Acacia pycnantha

Acacia pycnantha, most commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia. It grows to a height of 8 m (26 ft) and has phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) instead of true leaves. Sickle-shaped, these are between 9 and 15 cm (3 12 and 6 in) long, and 1–3.5 cm (121 12 in) wide. The profuse fragrant, golden flowers appear in late winter and spring, followed by long seed pods. Plants are cross-pollinated by several species of honeyeater and thornbill, which visit nectaries on the phyllodes and brush against flowers, transferring pollen between them. An understorey plant in eucalyptus forest, it is found from southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, through Victoria and into southeastern South Australia.

Explorer Thomas Mitchell collected the type specimen, from which George Bentham wrote the species description in 1842. No subspecies are recognised. The bark of A. pycnantha produces more tannin than any other wattle species, resulting in its commercial cultivation for production of this compound. It has been widely grown as an ornamental garden plant and for cut flower production, but has become a weed in South Africa, Tanzania, Italy, Portugal, Sardinia, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, as well as Western Australia, Tasmania and New South Wales. Acacia pycnantha was made the official floral emblem of Australia in 1988, and has been featured on the country's postal stamps.

Golden wattle
Closeup of pendulous green phyllodes (leaves) and yellow globular flower heads
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Clade: Mimosoideae
Genus: Acacia
A. pycnantha
Binomial name
Acacia pycnantha


Acacia pycnantha 5145
Habit, Geelong Botanic Gardens

Acacia pycnantha generally grows as a small tree to between 3 and 8 m (10 and 30 ft) in height,[2] though trees of up to 12 m (40 ft) high have been reported in Morocco.[3] The bark is generally dark brown to grey—smooth in younger plants though it can be furrowed and rough in older plants.[4] Branchlets may be bare and smooth or covered with a white bloom.[2] The mature trees do not have true leaves but have phyllodes—flat and widened leaf stems—that hang down from the branches. Shiny and dark green, these are between 9 and 15 cm (3 12 and 6 in) long, 1–3.5 cm (121 12 in) wide and falcate (sickle-shaped) to oblanceolate in shape.[2] New growth has a bronze colouration.[5] Field observations at Hale Conservation Park show the bulk of new growth to take place over spring and summer from October to January.[6]

Floral buds are produced year-round on the tips of new growth, but only those initiated between November and May go on to flower several months later. Flowering usually takes place from July to November (late winter to early summer) in the golden wattle's native range; because the later buds develop faster, flowering peaks over July and August.[7][8] The bright yellow inflorescences occur in groups of 40 to 80 on 2.5–9 cm (1–3 12 in)-long racemes that arise from axillary buds.[2] Each inflorescence is a ball-like structure that is covered by 40 to 100 small flowers that have five tiny petals (pentamerous) and long erect stamens, which give the flower head a fluffy appearance.[4]

Developing after flowering has finished, the seed pods are flattish, straight or slightly curved, 5–14 cm (2–5 12 in) long and 5–8 mm wide.[8][9] They are initially bright green, maturing to dark brown and have slight constrictions between the seeds,[10] which are arranged in a line in the pod.[8] The oblong seeds themselves are 5.5 to 6 mm long, black and shiny, with a clavate (club-shaped) aril.[2] They are released in December and January, when the pods are fully ripe.[7]

Species similar in appearance include mountain hickory wattle (A. obliquinervia), coast golden wattle (A. leiophylla) and golden wreath wattle (A. saligna).[2] Acacia obliquinervia has grey-green phyllodes, fewer flowers in its flower heads, and broader (1.25–2.5 cm (12–1 in)-wide) seed pods.[11] A. leiophylla has paler phyllodes.[12] A. saligna has longer, narrower phyllodes.[4]


Acacia pycnantha was first formally described by botanist George Bentham in the London Journal of Botany in 1842.[13] The type specimen was collected by the explorer Thomas Mitchell in present-day northern Victoria between Pyramid Hill and the Loddon River.[14][1] Bentham thought it was related to A. leiophylla, which he described in the same paper.[13] The specific epithet pycnantha is derived from the Greek words pyknos (dense) and anthos (flowers), a reference to the dense cluster of flowers that make up the globular inflorescences.[15] Queensland botanist Les Pedley reclassified the species as Racosperma pycnanthum in 2003, when he proposed placing almost all Australian members of the genus into the new genus Racosperma.[16] However, this name is treated as a synonym of its original name.[1]

Johann Georg Christian Lehmann described Acacia petiolaris in 1851 from a plant grown at Hamburg Botanic Gardens from seed said to be from the Swan River Colony (Perth). [14] Carl Meissner described A. falcinella from material from Port Lincoln in 1855. Bentham classified both as A. pycnantha in his 1864 Flora Australiensis, though he did categorise a possible subspecies angustifolia based on material from Spencer Gulf with narrower phyllodes and fewer inflorescences.[17] However, no subspecies are currently recognised, though an informal classification distinguishes wetland and dryland forms, the latter with narrower phyllodes.[18]

