Rank, CiteScore, Eigenfactor, and Altmetrics.
In the Anglo-American humanities, there is no tradition (as there is in the sciences) of giving impact-factors that could be used in establishing a journal's prestige. Recent moves have been made by the European Science Foundation (ESF) to change the situation, resulting in the publication of preliminary lists for the ranking of academic journals in the humanities. These rankings have been severely criticized, notably by history and sociology of science British journals that have published a common editorial entitled "Journals under Threat." Though it did not prevent ESF and some national organizations from proposing journal rankings, it largely prevented their use as evaluation tools.
In some disciplines such as knowledge management/intellectual capital, the lack of a well-established journal ranking system is perceived by academics as "a major obstacle on the way to tenure, promotion and achievement recognition". Conversely, a significant number of scientists and organizations consider the pursuit of impact factor calculations as inimical to the goals of science, and have signed the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment to limit its use.
The categorization of journal prestige in some subjects has been attempted, typically using letters to rank their academic world importance.
Three categories of techniques have developed to assess journal quality and create journal rankings:
Many academic journals are subsidized by universities or professional organizations, and do not exist to make a profit. However, they often accept advertising, page and image charges from authors to pay for production costs. On the other hand, some journals are produced by commercial publishers who do make a profit by charging subscriptions to individuals and libraries. They may also sell all of their journals in discipline-specific collections or a variety of other packages.
Journal editors tend to have other professional responsibilities, most often as teaching professors. In the case of the largest journals, there are paid staff assisting in the editing. The production of the journals is almost always done by publisher-paid staff. Humanities and social science academic journals are usually subsidized by universities or professional organization.
The Internet has revolutionized the production of, and access to, academic journals, with their contents available online via services subscribed to by academic libraries. Individual articles are subject-indexed in databases such as Google Scholar. Some of the smallest, most specialized journals are prepared in-house, by an academic department, and published only online – such form of publication has sometimes been in the blog format. Currently, there is a movement in higher education encouraging open access, either via self archiving, whereby the author deposits a paper in a disciplinary or institutional repository where it can be searched for and read, or via publishing it in a free open access journal, which does not charge for subscriptions, being either subsidized or financed by a publication fee. Given the goal of sharing scientific research to speed advances, open access has affected science journals more than humanities journals. Commercial publishers are experimenting with open access models, but are trying to protect their subscription revenues.
The much lower entry cost of on-line publishing has also raised concerns of an increase in publication of "junk" journals with lower publishing standards. These journals, often with names chosen as similar to well-established publications, solicit articles via e-mail and then charge the author to publish an article, often with no sign of actual review. Jeffrey Beall, a research librarian at the University of Colorado, has compiled a list of what he considers to be "potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers"; the list numbered over 300 journals as of April 2013, but he estimates that there may be thousands. The OMICS Publishing Group, which publishes a number of the journals on this list, has threatened to sue Beall.
Some academic journals use the registered report format, which aims to counteract issues such as data dredging and hypothesizing after the results are known. For example, Nature Human Behaviour has adopted the registered report format, as it "shift[s] the emphasis from the results of research to the questions that guide the research and the methods used to answer them". The European Journal of Personality defines this format: "In a registered report, authors create a study proposal that includes theoretical and empirical background, research questions/hypotheses, and pilot data (if available). Upon submission, this proposal will then be reviewed prior to data collection, and if accepted, the paper resulting from this peer-reviewed procedure will be published, regardless of the study outcomes."
Wikipedia has many Lists of Academic Journals by discipline, such as List of African Studies Journals and List of Forestry Journals. The largest database providing detailed information about journals is Ulrichs Global Serials Directory. Other databases providing detailed information about journals are the Modern Language Association Directory of Periodicals and Genamics JournalSeek. Journal hosting websites like Project MUSE, JSTOR, Pubmed, Ingenta Web of Science, and Informaworld also provide journal lists. Some sites evaluate journals, providing information on such things as how long the journal takes to review articles and what types of articles they want.
