Abundances of the elements (data page)

Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust

  • C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook
  • C2 — Crust: Kaye and Laby
  • C3 — Crust: Greenwood
  • C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
  • C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
  • U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)
Mass fraction, in kg/kg
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 U1 U2
01 H hydrogen 1.40×10−3 1.520×10−3
02 He helium 8×10−9
03 Li lithium 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.8×10−5 1.3×10−5 1.37×10−5 2.0×10−5 2.2×10−5
04 Be beryllium 2.8×10−6 2.0×10−6 2×10−6 1.500×10−6 3.000×10−6
05 B boron 1.0×10−5 7.0×10−6 9×10−6 1.0000×10−5 1.5000×10−5
06 C carbon 2.00×10−4 1.80×10−4 3.76×10−3
07 N nitrogen 1.9×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.9×10−5
08 O oxygen 4.61×10−1 3.7×10−1 4.55000×10−1
09 F fluorine 5.85×10−4 4.6×10−4 5.44×10−4 5.25×10−4
10 Ne neon 5×10−9
11 Na sodium 2.36×10−2 2.3×10−2 2.2700×10−2 2.3000×10−2 2.4400×10−2 3.1000×10−2 2.89×10−2 2.57×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 2.33×10−2 2.8×10−2 2.7640×10−2 3.20×10−2 2.37×10−2 1.69×10−2 1.33×10−2 1.35×10−2
13 Al aluminium 8.23×10−2 8.0×10−2 8.3000×10−2 8.4100×10−2 8.3050×10−2 8.5200×10−2 8.0400×10−2 7.7400×10−2
14 Si silicon 2.82×10−1 2.7×10−1 2.72000×10−1 2.677×10−1 2.81×10−1 2.95×10−1 3.08×10−1 3.04×10−1
15 P phosphorus 1.05×10−3 1.0×10−3 1.120×10−3 7.63×10−4 8.30×10−4
16 S sulfur 3.50×10−4 3.0×10−4 3.40×10−4 8.81×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 1.45×10−4 1.9×10−4 1.26×10−4 1.900×10−3
18 Ar argon 3.5×10−6
19 K potassium 2.09×10−2 1.7×10−2 1.8400×10−2 9.100×10−3 1.7600×10−2 1.7000×10−2 2.8000×10−2 2.5700×10−2
20 Ca calcium 4.15×10−2 5.1×10−2 4.6600×10−2 5.2900×10−2 4.9200×10−2 3.4000×10−2 3.0000×10−2 2.9500×10−2
21 Sc scandium 2.2×10−5 2.2×10−5 2.5×10−5 3.0×10−5 2.14×10−5 1.1×10−5 7×10−6
22 Ti titanium 5.65×10−3 8.6×10−3 6.320×10−3 5.400×10−3 5.250×10−3 3.600×10−3 3.000×10−3 3.120×10−3
23 V vanadium 1.20×10−4 1.7×10−4 1.36×10−4 2.30×10−4 1.34×10−4 6.0×10−5 5.3×10−5
24 Cr chromium 1.02×10−4 9.6×10−5 1.22×10−4 1.85×10−4 1.46×10−4 5.6×10−5 3.5×10−5 3.5×10−5
25 Mn manganese 9.50×10−4 1.0×10−3 1.060×10−3 1.400×10−3 8.47×10−4 1.000×10−3 6.00×10−4 5.27×10−4
26 Fe iron 5.63×10−2 5.8×10−2 6.2000×10−2 7.07×10−2 4.92×10−2 3.8×10−2 3.50×10−2 3.09×10−2
27 Co cobalt 2.5×10−5 2.8×10−5 2.9×10−5 2.9×10−5 2.54×10−5 1.0×10−5 1.2×10−5
28 Ni nickel 8.4×10−5 7.2×10−5 9.9×10−5 1.05×10−4 6.95×10−5 3.5×10−5 2×10−5 1.9×10−5
29 Cu copper 6.0×10−5 5.8×10−5 6.8×10−5 7.5×10−5 4.7×10−5 2.5×10−5 1.4×10−5
30 Zn zinc 7.0×10−5 8.2×10−5 7.6×10−5 8.0×10−5 7.6×10−5 7.1×10−5 5.2×10−5
31 Ga gallium 1.9×10−5 1.7×10−5 1.9×10−5 1.8×10−5 1.86×10−5 1.7×10−5 1.4×10−5
32 Ge germanium 1.5×10−6 1.3×10−6 1.5×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.32×10−6 1.6×10−6
33 As arsenic 1.8×10−6 2.0×10−6 1.8×10−6 1.0×10−6 2.03×10−6 1.5×10−6
34 Se selenium 5×10−8 5×10−8 5×10−8 5×10−8 1.53×10−7 5×10−8
35 Br bromine 2.4×10−6 4.0×10−6 2.5×10−6 6.95×10−6
36 Kr krypton 1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 9.0×10−5 7.0×10−5 7.8×10−5 3.2×10−5 7.90×10−5 6.1×10−5 1.12×10−4 1.10×10−4
38 Sr strontium 3.70×10−4 4.5×10−4 3.84×10−4 2.60×10−4 2.93×10−4 5.03×10−4 3.50×10−4 3.16×10−4
39 Y yttrium 3.3×10−5 3.5×10−7 3.1×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.4×10−5 2.2×10−5 2.1×10−5
40 Zr zirconium 1.65×10−4 1.4×10−4 1.62×10−4 1.00×10−4 2.10×10−4 1.90×10−4 2.40×10−4