In 1921 Joseph Maiden described Acacia westonii from the northern and western slopes of Mount Jerrabomberra near Queanbeyan in New South Wales. He felt it was similar to, but distinct from, A. pycnantha and was uncertain whether it warranted species rank. His colleague Richard Hind Cambage grew seedlings and reported they had much longer internodes than those of A. pycnantha, and that the phyllodes appeared to have three nectaries rather than the single one of the latter species.[19] It is now regarded as a synonym of A. pycnantha.[1]

Common names recorded include golden wattle, green wattle, black wattle, and broad-leaved wattle.[1] At Ebenezer Mission in the Wergaia country of north-western Victoria the aborigines referred to it as witch.[20][21]

Hybrids of the species are known in nature and cultivation. In the Whipstick forest near Bendigo in Victoria, putative hybrids with Whirrakee wattle (Acacia williamsonii) have been identified; these resemble hakea wattle (Acacia hakeoides).[2] Garden hybrids with Queensland silver wattle (Acacia podalyriifolia) raised in Europe have been given the names Acacia x siebertiana and Acacia x deneufvillei.[1]

Distribution and habitat

Galls on Acacia pycnantha
Galls formed by Trichilogaster signiventris wasps on a plant in South Africa

Golden wattle occurs in south-eastern Australia from South Australia's southern Eyre Peninsula and Flinders Ranges across Victoria and northwards into inland areas of southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.[8][22] It is found in the understorey of open eucalypt forests on dry, shallow soils.[9]

The species has become naturalised beyond its original range in Australia. In New South Wales it is especially prevalent around Sydney and the Central Coast region. In Tasmania it has spread in the east of the state and become weedy in bushland near Hobart. In Western Australia, it is found in the Darling Range and western wheatbelt as well as Esperance and Kalgoorlie.[4]

Outside Australia it has become naturalised in South Africa, Tanzania, Italy, Portugal, Sardinia, India, Indonesia and New Zealand.[4] It is present in California as a garden escapee, but is not considered to be naturalised there.[23] In South Africa, where it had been introduced between 1858 and 1865 for dune stabilization and tannin production, it had spread along waterways into forest, mountain and lowland fynbos, and borderline areas between fynbos and karoo.[24] The gall-forming wasp Trichilogaster signiventris has been introduced in South Africa for biological control and has reduced the capacity of trees to reproduce throughout their range.[25] The eggs are laid by adult wasps into buds of flower heads in the summer, before hatching in May and June when the larvae induce the formation of the grape-like galls and prevent flower development. The galls can be so heavy that branches break under their weight.[26] In addition, the introduction in 2001 of the acacia seed weevil Melanterius compactus has also proved effective.[27]


Acacia pycnantha phyllodes and fly 9276
A fly visiting a nectary on a phyllode

Though plants are usually killed by a severe fire, mature specimens are able to resprout.[28][29] Seeds are able to persist in the soil for more than five years, germinating after fire.[29]

Like other wattles, Acacia pycnantha fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere.[30] It hosts bacteria known as rhizobia that form root nodules, where they make nitrogen available in organic form and thus help the plant grow in poor soils. A field study across Australia and South Africa found that the microbes are genetically diverse, belonging to various strains of the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum and genus Burkholderia in both countries. It is unclear whether the golden wattle was accompanied by the bacteria to the African continent or encountered new populations there.[31]

Self-incompatible, Acacia pycnantha cannot fertilise itself and requires cross-pollination between plants to set seed.[32] Birds facilitate this and field experiments keeping birds away from flowers greatly reduces seed production. Nectaries are located on phyllodes; those near open flowers become active, producing nectar that birds feed upon just before or during flowering. While feeding, birds brush against the flower heads and dislodge pollen and often visit multiple trees.[6] Several species of honeyeater, including the white-naped, yellow-faced,[33] New Holland,[34] and occasionally white-plumed and crescent honeyeaters,[33] and Eastern spinebills have been observed foraging. Other bird species include the silvereye, striated, buff-rumped and brown thornbills. As well as eating nectar, birds often pick off insects on the foliage. Honeybees, native bees, ants and flies also visit nectaries, but generally do not come into contact with the flowers during this activity.[6] The presence of Acacia pycnantha is positively correlated with numbers of swift parrots overwintering in box–ironbark forest in central Victoria, though it is not clear whether the parrots are feeding on them or some other factor is at play.[35]