Academic journal publishing reform is the advocacy for changes in the way academic journals are created and distributed in the age of the Internet and the advent of electronic publishing. Since the rise of the Internet, people have organized campaigns to change the relationships among and between academic authors, their traditional distributors and their readership. Most of the discussion has centered on taking advantage of benefits offered by the Internet's capacity for widespread distribution of reading material.Administrative Science Quarterly
Administrative Science Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of organizational studies. The journal was established in 1956 and is published by SAGE Publications for the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University. For 2007, it was ranked as the #16 academic journal in business by Financial Times.Biological Abstracts
Biological Abstracts is a database produced by Clarivate Analytics. It includes abstracts from peer-reviewed academic journal articles in the fields of biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, pre-clinical and experimental medicine, pharmacology, zoology, agriculture, and veterinary medicine published since 1926.It can be accessed through number of services, including EBSCO, Ovid and Web of Science.David F. Bjorklund
David Fredrick Bjorklund (born June 13, 1949) is an American professor of psychology at Florida Atlantic University. His areas of research interest include cognitive development and evolutionary developmental psychology. His works include authoring several books and over 130 scientific papers. He is editor of the peer-reviewed Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.
Bjorklund was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. He received a Ph.D., 1976 from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Developmental psychology. In addition to his professorship at FAU, he has been visiting professor at Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich, Germany; University of Georgia, and Emory University.Evolutionary Psychology (journal)
Evolutionary Psychology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal published since 2003. It covers empirical, philosophical, historical, and socio-political aspects of evolutionary psychology. Its editors-in-chief are Todd K. Shackelford (Oakland University), Bernhard Fink (University of Göttingen), David A. Puts (Pennsylvania State University), and Rebecca Sear (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). In 2015 the journal moved to Sage Publications.The journal is abstracted and indexed in Social Sciences Citation Index, and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences.John Jordan (poet)
John Jordan (1930–1988) was an Irish poet and short-story writer.Josep Call
Josep Call is a Spanish comparative psychologist specializing in primate cognition.Journal of Materials Chemistry
The Journal of Materials Chemistry was a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the applications, properties and synthesis of new materials. It was established in 1991 and published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. At the end of 2012 the journal was split into three independent journals: Journal of Materials Chemistry A (energy and sustainability), Journal of Materials Chemistry B (biology and medicine) and Journal of Materials Chemistry C (optical, magnetic and electronic devices). The editor-in-chief was Liz Dunn.List of academic databases and search engines
This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles.
As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:
the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
the article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the
database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.Manuscript (publishing)
"Manuscript" is a broad concept in publishing, that can refer to one or both of the following:
the formatting of a short story manuscript,
an accepted manuscript (by its merit, not its format), not yet in a final format (but reviewed), published with non-final-format in advance, as preprint.A manuscript is the work that an author submits to a publisher, editor, or producer for publication. Even with the advent of desktop publishing, making it possible for anyone to prepare text that appears professionally typeset, many publishers still require authors to submit manuscripts within their respective guidelines.Physical Review
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols. It publishes original research as well as scientific and literature reviews on all aspects of physics. It is published by the American Physical Society (APS). The journal is in its third series, and is split in several sub-journals each covering a particular field of physics. It has a sister journal, Physical Review Letters, which publishes shorter articles of broader interest.Project MUSE
Project MUSE, a non-profit collaboration between libraries and publishers, is an online database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books. Project MUSE provides access to digital humanities and social science content from over 250 university presses and scholarly societies around the world. It is an aggregator of digital versions of academic journals and operates as a third-party acquisition service like EBSCO, Elsevier, JSTOR, OverDrive, and ProQuest.The project considers itself a non-profit organization through its so-called sustainable model that meets the needs of libraries, publishers, and scholars. MUSE’s online journal collections are available on a subscription basis to academic, public, special, and school libraries. Currently, more than 2,500 libraries worldwide subscribe. Electronic book collections became available for institutional purchase in January 2012. Thousands of scholarly books are available on the platform.ScienceDirect
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research. It hosts over 12 million pieces of content from 3,500 academic journals and 34,000 e-books. The journals are grouped into four main sections: Physical Sciences and Engineering, Life Sciences, Health Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. Article abstracts are freely available, but access to their full texts (in PDF and, for newer publications, also HTML) generally requires a subscription or pay-per-view purchase.Shakespeare Quarterly
Shakespeare Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1950 by the Shakespeare Association of America. It is now under the auspices of the Folger Shakespeare Library. Along with book and performance criticism, Shakespeare Quarterly incorporates scholarly research and essays on Shakespeare and the age in which he worked, particularly those that explore new perspectives. It includes a special section devoted to the latest ideas in Shakespeare scholarship.