41 Nb niobium 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.1000×10−5 1.3000×10−5 2.5000×10−5 2.6000×10−5
42 Mo molybdenum 1.2×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.500×10−6
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 1×10−9 1×10−10
45 Rh rhodium 1×10−9 1×10−10
46 Pd palladium 1.5×10−8 3×10−9 1.5×10−8 1.0×10−9 5×10−10
47 Ag silver 7.5×10−8 8×10−8 8×10−8 8.0×10−8 6.95×10−8 5.0×10−8
48 Cd cadmium 1.5×10−7 1.8×10−7 1.6×10−7 9.8×10−8 1.00×10−7 9.8×10−8
49 In indium 2.5×10−7 2×10−7 2.4×10−7 5.0×10−8 6.95×10−8 5.0×10−8
50 Sn tin 2.3×10−6 1.5×10−6 2.1×10−6 2.500×10−6 5.500×10−6
51 Sb antimony 2×10−7 2×10−7 2×10−7 2.00×10−7 2.03×10−7 2.00×10−7
52 Te tellurium 1×10−9 1×10−9 2.03×10−9
53 I iodine 4.5×10−7 5×10−7 4.6×10−7 1.540×10−6
54 Xe xenon 3×10−11
55 Cs caesium 3×10−6 1.6×10−6 2.6×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.310×10−6 3.700×10−6
56 Ba barium 4.25×10−4 3.8×10−4 3.90×10−4 2.50000×10−4 5.42000×10−4 7.07000×10−4 5.50000×10−4 1.070000×10−3
57 La lanthanum 3.9×10−5 5.0×10−5 3.5×10−5 1.6000×10−5 2.9000×10−5 2.8000×10−5 3.0000×10−5 3.200×10−6
58 Ce cerium 6.65×10−5 8.3×10−5 6.6×10−5 3.3000×10−5 5.4200×10−5 5.7000×10−5 6.4000×10−5 6.5000×10−5
59 Pr praseodymium 9.2×10−6 1.3×10−5 9.1×10−6 3.900×10−6 7.100×10−6
60 Nd neodymium 4.15×10−5 4.4×10−5 4.0×10−5 1.6000×10−5 2.5400×10−5 2.3000×10−5 2.6000×10−5 2.6000×10−5
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 7.05×10−6 7.7×10−6 7.0×10−6 3.500×10−6 5.590×10−6 4.100×10−6 4.500×10−6 4.500×10−6
63 Eu europium 2.0×10−6 2.2×10−6 2.1×10−6 1.100×10−6 1.407×10−6 1.090×10−6 8.80×10−7 9.40×10−7
64 Gd gadolinium 6.2×10−6 6.3×10−6 6.1×10−6 3.300×10−6 8.140×10−6 3.800×10−6 2.800×10−6
65 Tb terbium 1.2×10−6 1.0×10−6 1.2×10−6 6.00×10−7 1.020×10−6 5.30×10−7 6.40×10−7 4.80×10−7
66 Dy dysprosium 5.2×10−6 8.5×10−6 3.700×10−6 6.102×10−6 3.500×10−6
67 Ho holmium 1.3×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.3×10−6 7.80×10−7 1.860×10−6 8.00×10−7 6.20×10−7
68 Er erbium 3.5×10−6 3.6×10−6 3.5×10−6 2.200×10−6 3.390×10−6 2.300×10−6
69 Tm thulium 5.2×10−7 5.2×10−7 5×10−7 3.20×10−7 2.40×10−7 3.30×10−7
70 Yb ytterbium 3.2×10−6 3.4×10−6 3.1×10−6 2.200×10−6 3.390×10−6 1.530×10−6 2.200×10−6 1.500×10−6
71 Lu lutetium 8×10−7 8×10−7 3.00×10−7 5.76×10−7 2.30×10−7 3.20×10−7 2.30×10−7
72 Hf hafnium 3.0×10−6 4×10−6 2.8×10−6 3.000×10−6 3.460×10−6 4.700×10−6 5.800×10−6 5.800×10−6
73 Ta tantalum 2.0×10−6 2.4×10−6 1.7×10−6 1.000×10−6 2.203×10−6 2.200×10−6
74 W tungsten 1.25×10−6 1.0×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.310×10−6 2.000×10−6
75 Re rhenium 7×10−10 4×10−10 7×10−10 5×10−10 1.02×10−9 5×10−10
76 Os osmium 1.5×10−9 2×10−10 5×10−9 1.02×10−9
77 Ir iridium 1×10−9 2×10−10 1×10−9 1×10−10 1.02×10−9 2×10−11
78 Pt platinum 5×10−9 1×10−8
79 Au gold 4×10−9 2×10−9 4×10−9 3.0×10−9 4.07×10−9 1.8×10−9
80 Hg mercury 8.5×10−8 2×10−8 8×10−8
81 Tl thallium 8.5×10−7 4.7×10−7 7×10−7 3.60×10−7 7.50×10−7 5.20×10−7
82 Pb lead 1.4×10−5 1.0×10−5 1.3×10−5 8.000×10−6 1.5000×10−5 2.0000×10−5 1.7000×10−5
83 Bi bismuth 8.5×10−9 4×10−9 8×10−9 6.0×10−8 1.27×10−7
84 Po polonium 2×10−16
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 4×10−19
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 9×10−13
89 Ac actinium 5.5×10−16
90 Th thorium 9.6×10−6 5.8×10−6 8.1×10−6 3.500×10−6 5.700×10−6 1.0700×10−5 1.0000×10−5
91 Pa protactinium 1.4×10−12
92 U uranium 2.7×10−6 1.6×10−6 2.3×10−6 9.10×10−7 1.200×10−6 1.300×10−6 2.800×10−6 2.500×10−6
93 Np neptunium
94 Pu plutonium