The wood serves as food for larvae of the jewel beetle species Agrilus assimilis, A. australasiae and A. hypoleucus.[36] The larvae of a number of butterfly species feed on the foliage including the fiery jewel, icilius blue, lithocroa blue and wattle blue.[37] Trichilogaster wasps form galls in the flowerheads, disrupting seed set[38] and Acizzia acaciaepycnanthae, a psyllid, sucks sap from the leaves.[39] Acacia pycnantha is a host to rust fungus species in the genus Uromycladium that affect the phyllodes and branches. These include Uromycladium simplex that forms pustules and U. tepperianum that causes large swollen brown to black galls that eventually lead to the death of the host plant.[40][41] Two fungal species have been isolated from leaf spots on Acacia pycnantha: Seimatosporium arbuti, which is found on a wide range of plant hosts, and Monochaetia lutea.[42]


Acacia pycnantha trunk and gum 8921
Trunk exuding gum

Golden wattle has been grown in temperate regions around the world for the tannin in its bark, as it provides the highest yield of all wattles.[15] Trees can be harvested for tannin from seven to ten years of age.[3] Commercial use of its timber is limited by the small size of trees, but it has high value as a fuel wood.[43] The scented flowers have been used for perfume making,[15] and honey production in humid areas. However, the pollen is too dry to be collected by bees in dry climates.[3] In southern Europe, it is one of several species grown for the cut-flower trade and sold as "mimosa".[44] Like many other species of wattle, Acacia pycnantha exudes gum when stressed.[45] Eaten by indigenous Australians, the gum has been investigated as a possible alternative to gum arabic, commonly used in the food industry.[2][45]


Golden wattle is cultivated in Australia and was introduced to the northern hemisphere in the mid-1800s. Although it has a relatively short lifespan of 15 to 30 years, it is widely grown for its bright yellow, fragrant flowers.[15][38] As well as being an ornamental plant, it has been used as a windbreak or in controlling erosion. Trees are sometimes planted with the taller sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) to make a two-layered windbreak.[3] One form widely cultivated was originally collected on Mount Arapiles in western Victoria. It is floriferous, with fragrant flowers appearing from April to July.[46] The species has a degree of frost tolerance and is adaptable to a wide range of soil conditions, but it prefers good drainage.[46] It tolerates heavy soils in dry climates,[47] as well as mild soil salinity.[48] It can suffer yellowing (chlorosis) in limestone-based (alkaline) soils.[3] Highly drought-tolerant, it needs 370–550 mm (10–20 in) winter rainfall for cultivation.[3] It is vulnerable to gall attack in cultivation.[49] Propagation is from seed which has been pre-soaked in hot water to soften the hard seed coating.[15]

Symbolic and cultural references

Golden wattle in full flower

Although wattles, and in particular the golden wattle, have been the informal floral emblem of Australia for many years (for instance, it represented Australia on the Coronation gown of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953), it was not until Australia's bicentenary in 1988 that the golden wattle was formally adopted as the floral emblem of Australia. This was proclaimed by Governor-General Sir Ninian Stephen in the Government gazette published on 1 September.[50] The day was marked by a ceremony at the Australian National Botanic Gardens which included the planting of a golden wattle by Hazel Hawke, the Prime Minister's wife. In 1992, 1 September was formally declared "National Wattle Day".[15]

The Australian Coat of Arms includes a wreath of wattle; this does not, however, accurately represent a golden wattle. Similarly, the green and gold colours used by Australian international sporting teams were inspired by the colours of wattles in general, rather than the golden wattle specifically.[15]

The species was depicted on a stamp captioned "wattle" as part of a 1959–60 Australian stamp set featuring Australian native flowers. In 1970, a 5c stamp labelled "Golden Wattle" was issued to complement an earlier set depicting the floral emblems of Australia. To mark Australia Day in 1990, a 41c stamp labelled "Acacia pycnantha" was issued.[15] Another stamp labelled "Golden Wattle", with a value of 70c, was issued in 2014.[51]

