Académie Julian

The Académie Julian (French pronunciation: ​[akademi ʒyljɑ̃])[1] was a private art school for painting and sculpture founded in Paris, France, in 1867 by French painter and teacher Rodolphe Julian (1839–1907) that was active from 1868 through 1968.[2] It remained famous for the number and quality of artists who attended during the great period of effervescence in the arts in the early twentieth century.[3][4] After 1968, it integrated with ESAG Penninghen.

Académie Julian
Bashkirtseff - In the Studio
The Studio (1881) by Marie Bashkirtseff
TypePrivate art school
FounderRodolphe Julian


Rodolphe Julian (artist)
Rodolphe Julian (1839–1907), founder of the Académie Julian

Rodolphe Julian established the Académie Julian in 1868 at the Passage des Panoramas, as a private studio school for art students.[5] The Académie Julian not only prepared students to the exams at the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts, but offered independent alternative education and training in arts. "Founded at a time when art was about to undergo a long series of crucial mutations, the Academie Julian played host to painters and sculptors of every kind and persuasion and never tried to make them hew to any one particular line".[2]

In 1880, women who were not allowed to enroll for study to the École des Beaux-Arts, were accepted by the new Académie Julian. Foreign applicants who had been deterred from entering the Ecole des Beaux Arts by a vicious French language examination[1] were welcome at the Académie Julian.[6] Men and women were trained separately, and women participated in the same studies as men, including drawing and painting of nude models.[7][8] "Human exchange went forward in an atmosphere that was collegial, easygoing and mutually supportive. It nurtured some of the best artists of the day".[2]

Académie Julian became popular as fertile ground with French as well as foreign students from diverse backgrounds from all over the world,[3] from the United Kingdom,[9] Canada,[10] Hungary,[11] and particularly the United States;[2][12][13] French art critic Egmont Arens wrote in 1924 that American art, at least for a period of time, reflected the teachings of Académie Julian.[14] In 1989, on the occasion of the exhibition at the Shepherd Gallery, in Manhattan, devoted to the Academie Julian in Paris as it existed between 1868 and 1939, John Russell wrote:

By my count, more than 50 nationalities were represented at the school during its glory years. To be at the Academie Julian was to be exposed to a kind of white magic that seems to have worked in almost every case. What was learned there stayed forever with alumnus and alumna, and it related as much to the conduct of life as to the uses of brush and chisel. – in The New York Times, John Russell: "An Art School That Also Taught Life", March 19, 1989.[2]

The early success of the Académie was also secured by the famous and respected artists whom Rodolphe Julian employed as instructors: Adolphe William Bouguereau (1825–1905), Henri Royer, Jean-Paul Laurens, Gabriel Ferrier, Tony Robert-Fleury, Jules Lefebvre and other leading artists of that time trained in Academic art.[15] Eventually, Académie Julian students were granted the right to compete for the Prix de Rome, a prize awarded to promising young artists.[16] and participate in the major "Salons" or art exhibitions.

In the late 19th century the term L'art pompier had entered the scene as a derisive term for the traditional academic art espoused by the Académie's instructors. As a result the Académie Julian embraced a more liberal regime pushing a less conservative, more sincere approach to art[1] which corresponded to the Secessionist art movement in Germany and the Vienna Secession in Austria. It was followed and fully articulated by the Nabis, avant-garde movement,[17] that participated in paving the way to modern art in 1888–1889.[5]

Over time, Académie Julian opened schools in other locations. In addition to the original school at Passage des Panoramas, studios were at no. 28 Boulevard St-Jacques in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, no. 5 Rue de Berri in the 8th arrondissement, no. 31 Rue du Dragon in the 6th arrondissement, no. 51, rue Vivienne in the 2nd arrondissement for female student artists, overseen by painter Amélie Beaury-Saurel, Julian's spouse. And subsequent faculty were made up of former students, like Edgar Chahine for example.