Urban soils

The established abundances of chemical elements in urban soils can be considered a geochemical (ecological and geochemical) characteristic, the accumulated impact of technogenic and natural processes at the beginning of the 21st century. The figures estimate average concentrations of chemical elements in the soils of more than 300 cities and settlements in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and America.[1] Regardless of significant differences between abundances of several elements in urban soils and those values calculated for the Earth's crust, the element abundances in urban soils generally reflect those in the Earth's crust. With the development of technology the abundances may be refined.

Mass fraction, in mg/kg (ppm).

Element Atomic number Abundance in urban soils
Ag 47 0.37
Al 13 38200
As 33 15.9
B 5 45
Ba 56 853.12
Be 4 3.3
Bi 83 1.12
C 6 45100
Ca 20 53800
Cd 48 0.9
Cl 17 285
Co 27 14.1
Cr 24 80
Cs 55 5.0
Cu 29 39
Fe 26 22300
Ga 31 16.2
Ge 32 1.8
H 1 15000
Hg 80 0.88
K 19 13400
La 57 34
Li 3 49.5
Mg 12 7900
Mn 25 729
Mo 42 2.4
N 7 10000
Na 11 5800
Nb 41 15.7
Ni 28 33
O 8 490000
P 15 1200
Pb 82 54.5
Rb 37 58
S 16 1200
Sb 51 1.0
Sc 21 9.4
Si 14 289000
Sn 50 6.8
Sr 38 458
Ta 73 1.5
Ti 22 4758
Tl 81 1.1
V 23 104.9
W 74 2.9
Y 39 23.4
Yb 70 2.4
Zn 30 158
Zr 40 255.6