Clare Waight Keller included golden wattles to represent Australia in Meghan Markle's wedding veil, which included the distinctive flora of each Commonwealth country.[52]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Acacia pycnantha Benth". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kodela 2001, p. 298.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Baumer, Michel (1983). Notes on Trees and Shrubs in Arid and Semi-arid Regions. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-92-5-101354-0.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Golden Wattle Acacia pycnantha". Weeds of Australia: Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Queensland Government. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  5. ^ Birkenshaw, Marie; Henley, Claire (2012). Plants of Melbourne's Western Plains: A Gardener's Guide to the Original Flora. Australian Plants Society, Keilor Plains Group. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-909830-65-6.
  6. ^ a b c Vanstone, Vivien A.; Paton, David C. (1988). "Extrafloral Nectaries and Pollination of Acacia pycnantha Benth by Birds". Australian Journal of Botany. 36 (5): 519–31. doi:10.1071/BT9880519.
  7. ^ a b Buttrose, M.S.; Grant, W.J.R.; Sedgley, M. (1981). "Floral Development in Acacia pycnantha Benth. In Hook". Australian Journal of Botany. 29 (4): 385–95. doi:10.1071/BT9810385.
  8. ^ a b c d "Acacia pycnantha Benth". PlantNET – New South Wales Flora Online. Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney Australia. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  9. ^ a b Costermans, Leon (1981). Native Trees and Shrubs of South-eastern Australia. Kent Town, South Australia: Rigby. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-7270-1403-0.
  10. ^ Simmons, Marion H. (1987). Acacias of Australia. Nelson. pp. 164–65. ISBN 978-0-17-007179-6.
  11. ^ Kodela 2001, p. 251.
  12. ^ Elliot & Jones 1985, p. 74.
  13. ^ a b Bentham, George (1842). "Notes on Mimoseae, with a Synopsis of Species". London Journal of Botany. 1: 351.
  14. ^ a b Kodela 2001, p. 297.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Boden, Anne (1985). "Golden Wattle: Floral Emblem of Australia". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  16. ^ Pedley, Les (2003). "A synopsis of Racosperma C.Mart. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)". Austrobaileya. 6 (3): 445–96.
  17. ^ Bentham, George (1864). "Acacia pycnantha". Flora Australiensis . Volume 2: Leguminosae to Combretaceae. London, United Kingdom: L. Reeve & Co. p. 365.
  18. ^ Ndlovu, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; O'Leary, M.; Le Roux, J. J. (2013). "Elucidating the native sources of an invasive tree species, Acacia pycnantha, reveals unexpected native range diversity and structure". Annals of Botany. 111 (5): 895–904. doi:10.1093/aob/mct057. ISSN 0305-7364. PMC 3631341. PMID 23482331.
  19. ^ Maiden, Joseph Henry (1921). "Notes on Two Acacias". Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 54: 227–30.
  20. ^ Maiden, Joseph Henry. Wattles and wattlebarks of New South Wales (PDF). Sydney, New South Wales: Charles Potter.
  21. ^ Clark, Ian (1995). Scars in the Landscape: Hidden Aboriginal History in Western Victoria. Aboriginal Studies Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-85575-595-9.
  22. ^ "Acacia pycnantha Benth". Flora of Victoria Knowledge Base. Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  23. ^ "Acacia pycnantha Benth". Jepson Flora Project. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  24. ^ Dennill, G. B.; Gordon, A. J. (1991). "Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a potential biocontrol agent for the weed Acacia pycnantha (Fabaceae)". Entomophaga. 36 (2): 295–301. doi:10.1007/BF02374565.
  25. ^ Muniappan, Rangaswamy; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Raman, Anantanarayanan (5 March 2009). Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-87791-6.
  26. ^ Hoffmann, J. H.; Impson, F. A. C.; Moran, V. C.; Donnelly, D. (2002). "Biological Control of Invasive Golden Wattle Trees (Acacia pycnantha) by a gall wasp, Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in South Africa". Biological Control. 25 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1016/s1049-9644(02)00039-7.
  27. ^ Cullen, Jim; Julien, Mic; McFadyen, Rachel (2012). Biological Control of Weeds in Australia. CSIRO Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-643-10421-1.
  28. ^ "Acacia pycnantha". florabank. Greening Australia. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  29. ^ a b "Acacia pycnantha Benth". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  30. ^ Greening Australia (2010). "Acacia pycnantha". Florabank. Yarralumla, Australian Capital Territory: Australian Government/Greening Australia/CSIRO. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  31. ^ Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Crisóstomo, João A.; Ndlovu, Joice (2011). "Jack-of-all-trades and master of many? How does associated rhizobial diversity influence the colonization success of Australian Acacia species?". Diversity and Distributions. 17 (5): 946–57. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00787.x.
  32. ^ Kenrick, J.; Knox, R.B. (1988). "Quantitative Analysis of Self-Incompatibility in Trees of Seven Species of Acacia". Journal of Heredity. 80 (3): 240–45. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a110842. ISSN 0022-1503.
  33. ^ a b Ford, Hugh A.; Forde, Neville (1976). "Birds as Possible Pollinators of Acacia pycnantha". Australian Journal of Botany. 24 (6): 793–95. doi:10.1071/BT9760793.
  34. ^ Corella. Australian Bird Study Association. 1998.
  35. ^ Mac Nally, Ralph; Horrocks, Gregory (2000). "Landscape-scale Conservation of an Endangered Migrant:the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) in its Winter Range". Biological Conservation. 92 (3): 335–43. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00100-7.
  36. ^ Jendek, Eduard; Poláková, Janka (2014). Host Plants of World Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). New York, New York: Springer. p. 455. ISBN 978-3-319-08410-7.
  37. ^ "Acacia pycnantha". Electronic Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet. State Herbarium of South Australia. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  38. ^ a b Maslin, Bruce Roger; McDonald, Maurice William (2004). AcaciaSearch: Evaluation of Acacia as a Woody Crop Option for Southern Australia (PDF). Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. ISBN 978-0-642-58585-1.
  39. ^ Old, K.M.; Vercoe, T.K.; Floyd, R.B.; Wingfield, M.J. (2002). "FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm No. 20 Acacia sp" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. p. 24. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  40. ^ McAlpine, Daniel (1906). The rusts of Australia their structure, nature and classification. Department of Agriculture (Victoria). pp. 110–12.
  41. ^ "Uromycladium tepperianum on Acacia spp". Invasive and Emerging Fungal Pathogens – Diagnostic Fact Sheets. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  42. ^ Swart, H.J.; Griffiths, D.A. (1974). "Australian Leaf-inhabiting Fungi: IV. Two Coelomycetes on Acacia pycnantha". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 62 (1): 151–61. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(74)80016-1.
  43. ^ Maslin, B.R.;Thomson, L.A.J.;McDonald. M.W.; Hamilton-Brown, S. (1998). Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia: A Review of Species for Use in Semi-Arid Regions. CSIRO Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-643-10253-8.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  44. ^ "Wattle uses". World Wide Wattle. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  45. ^ a b Annison, Geoffrey; Trimble Rodney P.; Topping, David L. (1995). "Feeding Australian Acacia Gums and Gum Arabic Leads to Non-Starch Polysaccharide Accumulation in the Cecum of Rats" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. 125 (2): 283–92. doi:10.1093/jn/125.2.283 (inactive 2019-02-11). PMID 7861255.
  46. ^ a b Elliot & Jones 1985, p. 103.
  47. ^ Lothian, T.R.N. (1969). "Gardening in the Low Rainfall Regions". Australian Plants. 5 (38): 54–55, 80–95 [89].
  48. ^ Zwar, J. (1975). "Trees in Dry Areas". Australian Plants. 8 (64): 164–67 [165].
  49. ^ Holliday, Ivan (1989). A Field Guide to Australian Trees (2nd ed.). Port Melbourne, Victoria: Hamlyn. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-947334-08-6.
  50. ^ Stephen, Ninian (1988). "Proclamation of Acacia pycnantha as the Floral Emblem of Australia". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  51. ^ "Plant:Acacia pycnantha". Australian Plants on Stamps. Australian National. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  52. ^ "The Wedding Dress: Clare Waight Keller for Givenchy". The Royal Household, UK. 19 May 2018.