Academie Julian, Paris, group of art students

group of art students at Académie Julian

'Bouguereau's Atelier at Académie Julian, Paris' Jefferson David Chalfant

'Bouguereau's Atelier at Académie Julian

1886 group portrait Academie Julian

1886, group portrait, Académie Julian

Académie Julian 1889

Académie Julian

Marie Bashkirtseff 03

Marie Bashkirtseff – Académie Julian

Academie Julian

Rob Wagner training at the Académie Julian in 1903.

Académie Julian remained open during World War I, albeit with a lesser number of students. By contrast during World War II, after the 1941 exhibition Vingt jeunes peintres de tradition française[18] considerations on "degenerate art" by the German military administration forced the school to close. In 1946 some of the studios were sold.

For his services to the arts, Rodolphe Julian, described by the Anglo-Irish novelist and critic George Moore as a kind of Hercules, dark-haired, strong, with broad shoulders, short legs, a soft voice and all the charm of the Midi was awarded the Legion of Honour.[2][19]

The artist records still extant are those of the men's section, covering the 1870–1932 period, and those of the women's section, covering the 1880–1907 period.

In 1968, an important year in France's history with the May events, particularly in relation to education, the Académie Julian integrated with ESAG Penninghen.[20]

Notable faculty and alumni of the Académie Julian

See also


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ a b c d e f The New York Times, John Russel: "An Art School That Also Taught Life", March 19, 1989
  3. ^ a b visual-arts-cork, Academie Julian, students
  4. ^ Vallin, Gérard. "Elèves et professeurs de l'Académie Julian" [Students and Faculty of the Académie Julian]. academie julian (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b Tate Gallery, "Académie Julian."
  6. ^ "Women of the Académie Julian: The Rise of the Female Art Student", Katherine Amato - Art History156, Professor Karen Linehan
  7. ^ Peter Collier, Robert Lethbridge:"Artistic Relations: Literature and the Visual Arts in Nineteenth-century France"
  8. ^ Farmer, J David. "Overcoming All Obstacles: The Women of the Académie Julian – An Exhibition Organized by the Dahesh Museum". California Art Club Newsletter. No. April/May 2000. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  9. ^ David Charles Rose, Oscar Wilde's Elegant Republic: Transformation, Dislocation and Fantasy
  10. ^ (fr) and (en) papyrus.bib, University of Montreal
  11. ^ (fr) Sophie Barthélémy, Musée d'art moderne (Céret, France), Musée Matisse (Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France), Musée des beaux-arts de Dijon, Fauves hongrois, 1904-1914
  12. ^ , Arthur Lubow, "Americans in Paris", January 2007
  13. ^ Bill Marshall, Cristina Johnston:"France And The Americas: Culture, Politics, And History"
  14. ^ (fr)La Renaissance de l'art français et des industries de luxe, 1924
  15. ^ (in French) Gallica, French-archives, Les plaisirs et les curiosités de Paris, 1889, p. 193
  16. ^ Chilvers, Ian, ed. (2004). "Académie," Oxford Dictionary of Art, p. 5–6., p. 5, at Google Books
  17. ^, student Ludwig Meidner (...) was unaffected by avant-garde developments there.
  18. ^ Oxfrord index Peintres de Tradition Française
  19. ^ Benezit Dictionary of Artists
  20. ^, historique, From Académie Jullian to ESAG Penninghen


  • (fr) Martine Hérold, L’Académie Julian a cent ans, 1968 [brochure commémorative des 100 années de l'Académie Julian]
  • Catherine Fehrer, "New Light on the Académie Julian and its founder (Rodolphe Julian)", in La Gazette des Beaux-Arts, mai-juin 1984.
  • Catherine Fehrer, The Julian Academy, Paris, 1868-1939 : spring exhibition, 1989, essays by Catherine Fehrer ; exhibition organized by Robert and Elisabeth Kashey, New York, N.Y. (21 E. 84th St., New York) : Shepherd Gallery, vers 1989 [incluant la liste des artistes ayant fréquenté l'Académie ainsi que des professeurs].
  • (fr) Larcher, Albert, Revivons nos belles années à l'Académie Julian 1919-1925, chez l'auteur, Auxerre, 1982.
  • "Women at the Académie Julian in Paris" in The Burlington Magazine, Londres, CXXXVI, novembre 1994.
  • Gabriel P. Weisberg and Jane R. Becker (editors), Overcoming All Obstacles : The Women of the Académie Julian, Dahesh Museum, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey, 1999.
  • Reid, Dennis R. (1988). A Concise History of Canadian Painting. Toronto: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-540664-1; ISBN 978-0-19-540663-4; OCLC 18378555