Sea water

  • W1 — CRC Handbook
  • W2 — Kaye & Laby

Mass per volume fraction, in kg/L. (The average density of sea water in the surface is 1.025 kg/L)

W1 W2
01 H hydrogen 1.08×10−1 1.1×10−1
02 He helium 7×10−12 7.2×10−12
03 Li lithium 1.8×10−7 1.7×10−7
04 Be beryllium 5.6×10−12 6×10−13
05 B boron 4.44×10−6 4.4×10−6
06 C carbon 2.8×10−5 2.8×10−5
07 N nitrogen 5×10−7 1.6×10−5
08 O oxygen 8.57×10−1 8.8×10−1
09 F fluorine 1.3×10−6 1.3×10−6
10 Ne neon 1.2×10−10 1.2×10−10
11 Na sodium 1.08×10−2 1.1×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 1.29×10−3 1.3×10−3
13 Al aluminium 2×10−9 1×10−9
14 Si silicon 2.2×10−6 2.9×10−6
15 P phosphorus 6×10−8 8.8×10−8
16 S sulfur 9.05×10−4 9.0×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 1.94×10−2 1.9×10−2
18 Ar argon 4.5×10−7 4.5×10−7
19 K potassium 3.99×10−4 3.9×10−4
20 Ca calcium 4.12×10−4 4.1×10−4
21 Sc scandium 6×10−13 < 4×10−12
22 Ti titanium 1×10−9 1×10−9
23 V vanadium 2.5×10−9 1.9×10−9
24 Cr chromium 3×10−10 2×10−10
25 Mn manganese 2×10−10 1.9×10−9
26 Fe iron 2×10−9 3.4×10−9
27 Co cobalt 2×10−11 3.9×10−10
28 Ni nickel 5.6×10−10 6.6×10−9
29 Cu copper 2.5×10−10 2.3×10−8
30 Zn zinc 4.9×10−9 1.1×10−8
31 Ga gallium 3×10−11 3×10−11
32 Ge germanium 5×10−11 6×10−11
33 As arsenic 3.7×10−9 2.6×10−9
34 Se selenium 2×10−10 9.0×10−11
35 Br bromine 6.73×10−5 6.7×10−5
36 Kr krypton 2.1×10−10 2.1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 1.2×10−7 1.2×10−7
38 Sr strontium 7.9×10−6 8.1×10−6
39 Y yttrium 1.3×10−11 1.3×10−12
40 Zr zirconium 3×10−11 2.6×10−11
41 Nb niobium 1×10−11 1.5×10−11
42 Mo molybdenum 1×10−8 1.0×10−8
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 7×10−13
45 Rh rhodium
46 Pd palladium
47 Ag silver 4×10−11 2.8×10−10
48 Cd cadmium 1.1×10−10 1.1×10−10
49 In indium 2×10−8
50 Sn tin 4×10−12 8.1×10−10
51 Sb antimony 2.4×10−10 3.3×10−10
52 Te tellurium
53 I iodine 6×10−8 6.4×10−8
54 Xe xenon 5×10−11 4.7×10−11
55 Cs caesium 3×10−10 3.0×10−10
56 Ba barium 1.3×10−8 2.1×10−8
57 La lanthanum 3.4×10−12 3.4×10−12
58 Ce cerium 1.2×10−12 1.2×10−12
59 Pr praseodymium 6.4×10−13 6.4×10−13
60 Nd neodymium 2.8×10−12 2.8×10−12
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 4.5×10−13 4.5×10−13
63 Eu europium 1.3×10−13 1.3×10−13
64 Gd gadolinium 7×10−13 7.0×10−13
65 Tb terbium 1.4×10−13 1.4×10−12
66 Dy dysprosium 9.1×10−13 9.1×10−13
67 Ho holmium 2.2×10−13 2.2×10−13
68 Er erbium 8.7×10−13 8.7×10−12
69 Tm thulium 1.7×10−13 1.7×10−13
70 Yb ytterbium 8.2×10−13 8.2×10−13
71 Lu lutetium 1.5×10−13 1.5×10−13
72 Hf hafnium 7×10−12 < 8×10−12
73 Ta tantalum 2×10−12 < 2.5×10−12
74 W tungsten 1×10−10 < 1×10−12
75 Re rhenium 4×10−12
76 Os osmium
77 Ir iridium
78 Pt platinum
79 Au gold 4×10−12 1.1×10−11
80 Hg mercury 3×10−11 1.5×10−10
81 Tl thallium 1.9×10−11
82 Pb lead 3×10−11 3×10−11
83 Bi bismuth 2×10−11 2×10−11
84 Po polonium 1.5×10−20
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 6×10−22
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 8.9×10−17
89 Ac actinium
90 Th thorium 1×10−12 1.5×10−12
91 Pa protactinium 5×10−17
92 U uranium 3.2×10−9 3.3×10−9
93 Np neptunium
94 Pu plutonium