Cited texts

  • Elliot, Rodger W.; Jones, David L.; Blake, Trevor (1985). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation. 2. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Lothian Press. ISBN 978-0-85091-143-5.
  • Kodela, Phillip G. (2001). "Acacia". In Wilson, Annette; Orchard, Anthony E. Flora of Australia. 11A, 11B, Part 1: Mimosaceae, Acacia. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. ISBN 978-0-643-06718-9.

External links

A. petiolaris

A. petiolaris may refer to:

Acacia petiolaris, a synonym for Acacia pycnantha, a tree species

Azara petiolaris, the holly azara, a plant species

Acrocercops alysidota

The wattle miner (Acrocercops alysidota) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Southern Australia and Western Australia as well as New Zealand.

The wingspan is about 8 mm. Adults have a fringe along the trailing edge of each wing. The forewings have light and dark chevron markings, while the hindwings are golden brown.The larvae feed on Acacia longifolia, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia pycnantha and Acacia saligna. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a long, narrow gallery on either side of the leaf. It is more or less tortuous in direction, and generally up and down the long axis of the leaf. The colour of the early part of the mine is white, with a thin brown or black central line of frass. Later, it becomes a somewhat lighter green than the rest of the leaf-surface. This portion of the mine is loosely packed with fine frass granules. The cuticle over old mines rapidly dies and becomes brown. Badly infected leaves wither and fall from the tree. The final inch or so of the mine is often expanded into a somewhat irregular, narrow, elongated blotch.

Agrilus australasiae

Agrilus australasiae, commonly known as the acacia flat-headed jewel beetle, is a species of beetle in the family Buprestidae, the jewel beetles, native to Australia. Among species its larvae feed on are

Acacia dealbata, Acacia decurrens, Acacia parramattensis, Acacia pycnantha and Acacia sophorae.

Charleston Conservation Park

Charleston Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia in the locality of Charleston in the Adelaide Hills state government region about 32 kilometres (20 mi) east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of the town centre in Lobethal.The conservation park consists of land in section 3943 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Onkaparinga. It was proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 on 8 April 1976. As of 2016, it covered an area of 54 hectares (130 acres).

In 1980, it was described as follows:Charleston Conservation Park preserves a pristine remnant representative of the transition between the wetter stringy bark forests on the western side of the Mount Lofty Ranges and the drier mallee woodlands to the east. A large diversity of flora and fauna are represented in the park including at least seventy-six bird species. An area of gently undulating relief featuring three main woodland associations. These being, a Casuarina stricta association with scattered Eucalyptus leucoxylon / E. viminalis, a E. leucoxylon association and a Banksia marginata association. The understorey is dominated by Acacia pycnantha with occasional thickets of Leptospermum myrsinoides and Xanthorrhoea semiplana. Small, regenerating stands of Acacia melanoxylon and Callitris preissii are of interest. Charleston Conservation Park is in a near pristine condition despite its cultural surrounds, having never been grazed…

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.

