Abu Zayd al-Hilali

Abu Zayd Ibn Rizq Al-Hilali listen  (Arabic: أبو زيد ابن رزق الهلالي‎, Ābu Zayd al-Hilalī) was an 11th-century Arab leader and hero of the 'Amirid tribe of Banu Hilal.

On the orders of the Ismaili Fatimid caliph, Abu Zayd moved his tribe to Tunisia via Egypt to punish the Zirids for adopting Sunniism. The Banu Hilali weakened largely the Zirid state and sacked Kairouan. The event was fictionalized in the epic Taghribat Bani Hilal. In the epic it is said that he was murdered by his rival Dhieb bin Ghanim.

Abu Zayd al-Hilali
A 1908 Egyptian painting depicting Abu Zayd al-Hilali
Abu Zayd al-Hilali (film)

Abu Zayd al-Hilali (Egyptian Arabic: أبو زيد الهلالي‎) is a 1947 Egyptian film that portrays the life of the tenth-century Arabic leader and hero Abu Zayd al-Hilali. It was directed by Ezzel Dine Zulficar and written by Zulficar and Abu Butheina. It stars Faten Hamama, Seraj Munir, and Amina al-Sharif. It was one of Hamama's earliest starring roles.

Algeria

Algeria ( (listen); Arabic: الجزائر‎ al-Jazā'ir, Algerian Arabic الدزاير al-dzāyīr; French: Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية‎), is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries.

Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Idrisid, Aghlabid, Rustamid, Fatimids, Zirid, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Spaniards, Ottomans and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria.

Algeria is a regional and middle power. It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent; most of Algeria's weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union.

Banu Hilal

The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century. Masters of the vast plateaux of Najd, they enjoyed a somewhat infamous reputation, possibly owing to their relatively late (for the Arabian tribes) conversion to Islam and accounts of their campaigns in the borderlands between Iraq and Syria. With the revolutionary movement of the Qarmatians in Bahrain and Oman, they participated in the pillage of Mecca in 930 in their fight against the Fatimid Caliphate. When the latter became masters of Egypt and the founders of Cairo in 969, they hastened to confine the unruly Bedouin in the south before sending them to the Maghreb.

Ezzel Dine Zulficar

Ezzel Dine Zulficar (Arabic: عزالدين ذو الفقار‎, ‘Ezz ad-Dīne Zū al-Fiqār; October 28, 1919 – July 1, 1963) was an Egyptian film director, screenwriter, actor and producer.

Faten Hamama

Faten Hamama (Egyptian Arabic: فاتن حمامة‎ pronounced [ˈfæːten ħæˈmæːmæ] (listen); 27 May 1931 – 17 January 2015) was an Egyptian film and television actress and producer.She made her screen debut in 1939, when she was seven years old. Her earliest roles were minor, but her activity and gradual success helped to establish her as a distinguished Egyptian actress. Later revered as an icon in Egyptian and Middle Eastern cinema, Hamama substantially helped in improving the cinema industry in Egypt and emphasizing the importance of women in cinema and Egyptian society.After a seven-year hiatus from acting, Hamama returned in 2000 in what was a much anticipated television miniseries, Wageh El Amar (وجه القمر, Face of the Moon). In 2000, she was selected as Star of the Century by the Egyptian Writers and Critics organization. In 2007, eight of the films she starred in were included in the top 100 films in the history of Egyptian cinema by the cinema committee of the Supreme Council of Culture in Cairo.

Hisah

Hisah (Hokr el Haïssa, Hayssa, El Haïssa, Hisa, Arabic: حيصا‎) is a northern Lebanese village in Akkar Governorate, close to the Syrian border. It is mostly inhabited by Alawites and Sunni Muslims.The history of the village goes back to the days of the Banu Hilal tribe, and it is named after the horse of Abu-Zayd al-Hilali.During the 2006 Lebanon War, a bridge in the village was bombed by Israeli planes, leaving up to 12 people dead.

History of Tunisia

The present day Republic of Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent. The Mediterranean Sea is to the north and east, Libya to the southeast, and Algeria to the west. Tunis is the capital and the largest city (population over 800,000); it is located near the ancient site of the city of Carthage.

Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert.The weather is temperate in the north, which enjoys a Mediterranean climate with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers, the terrain being wooded and fertile. The Medjerda river valley (Wadi Majardah, northeast of Tunis) is currently valuable farmland. Along the eastern coast the central plains enjoy a moderate climate with less rainfall but significant precipitation in the form of heavy dews; these coastlands are currently used for orchards and grazing. Near the mountainous Algerian border rises Jebel ech Chambi, the highest point in the country at 1544 meters. In the near south, a belt of salt lakes running east-west cuts across the country. Further south lies the Sahara desert, including the sand dunes of the Grand Erg Oriental.

History of medieval Tunisia

The medieval era of Tunisia starts with what will eventually return Ifriqiya (Tunisia, and the entire Maghrib) to local Berber rule. The Shia Islamic Fatimid Caliphate departed to their newly conquered territories in Egypt leaving the Zirid dynasty to govern in their stead. The Zirids would eventually break all ties to the Fatimids and formally embrace Sunni Islamic doctrines.

During this time there arose in Maghrib two strong local successive movements dedicated to Muslim purity in its practice. The Almoravids emerged in the far western area in al-Maghrib al-Aksa (Morocco) establishing an empire to as north as modern Spain (al-Andalus) and south to Mauretania; Almoravid rule never included Ifriqiya. Later, the Berber religious leader Ibn Tumart founded the Almohad movement, supplanted the Almoravids, and would eventually bring under the movement's control al-Maghrib and al-Andalus. Almohad rule would be succeeded by the Tunis-based Hafsids. The Hafsids were a local Berber dynasty and would retain control with varying success until the arrival of the Ottomans in the western Mediterranean.

Khalifa al-Zanati

Khalifa al-Zanati (Arabic: خليفة الزناتي) one of the main characters in the Bani Hilal epic, where he appears as the Berber king of Tunis. The epic says that during the siege of Bani Hilal to Tunis he asked their knights for duels every day and killed many of them, not even Abu Zayd al-Hilali was able to defeat him. His destiny was to be killed by Dhieb bin Ghanim who thrust a spear into his eyes. The epic also says that one of the reasons of his defeat was the betrayal of his daughter Sadaa who fell in love with Maree, a Hilalian prince held captive in her fathers prison.The historical Khalifa Al-Zanati may have been a general serving the ruler of Tlemcen in present-day Algeria.

List of Egyptian films of 1947

A list of films produced in Egypt in 1947. For an A-Z list of films currently on Wikipedia, see Category:Egyptian films.

List of Shia Muslims

The following is a list of notable Shia Muslims.

Muhammed Abu Maatouk

Muhammed Abu Maatouk (Arabic:محمد أبو معتوق) (born 1950) is a Syrian playwright, screenwriter and novelist. He was born in Aleppo, and studied Arabic at Aleppo University. He has written numerous plays, novels, short stories and screenplays. His first novel The Tree of Speech was published in 1990, while The Bottle and the Genie (2008) was longlisted for the Arabic Booker Prize in 2009.

Abu Maatouk wrote the screenplay of Abu Zayd al-Hilali, an epic TV series based on the life of the 11th-century Arab leader which was first shown on Abu Dhabi TV in 2004.

Seraj Munir

Seraj Munir (1901–1957) was an Egyptian film actor. He appeared in 46 films between 1930 and 1957.

Taghribat Bani Hilal

Al-Sirah al-Hilaliyyah, also known as the Sirat Bani Hilal and the al-Hilali epic, is an Arabic epic

oral poem that recounts the tale of the journey of the Bedouin tribe of the Banu Hilal from Najd in Arabia to Tunisia and Algeria via Egypt. It is built around historical events that took place in the 11th century. The Banu Hilal were dominant in central North Africa for over a century before their annihilation by rivals from Morocco. The epic is folkloric and oral, not having been committed to writing until relatively recent times, and doesn't have a well-defined date of creation. Of the dozen odd major oral epic poems that developed within the Arab folk tradition between the Middle Ages and the 19th century, Sirat Bani Hilal is today the only one that is still performed in its integral musical form. The epic, once widespread throughout the Middle East, is today performed only in Egypt. In 2008 it was inscribed on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

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