Sun and solar system

  • S1 — Sun: Kaye & Laby
  • Y1 — Solar system: Kaye & Laby
  • Y2 — Solar system: Ahrens, with uncertainty s (%)

Atom mole fraction relative to silicon = 1.

S1 Y1 Y2
01 H hydrogen 2.8×104 2.8×104* 2.79×104
02 He helium 2.7×103 2.7×103* 2.72×103
03 Li lithium 4.0×10−7 5.7×10−5 5.71×10−5 (9.2%)
04 Be beryllium 4.0×10−7 7.0×10−7 7.30×10−7 (9.5%)
05 B boron 1.1×10−5 2.1×10−5 2.12×10−5 (10%)
06 C carbon 1.0×101 1.0×101* 1.01×101
07 N nitrogen 3.1×100 3.1×100* 3.13×100
08 O oxygen 2.4×101 2.4×101* 2.38×101 (10%)
09 F fluorine about 1.0×10−3 8.5×10−4 8.43×10−4 (15%)
10 Ne neon 3.0×100 3.0×100* 3.44×100 (14%)
11 Na sodium 6.0×10−2 5.7×10−2 5.74×10−2 (7.1%)
12 Mg magnesium 1.0×100 1.1×100 1.074×100 (3.8%)
13 Al aluminium 8.3×10−2 8.5×10−2 8.49×10−2 (3.6%)
14 Si silicon 1.0×100 1.0×100 1.0×100 (4.4%)
15 P phosphorus 8.0×10−3 1.0×10−2 1.04×10−2 (10%)
16 S sulfur 4.5×10−1 5.2×10−1 5.15×10−1 (13%)
17 Cl chlorine about 9.0×10−3 5.2×10−3 5.24×10−3 (15%)
18 Ar argon 1.0×10−1* 1.0×10−1* 1.01×10−1 (6%)
19 K potassium 3.7×10−3 3.8×10−3 3.77×10−3 (7.7%)
20 Ca calcium 6.4×10−2 6.1×10−2 6.11×10−2 (7.1%)
21 Sc scandium 3.5×10−5 3.4×10−5 3.42×10−5 (8.6%)
22 Ti titanium 2.7×10−3 2.4×10−3 2.40×10−3 (5.0%)
23 V vanadium 2.8×10−4 2.9×10−4 2.93×10−4 (5.1%)
24 Cr chromium 1.3×10−2 1.3×10−2 1.35×10−2 (7.6%)
25 Mn manganese 6.9×10−3 9.5×10−3 9.55×10−3 (9.6%)
26 Fe iron 9.0×10−1 9.0×10−1 9.00×10−1 (2.7%)
27 Co cobalt 2.3×10−3 2.3×10−3 2.25×10−3 (6.6%)
28 Ni nickel 5.0×10−2 5.0×10−2 4.93×10−2 (5.1%)
29 Cu copper 4.5×10−4 5.2×10−4 5.22×10−4 (11%)
30 Zn zinc 1.1×10−3 1.3×10−3 1.26×10−3 (4.4%)
31 Ga gallium 2.1×10−5 3.8×10−5 3.78×10−5 (6.9%)
32 Ge germanium 7.2×10−5 1.2×10−4 1.19×10−4 (9.6%)
33 As arsenic 6.6×10−6 6.56×10−6 (12%)
34 Se selenium 6.3×10−5 6.21×10−5 (6.4%)
35 Br bromine 1.2×10−5 1.18×10−5 (19%)
36 Kr krypton 4.8×10−5 4.50×10−5 (18%)
37 Rb rubidium 1.1×10−5 7.0×10−6 7.09×10−6 (6.6%)
38 Sr strontium 2.2×10−5 2.4×10−5 2.35×10−5 (8.1%)
39 Y yttrium 4.9×10−6 4.6×10−6 4.64×10−6 (6.0%)
40 Zr zirconium 1.12×10−5 1.14×10−5 1.14×10−5 (6.4%)
41 Nb niobium 7.0×10−7 7.0×10−7 6.98×10−7 (1.4%)
42 Mo molybdenum 2.3×10−6 2.6×10−6 2.55×10−6 (5.5%)
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 1.9×10−6 1.9×10−6 1.86×10−6 (5.4%)
45 Rh rhodium 4.0×10−7 3.4×10−7 3.44×10−7 (8%)
46 Pd palladium 1.4×10−6 1.4×10−6 1.39×10−6 (6.6%)