Clitocybe paraditopa

Clitocybe paraditopa is a fungus of the genus Clitocybe. Found in Australia, it was described in 1919 by naturalists John Burton Cleland and Edwin Cheel. Fruitbodies of the fungus smell strongly of blossums of the golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha) and sweet wattle (Acacia suaveolens). From the original description of specimens that had been found in New South Wales and South Australia, the describers suggested that it was similar in appearance to Clitocybe subditopa and thus could be called paraditopa, "comparable to [C.] ditopa".

Deep Lead Nature Conservation Reserve

Deep Lead Nature Conservation Reserve is a protected area in the Australian state of Victoria located in the state’s west on the north side of the town centre in Stawell. The area was formerly used for gold mining but now contains a variety of Eucalyptus which provide habitat for a range of birds and mammals, including some endangered species. Several species of rare ground orchids also grow in the reserve.

The Djab wurrung and Jardwadjali people are the traditional owners of the Deep Lead area. Deep Lead was established as a gold-mining area shortly after the Australasian Mining Company found the "Australasian Lead" in 1867. The first shaft was abandoned after nearly ten years due to flooding and in 1878 a second shaft was sunk nearby to a depth of 80 m (300 ft). On 12 December 1882, workers accidentally broke into the abandoned workings and water began flooding the new shaft. In spite of frantic efforts by boilermen working pumps, only five of the 27 miners were able to escape. Most of the mining equipment has been removed but the depression of the flooded shaft is visible and a cairn and trees mark the site of the tragedy.The Deep Lead Nature Conservation Reserve was first established in 1982 when 1,120 hectares (2,800 acres) were set aside and in 2002 a further 750.6 hectares (1,855 acres) were added. There is an extensive track network throughout the reserve but there are no camping facilities and prospecting and fossicking are not permitted.About 350 species of native plants occur in the reserve. The eucalypts include red ironbark (Eucalyptus tricarpa), yellow gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon), yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora), long-leaf box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx), red stringybark (Eucalyptus obliqua), river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and grey box (Eucalyptus microcarpa). Wattles, particularly golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha) are common in the understorey and rare orchids are sometimes seen. Many bird and mammal species are also common here and the endangered swift parrot (Lathamus discolor) is sometimes seen. The endangered squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) is nocturnal and rarely observed.As of 2016, the reserve was classified as a IUCN Category IA protected area.

Hypodoxa bryophylla

Hypodoxa bryophylla, the green looper moth, is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.

The wingspan is about 30 mm. Adults are green, with reddish brown markings, and black zigzag lines across each wing.The larvae feed on the foliage of Eucalyptus and Angophora species, as well as Acacia falcata, Acacia leiocalyx and Acacia pycnantha. They are thin and green, with a red and white line along each side of the body. The larva may reach a length of about 50 mm. Pupation takes place in a loose cocoon within joined curled leaves of the foodplant.

Jalmenus lithochroa

Jalmenus lithochroa, the lithochroa blue or Waterhouse's hairstreak, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is endemic to a small area around Adelaide in South Australia.

The wingspan is about 30 mm.

The larvae feed on Acacia pycnantha and Acacia victoriae.

The caterpillars are attended by the ant species Iridomyrmex purpureus and Iridomyrmex viridiaeneus.

List of Acacia species used for tannin production

This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are used for the production of tannins.

List of Australian floral emblems

This is a list of Australian floral emblems. It encompasses the national flower and the official flowers of the constituent states.

After the Federation of Australia that took place in 1901, the upsurge in nationalism led to the search for an official national floral emblem. Archibald Campbell had founded the Wattle Club in Victoria in 1899 to promote interest in and profile of the wattle as a unique Australian flower. The New South Wales waratah was considered alongside the wattle Acacia pycnantha, although lost out to the latter in 1912. The economist and botanist R. T. Baker proposed that the waratah's endemism to the Australian continent made it a better choice than the wattle, as well as the prominence of its flowers. The South Australian Evening News also supported the bid, but to no avail.In New South Wales, the New South Wales waratah was proclaimed as the official floral emblem of the state in 1962 by the then governor Sir Eric Woodward, after being used informally for many years.The Cooktown Orchid (Vappodes phalaenopsis), has been the official floral emblem of Queensland since 19 November 1959.In November 1960, Anigozanthos manglesii was adopted as the floral emblem of Western Australia in a proclamation made by then Premier of Western Australia David Brand, to promote tourist interest in the State's wildflowers. He had been advised by the State's Tourist Development Authority.The South Australian Government adopted Sturt's Desert Pea (Swainsona Formosa) as the Floral Emblem of South Australia on 23 November 1961.The Tasmanian Government proclaimed Eucalyptus globulus as their State floral emblem on 5 December 1962, however it is rarely seen as an official or popular emblem. This led to the Tasmanian Branch of the then SGAP promoting the attractive flower Eucryphia lucida as an alternative in 1966.The Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) was officially proclaimed the Floral Emblem of Australia on 1 September 1988.Australia's state flowers have been featured on series of postage stamps twice—a set of six stamps in July 1968, each showing the flowers of one state, and a series of seven stamps, showing the six state flowers and the golden wattle, in March 2014. The Sturt's Desert Pea and Golden Wattle were also featured on a series of coil definitives in 1970.