External links

Coordinates: 48°52′16″N 2°20′30″E / 48.87111°N 2.34167°E

Alexander Sakharoff

Alexander Sakharoff (Russian: Александр Сахаров, also spelled Sakharov and Sacharoff, 13 May 1886 – 25 September 1963) was a Russian dancer, teacher, and choreographer.

André Derain

André Derain (French: [dəʁɛ̃]; 10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.

Charles Demuth

Charles Henry Buckius Demuth (November 8, 1883 – October 23, 1935) was an American watercolorist who turned to oils late in his career, developing a style of painting known as Precisionism.

"Search the history of American art," wrote Ken Johnson in The New York Times, "and you will discover few watercolors more beautiful than those of Charles Demuth. Combining exacting botanical observation and loosely Cubist abstraction, his watercolors of flowers, fruit and vegetables have a magical liveliness and an almost shocking sensuousness."Demuth was a lifelong resident of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The home he shared with his mother is now the Demuth Museum, which showcases his work. He graduated from Franklin & Marshall Academy before studying at Drexel University and at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. While he was a student at PAFA, he participated in a show at the Academy, and also met William Carlos Williams at his boarding house. The two were fast friends and remained close for the rest of their lives.

He later studied at Académie Colarossi and Académie Julian in Paris, where he became a part of the avant garde art scene. The Parisian artistic community was accepting of Demuth's homosexuality. After his return to America, Demuth retained aspects of Cubism in many of his works.

Eliseu Visconti

Eliseu Visconti, born Eliseo d'Angelo Visconti (30 July 1866, Giffoni Valle Piana, Italy – 15 October 1944, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was an Italian-born Brazilian painter, cartoonist, and teacher. He is considered one of the very few impressionist painters of Brazil. He is considered the initiator of the art nouveau in Brazil.

Georges Dufrénoy

Georges Dufrénoy (June 20, 1870 – December 9, 1943) was a French post-Impressionist painter associated with Fauvism.

Henry Moret

Henry Moret (12 December 1856 – 5 May 1913) was a French Impressionist painter. He was one of the artists who associated with Paul Gauguin at Pont-Aven in Brittany. He is best known for his involvement in the Pont-Aven artist colony and his richly colored landscapes of coastal Brittany.

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.

James Wilson Morrice

James Wilson Morrice (August 10, 1865 – January 23, 1924) was a significant Canadian landscape painter. He studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, France, where he lived for most of his career. James Morrice Street in New Bordeaux, Ahuntsic-Cartierville, Montreal is named in his memory.

Jean-Paul Laurens

Jean-Paul Laurens (28 March 1838 – 23 March 1921) was a French painter and sculptor, and one of the last major exponents of the French Academic style.

Laurens was born in Fourquevaux and was a pupil of Léon Cogniet and Alexandre Bida. Strongly anti-clerical and republican, his work was often on historical and religious themes, through which he sought to convey a message of opposition to monarchical and clerical oppression. His erudition and technical mastery were much admired in his time, but in later years his highly realistic technique, coupled to a theatrical mise-en-scène, came to be regarded by some art-historians as overly didactic. More recently, however, his work has been re-evaluated as an important and original renewal of history painting, a genre of painting that was in decline during Laurens' lifetime.

Laurens was commissioned to paint numerous public works by the French Third Republic, including the steel vault of the Paris City Hall, the monumental series on the life of Saint Genevieve in the apse of the Panthéon, the decorated ceiling of the Odéon Theater, and the hall of distinguished citizens at the Toulouse capitol. He also provided illustrations for Augustin Thierry's Récits des temps mérovingiens ("Accounts of Merovingian Times").