47 Ag silver about 2.0×10−7 4.9×10−7 4.86×10−7 (2.9%)
48 Cd cadmium 2.0×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.61×10−6 (6.5%)
49 In indium about 1.3×10−6 1.9×10−7 1.84×10−7 (6.4%)
50 Sn tin about 3.0×10−6 3.9×10−6 3.82×10−6 (9.4%)
51 Sb antimony about 3.0×10−7 3.1×10−7 3.09×10−7 (18%)
52 Te tellurium 4.9×10−6 4.81×10−6 (10%)
53 I iodine 9.0×10−7 9.00×10−7 (21%)
54 Xe xenon 4.8×10−6 4.70×10−6 (20%)
55 Cs caesium 3.7×10−7 3.72×10−7 (5.6%)
56 Ba barium 3.8×10−6 4.5×10−6 4.49×10−6 (6.3%)
57 La lanthanum 5.0×10−7 4.4×10−7 4.46×10−7 (2.0%)
58 Ce cerium 1.0×10−6 1.1×10−6 1.136×10−6 (1.7%)
59 Pr praseodymium 1.4×10−7 1.7×10−7 1.669×10−7 (2.4%)
60 Nd neodymium 9.0×10−7 8.3×10−7 8.279×10−7 (1.3%)
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 3.0×10−7 2.6×10−7 2.582×10−7 (1.3%)
63 Eu europium 9.0×10−8 9.7×10−8 9.73×10−8 (1.6%)
64 Gd gadolinium 3.7×10−7 3.3×10−7 3.30×10−7 (1.4%)
65 Tb terbium about 2.0×10−8 6.0×10−8 6.03×10−8 (2.2%)
66 Dy dysprosium 3.5×10−7 4.0×10−7 3.942×10−7 (1.4%)
67 Ho holmium about 5.0×10−8 8.9×10−8 8.89×10−8 (2.4%)
68 Er erbium 2.4×10−7 2.5×10−7 2.508×10−7 (1.3%)
69 Tm thulium about 3.0×10−8 3.8×10−8 3.78×10−8 (2.3%)
70 Yb ytterbium 3.4×10−7 2.5×10−7 2.479×10−7 (1.6%)
71 Lu lutetium about 1.5×10−7 3.7×10−8 3.67×10−8 (1.3%)
72 Hf hafnium 2.1×10−7 1.5×10−7 1.54×10−7 (1.9%)
73 Ta tantalum 3.8×10−8 2.07×10−8 (1.8%)
74 W tungsten about 3.6×10−7 1.3×10−7 1.33×10−7 (5.1%)
75 Re rhenium 5.0×10−8 5.17×10−8 (9.4%)
76 Os osmium 8.0×10−7 6.7×10−7 6.75×10−7 (6.3%)
77 Ir iridium 6.0×10−7 6.6×10−7 6.61×10−7 (6.1%)
78 Pt platinum about 1.8×10−6 1.34×10−6 1.34×10−6 (7.4%)
79 Au gold about 3.0×10−7 1.9×10−7 1.87×10−7 (15%)
80 Hg mercury 3.4×10−7 3.40×10−7 (12%)
81 Tl thallium about 2.0×10−7 1.9×10−7 1.84×10−7 (9.4%)
82 Pb lead 2.0×10−6 3.1×10−6 3.15×10−6 (7.8%)
83 Bi bismuth 1.4×10−7 1.44×10−7 (8.2%)
84 Po polonium
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium
89 Ac actinium
90 Th thorium 5.0×10−8 4.5×10−8 3.35×10−8 (5.7%)
91 Pa protactinium
92 U uranium 1.8×10−8 9.00×10−9 (8.4%)
93 Np neptunium
94 Pu plutonium

See also

Notes

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

References

  1. ^ Vladimir Alekseenko; Alexey Alekseenko (2014). "The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils". Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 147: 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003. ISSN 0375-6742.