List of flora on stamps of Australia

Australia's diverse and often attractive flora has been depicted on numerous Australian stamp issues:

Acacia baileyana - 1978

Acacia coriacea - 2002

Acacia dealbata (?) - 1982

Acacia melanoxylon - 1996

Acacia pycnantha - 1959, 1979, 1990

Acmena smithii - 2002

Actinodium cunninghamii - 2005

Actinotus helianthi - 1959

Adansonia gregorii - 2005

Anigozanthos 'Bush Tango' - 2003

Anigozanthos manglesii - 1962, 1968, 2006

Armillaria luteobubalina fungus - 1981

Banksia integrifolia - 2000

Banksia prionotes (?) - 1996

Banksia serrata - 1960, 1986

Barringtonia calyptrata - 2001

Blandfordia grandiflora - 1960, 1967

Blandfordia punicea - 2007

Brachychiton acerifolius - 1978

Callistemon glaucus - 2000

Callistemon teretifolius - 1975

Caleana major - 1986

Caltha introloba - 1986

Calytrix carinata - 2002

Celmisia asteliifolia - 1986

Cochlospermum gillivraei - 2001

Coprinus comatus fungus - 1981

Correa reflexa - 1986, 1999

Cortinarius austrovenetus fungus - 1981

Cortinarius cinnabarinus fungus - 1981

Dendrobium nindii - 1986, 2003

Dendrobium phalaenopsis - 1968, 1998

Dicksonia antarctica - 1996

Dillenia alata - 1986

Diuris magnifica - 2006

Elythranthera emarginata - 1986

Epacris impressa - 1968

Eucalyptus caesia - 1982

Eucalyptus calophylla 'Rosea' - 1982

Eucalyptus camaldulensis - 1974

Eucalyptus diversicolor - 2005

Eucalyptus ficifolia - 1982

Eucalyptus forrestiana - 1982

Eucalyptus globulus - 1968, 1982

Eucalyptus grossa - 2005

Eucalyptus pauciflora - 2005

Euschemon rafflesia - 1983

Eucalyptus papuana - 1978, 1993, 2002

Eucalyptus regnans - 1996

Eucalyptus sp. - 1985

Ficus macrophylla - 2005

Gossypium sturtianum - 1971, 1978, 2007

Grevillea juncifolia - 2002

Grevillea mucronulata - 2007

Grevillea 'Superb' - 2003

Hakea laurina - 2006

Hardenbergia violacea - 2000

Helichrysum thomsonii - 1975

Helipterum albicans - 1986

Hibbertia scandens - 1999

Hibiscus meraukensis - 1986

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis - 1999

Leucochrysum albicans - 1986

Microseros lanceolata - 2002

Nelumbo nucifera - 2002

Nymphaea immutabilis - 2002

Phalaenopsis rosenstromii - 1998

Phebalium whitei - 2007

Swainsona formosa - 1968, 1971, 2005

Santalum acuminatum - 2002

Telopea speciosissima - 1959, 1968, 2006

Thelymitra variegata - 1986

Thysanothus tuberosus - 2005

Wahlenbergia gloriosa - 1986

Wahlenbergia stricta - 1999

Wollemia nobilis - 2005

Xanthorrhoea australis - 1978

Major Plains, Victoria

Major Plains is a rural locality situated to the north-west of Benalla in Victoria, Australia. It is 226 kilometres by road from Melbourne.

The main east-west roads in the locality are Dookie-Devenish Road, Major Plains Road and Gooroombat-Dookie College Road (Thomas Road), while the main north-south roads are Duggans Road, Benalla Boundary Road (which divides the local government areas) and Roberts Road.A primary school operated in the locality between 1918 and 1946. The original Major Plains Post Office was opened on 1 July 1870 and was temporarily renamed as Devenish Post Office between 1874 and 1878 before closing in 1898. A post office was re-established in 1901 and operated until 1948.The heavy clay soil originally supported a Grey Box and Red Gum grassy woodland, and grassy wetlands to the north of Grogans Road.

Native shrub species include Mallee Wattle (Acacia montana), Hedge Wattle (Acacia paradoxa), Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa) and Drooping Cassinia (Cassinia arcuata).