As a companion, the Folger Library also publishes the reference database World Shakespeare Bibliography Online, which contains more than 125,000 annotated bibliographical references and several hundred thousand reviews.
The editor of Shakespeare Quarterly is Jeremy Lopez (University of Toronto). The World Shakespeare Bibliography is edited by Dr. Laura Estill (Texas A&M University).Sokal affair
The Sokal affair, also called the Sokal hoax, was a scholarly publishing sting perpetrated by Alan Sokal, a physics professor at New York University and University College London. In 1996, Sokal submitted an article to Social Text, an academic journal of postmodern cultural studies. The submission was an experiment to test the journal's intellectual rigor and, specifically, to investigate whether "a leading North American journal of cultural studies—whose editorial collective includes such luminaries as Fredric Jameson and Andrew Ross—[would] publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if (a) it sounded good and (b) it flattered the editors' ideological preconceptions".The article, "Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity", was published in the Social Text spring/summer 1996 "Science Wars" issue. It proposed that quantum gravity is a social and linguistic construct. At that time, the journal did not practice academic peer review and it did not submit the article for outside expert review by a physicist. Three weeks after its publication in May 1996, Sokal revealed in Lingua Franca that the article was a hoax.The hoax sparked a debate about the scholarly merit of commentary on the physical sciences by those in the humanities; the influence of postmodern philosophy on social disciplines in general; academic ethics, including whether Sokal was wrong to deceive the editors and readers of Social Text; and whether Social Text had exercised appropriate intellectual rigor.The English Historical Review
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman). It publishes articles on all aspects of history -British, European, and world history- since the classical era. It is the oldest surviving English language academic journal in the discipline of history.
Six issues are published each year, and typically include four articles from a broad chronological range (roughly, medieval, early modern, modern and twentieth century) and around sixty book reviews. Review Articles are commissioned by the editors. A summary of international periodical literature published in the previous twelve months is also provided, and an annual summary of editions, reference works and other materials of interest to scholars is also produced.The journal was established in 1886 by John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, Regius professor of modern history at Cambridge, and a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. The first editor was Mandell Creighton. The current editors are Catherine Holmes, Peter Marshall, Stephen Conway and Hannah Skoda.Editors of The English Historical Review:
1886-91 Mandell Creighton
1891-1894 Samuel Rawson Gardiner assisted by Reginald Lane Poole
1895-1901 S R Gardiner and Reginald Lane Poole
1902-1920 Reginald Lane Poole, assisted (1920) by George Norman Clark
1921-25 G N Clark assisted (1924-5) by E. Stanley Cohn
1926 G N Clark and Charles William Previté-Orton
1927-38 C W Previté-Orton
1938-39 C W Previté-Orton and G N Clark
1939-58 John Goronwy Edwards and Richard Pares
1958-59 J G Edwards and Denys Hay
1959-1965 Denys Hay
1965-67 John Michael Wallace-Hadrill
1967-74 J M Wallace-Hadrill and John Morris Roberts
1974-78 J M Roberts and George Arthur Holmes
1978-81 G A Holmes and Angus Donald Macintyre
1982-1986 AD Macintyre and Penry Herbert Williams
1986-90 PH Williams and Robert John Weston Evans
1991-95 RJW Evans and John Maddicott
1996-99 JH Maddicott and John Stevenson
1999-2001 JH Maddicott and Jean Dunbabin
2001 Jean Dunbabin and John Rowlatt
2001-04 Jean Dunbabin and George W Bernard
2004-6 G W Bernard and Philip Waller
2007-12 G W Bernard and Martin Conway
2012-13 Martin Conway and Catherine Holmes
2013-16 Martin Conway, Catherine Holmes and Peter Marshall
2017- Catherine Holmes, Peter Marshall, Stephen Conway and Hannah SkodaThe Musical Times
The Musical Times is an academic journal of classical music edited and produced in the United Kingdom and currently the oldest such journal still being published in that country. It was originally published as The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular from 1844 until 1903. Its title was shortened to its present name from January 1904. The journal originally appeared monthly but is now a quarterly publication. It is also available online at JSTOR and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature Full Text.
Past editors include F. G. Edwards (1897–1909), Harvey Grace, Stanley Sadie (1967–1987) and Eric Wen.Yao Zhen
Yao Zhen (Chinese: 姚錱; a.k.a. T. Yao; 18 October 1915 – 4 November 2005) was a Chinese biologist and oncologist. He served the first president of Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology.
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