CRC Handbook

From these sources in an online version of David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea:

  • R.S. Carmichael (ed.), CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1989).
  • I. Bodek et al., Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, New York, (1988).
  • A.B. Ronov, A.A. Yaroshevsky, Earth's Crust Geochemistry, in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences, R.W. Fairbridge (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, (1969).
Estimated abundance of the elements in the continental crust (C1) and in seawater near the surface (W1). The median values of reported measurements are given. Concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.

Kaye & Laby

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements, B.E.J. Pagel

Abundances in sea water (W2) and in crustal rocks (C2) from:
For the sun (S1) and the solar system (Y1) from:
  • N. Grevesse, E. Anders, J. Waddington (ed.) in Cosmic Abundances of Matter, Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 1. (1988).
Except solar iron abundance from:
  • H. Holweger, A. Bard, A. Kock, M. Kock, Astron. Astrophys., 249, 545. (1991).
Accuracy of the solar abundances varies between ± 10% and a factor of two, values more uncertain than that are marked with "about". The solar system abundances are mainly derived from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and are assumed generally accurate to ±10% or better. Solar system abundances based on other sources are marked with asterisks (*).

Greenwood

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997). ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Appendix 4, Abundance of Elements in Crustal Rocks.

From this source with some modifications and additions of later data:
  • W.S. Fyfe, Geochemistry, Oxford University Press, (1974).
Further referring to:
  • C.K. Jorgensen, Comments Astrophys. 17, 49–101 (1993).
Values are subject to various geological assumptions but assumed acceptable as an indication of elemental abundance in crustal rocks (C3).

Ahrens

Newsom, Horton E. (1995), "Composition of the Solar System, Planets, Meteorites, and Major Terrestrial Reservoirs", in Ahrens, Thomas J. (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union, Tables 1, 14, 15., ISBN 0-87590-851-9

Bulk continental crust (C4) and upper continental crust (U1) from:
  • S.R. Taylor, S.M. McLennan, The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985).
Upper continental crust (U2) from:
  • D.M. Shaw, J. Dostal, R.R. Keays, Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 40, 73–83, (1976).
Bulk continental crust (C5) from:
  • H. Wänke, G. Dreibus, E. Jagoutz, Mantle chemistry and accretion history of the Earth, in Archean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G.N. Hanson, A.M. Goodwin (eds.), pp. l-24, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1984).
Bulk continental crust (C6) from:
  • B.L. Weaver, J. Tamey, Major and trace element composition of the continental lithosphere, in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 15, H.N. Pollack, V.R. Murthy (eds.) pp. 39–68, Pergamon, Oxford, (1984).
Solar system (Y2) from:

Urban soils

  • Alekseenko V.A., Alekseenko A.V. (2013) Chemical elements in geochemical systems. The abundances in urban soils. Publishing House of Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (388 pp., in Russian with English Abstract). ISBN 978-5-9275-1095-5
  • Vladimir Alekseenko, Alexey Alekseenko (2014) The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. № 147 (B). pp. 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003
Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm = 1%). Note that the noble gases are not included, as they form no part of the solid crust. Also not included are certain elements with extremely low crustal concentrations: technetium (atomic number 43), promethium (61), and all elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 except thorium (90) and uranium (92).

Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment. Abundance is measured in one of three ways: by the mass-fraction (the same as weight fraction); by the mole-fraction (fraction of atoms by numerical count, or sometimes fraction of molecules in gases); or by the volume-fraction. Volume-fraction is a common abundance measure in mixed gases such as planetary atmospheres, and is similar in value to molecular mole-fraction for gas mixtures at relatively low densities and pressures, and ideal gas mixtures. Most abundance values in this article are given as mass-fractions.