National colours of Australia

The national colours of Australia are green and gold. They were established by the Governor-General of Australia, Sir Ninian Stephen, on 19 April 1984 in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette; on advice from Prime Minister Bob Hawke.The gold colour represents the golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha), which is Australia's national flower. The uniforms of Australia's national sports teams are usually green and gold. The golden wattle flower, and the colours green and gold, are also featured on the Coat of arms of Australia.

The Australian government states that, to be used correctly, the colours are placed side-by-side, with no other colour between them. The exact green and gold colours are specified as Pantone Matching System numbers 348C and 116C. The colours are always referred to as 'green and gold', respectively.

Before 1984 three colour combinations unofficially represented Australia:

red, white and blue,

blue and gold, and

green and gold.According to the Australian government, "green and gold have been popularly embraced as Australia’s national sporting colours" since the late 1800s. Nearly every current Australian national sports team wears them (although the hues and proportions of the colours may vary between teams and across eras). Australia's cricket team first wore the colours in 1899, in the form of the baggy green, the cap presented to Australian cricket players.

National symbols of Australia

National symbols of Australia are the official symbols used to represent Australia.

Phallaria ophiusaria

Phallaria ophiusaria is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is known from Australia, including New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.

The wingspan is about 70 mm. Adult have brown wings with a comma-shaped spot and a diagonal stripe on each wing.The larvae feed on Acacia pycnantha, Dodonaea species and Hakea rostrata. They are brown with a hairy pointed knob on the tail. It has the habit of standing straight at an angle on a branch, thus resembling a twig.


Trichilogaster is a small genus of chalcid wasps in the family Pteromalidae, subfamily Ormocerinae. With one described exception, they all are Australian species that are gall-formers on Australian species of Acacia. The exception is an Arabian species. Apart from its ecological interest, the genus is of practical importance because some of its members are successful biocontrol agents in South Africa at least, where T. acaciaelongifoliae and T. signiventris have been established successfully to control invasive Australian Acacia species, notably Acacia longifolia and Acacia pycnantha.

Trichilogaster signiventris

Trichilogaster signiventris, commonly known as the golden wattle bud-galling wasp, is a species of Australian chalcid wasps that parasitises, among others, Acacia pycnantha (golden wattle). It has been introduced into South Africa, where the golden wattle has become an invasive pest.

American entomologist Alexandre Arsène Girault described the species as Perilampella signiventris in 1931.The female is yellow and black in colour, though highly variable in colour proportion and pattern. It is 2.3–3.2 mm long. The male is of similar size and almost entirely black with black and yellow legs.The success of the related species Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae in managing Acacia longifolia led scientists to look for another species to control A. pycnantha. T. signiventris was introduced twice and at first thought a failure. Wasps from Lake Natimuk in Victoria were transported and released in Western Cape in 1987 and as no galls were seen the first summer, a second transfer — this time from Mount Compass, South Australia — was made in 1992 as scientists suspected the first cohort might have been incompatible with populations of golden wattle in Africa.The host species are golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha) and Acacia rivalis. The eggs are laid by short-lived adult wasps into buds of flower heads in the summer, before hatching in May and June when the larvae induce the formation of the grape-like galls and prevent flower development. The galls can be so heavy that branches break under their weight. It has reduced the capacity of trees to reproduce throughout their range. It is possible that the galls also reduce the resilience of the host plants by absorbing nutrients and hence starving them. The galls are up to 3 cm in diameter and contain several grubs.


Uromycladium is a genus of rust fungi in the family Pileolariaceae. It was circumscribed by mycologist Daniel McAlpine in 1905. The genus was established by McAlpine for rusts on Acacia (Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae) with teliospores that clustered at the top of a pedicel.The genus contains at least 11 species. Some of these species infect plants in the family Mimosoideae including Acacia, Paraserianthes and Falcataria. Most species are considered to be specific to only one host species of plant, such as Uromycladium simplex on Acacia pycnantha and Uromycladium falcatarium on Falcataria moluccana. Uromycladium tepperianum, on the other hand, has almost 100 known hosts including plants from several tribes of Mimosoideae. However, research suggests that this species may comprise several unrecognized taxa with narrower host ranges.

Wattle Day

Wattle Day is a day of celebration in Australia on the first day of September each year, which is the official start of the Australian spring. This is the time when many Acacia species (commonly called wattles in Australia), are in flower. So, people wear a sprig of the flowers and leaves to celebrate the day.

Although the national floral emblem of Australia is a particular species, named the golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha), any acacia can be worn to celebrate the day.

The day was originally intended to promote patriotism for the new nation of Australia:"Wattle Days emerged to prominence in Australia in the early years of the federated nation. They took on some of the national and civic responsibilities for children that [the more formal] Australia Day could not." - Libby Robin

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