Laurens was highly respected teacher at the Académie Julian, Paris, and a professor at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he taught André Dunoyer de Segonzac and George Barbier. He died in Paris, aged 82. Two of his sons, Paul Albert Laurens (1870–1934) and Jean-Pierre Laurens (1875–1932), both also became painters and teachers at the Académie Julian.

Jules Joseph Lefebvre

Jules Joseph Lefebvre (French: [ʒyl ʒɔzɛf ləfɛːvʁ]) (14 March 1836 – 24 February 1911) was a French figure painter, educator and theorist.

Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar

Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar (1911–1996) better known as K.K. Hebbar was a celebrated artist known for his India themed artworks.

Maurice Cullen (artist)

Maurice Galbraith Cullen (6 June 1866–28 March 1934) was a Canadian landscape artist known for his winter landscapes.

Max Slevogt

Max Slevogt (8 October 1868 – 20 September 1932) was a German Impressionist painter and illustrator, best known for his landscapes. He was, together with Lovis Corinth and Max Liebermann, one of the foremost representatives in Germany of the plein air style.

Paul Ranson

Paul Ranson (March 29, 1864 – February 20, 1909) was a French painter and writer.Paul-Elie Ranson was born in Limoges and studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs there before moving to Paris and transferring to the Académie Julian in 1886. There he met Paul Sérusier in 1888. Subsequently, from 1890 he became a member and a creative leader of the Nabis group. They gathered at his studio in the Boulevarde du Montparnasse each Saturday. He was the one who introduced the Nabis language within the group.

In 1908, he created the Académie Ranson with his wife Marie-France, to teach the Nabis ideas and techniques. After his death in Paris in 1909, his wife continued to run the academy.

Robert Pilot

Robert Wakeham Pilot (1898–1967) was a Canadian artist, who worked mainly in oil on canvas or on panel, and as an etcher and muralist.Pilot was born on 9 October 1898, at St. John's, Newfoundland, to Edward Frederick Pilot and his wife Barbara (née Merchant). In 1910, his widowed mother married the artist, Maurice Cullen, moving into Cullen's home in Montreal. As a child, Pilot assisted Cullen in his studio, and the two would take sketching trips together. He later studied in Montreal under William Brymner, then, in March 1916, joined the army. He served as a gunner on trench mortars in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, Fifth Division Artillery, during World War I. From 1920 to 1922, he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1922, he exhibited at the Paris Salon. His work took on Impressionist influences after he visited the artists' colony at Concarneau.On returning to Canada, he was elected as an associate of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1925, serving as the Adcademy's president from 1952 to 1954.His first solo show was in 1927, at the Watson Art Galleries. He won the Jessie Dow Prize in that year and in 1934.He re-enlisted in 1941, during World War II, serving as a Captain in The Black Watch, and was mentioned in dispatches while in Italy, which resulted in him being made a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in 1944. He was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal in 1953.Paintings by Pilot were presented to Winston Churchill and to Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. Others are in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada.Pilot died at Montreal General Hospital on 17 December 1967, and was survived by his wife Patricia (née Dawes) and son, Wakeham. A retrospective exhibition of his work was held at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1969.

Robert Vonnoh

Robert William Vonnoh (September 17, 1858 – 28 December 1933) was an American Impressionist painter known for his portraits and landscapes. He traveled extensively between the American East Coast and France, more specifically the artists colony Grez-sur-Loing.

Roger de La Fresnaye

Roger de La Fresnaye (French: [ʁɔʒe də la fʁɛnɛ]; 11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist painter.

Sarah Purser

Sarah Henrietta Purser (22 March 1848 - 7 August 1943) was an Irish artist mainly noted for her work with stained glass.

Tony Robert-Fleury

Tony Robert-Fleury (September 1, 1837 – December 8, 1911) was a French painter, known primarily for historical scenes. He was also a prominent art teacher, with many famous artists among his students.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.