For example, the abundance of oxygen in pure water can be measured in two ways: the mass fraction is about 89%, because that is the fraction of water's mass which is oxygen. However, the mole-fraction is 33.3333...% because only 1 atom of 3 in water, H2O, is oxygen. As another example, looking at the mass-fraction abundance of hydrogen and helium in both the Universe as a whole and in the atmospheres of gas-giant planets such as Jupiter, it is 74% for hydrogen and 23–25% for helium; while the (atomic) mole-fraction for hydrogen is 92%, and for helium is 8%, in these environments. Changing the given environment to Jupiter's outer atmosphere, where hydrogen is diatomic while helium is not, changes the molecular mole-fraction (fraction of total gas molecules), as well as the fraction of atmosphere by volume, of hydrogen to about 86%, and of helium to 13%.The abundance of chemical elements in the universe is dominated by the large amounts of hydrogen and helium which were produced in the Big Bang. Remaining elements, making up only about 2% of the universe, were largely produced by supernovae and certain red giant stars. Lithium, beryllium and boron are rare because although they are produced by nuclear fusion, they are then destroyed by other reactions in the stars. The elements from carbon to iron are relatively more abundant in the universe because of the ease of making them in supernova nucleosynthesis. Elements of higher atomic number than iron (element 26) become progressively rarer in the universe, because they increasingly absorb stellar energy in their production. Also, elements with even atomic numbers are generally more common than their neighbors in the periodic table, due to favorable energetics of formation.

The abundance of elements in the Sun and outer planets is similar to that in the universe. Due to solar heating, the elements of Earth and the inner rocky planets of the Solar System have undergone an additional depletion of volatile hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, and carbon (which volatilizes as methane). The crust, mantle, and core of the Earth show evidence of chemical segregation plus some sequestration by density. Lighter silicates of aluminum are found in the crust, with more magnesium silicate in the mantle, while metallic iron and nickel compose the core. The abundance of elements in specialized environments, such as atmospheres, or oceans, or the human body, are primarily a product of chemical interactions with the medium in which they reside.

Cadmium telluride

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. It is mainly used as the semiconducting material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p-n junction solar PV cell. Typically, CdTe PV cells use a n-i-p structure.

Iron peak

The iron peak is a local maximum in the vicinity of Fe (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) on the graph of the abundances of the chemical elements, as seen below.

For elements lighter than iron on the periodic table, nuclear fusion releases energy while fission consumes it. For iron, and for all of the heavier elements, nuclear fusion consumes energy, but nuclear fission releases it. Chemical elements up to the iron peak are produced in ordinary stellar nucleosynthesis. Heavier elements are produced only during supernova nucleosynthesis. This is why we have more iron peak elements than in its neighbourhood.

List of data references for chemical elements

Values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages.

Lithium

Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, translit. lithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production.

Lithium is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. Lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder in humans.

Neodymium

Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium belongs to the lanthanide series, or it can be known to belong to the rare earths family. It is a hard, slightly malleable silvery metal, that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, Neodymium reacts quickly to produce pink, purple/blue and yellow compounds in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation state. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, or copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China.

Neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses. The color of neodymium compounds—due to the Nd3+ ion—is often a reddish-purple but it changes with the type of lighting, due to the interaction of the sharp light absorption bands of neodymium with ambient light enriched with the sharp visible emission bands of mercury, trivalent europium or terbium. Some neodymium-doped glasses are also used in lasers that emit infrared with wavelengths between 1047 and 1062 nanometers. These have been used in extremely-high-power applications, such as experiments in inertial confinement fusion.

Neodymium is also used with various other substrate crystals, such as yttrium aluminium garnet in the Nd:YAG laser. This laser usually emits infrared at a wavelength of about 1064 nanometers. The Nd:YAG laser is one of the most commonly used solid-state lasers.

Another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to make high-strength neodymium magnets—powerful permanent magnets. These magnets are widely used in such products as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, high performance hobby DC electric motors, and computer hard disks, where low magnet mass (or volume) or strong magnetic fields are required. Larger neodymium magnets are used in high-power-versus-weight electric motors (for example in hybrid cars) and generators (for example aircraft and wind turbine electric generators).

Outline of chemistry

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry:

Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions. Chemistry is centrally concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds.

Elements
Data
Periodic table forms
Sets of elements
Elements
History
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.