Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi

Abū 'Ubayd ibn Mas'ūd ibn 'Amr ibn 'Umayd ibn 'Awf al-Thaqafī (also al-Thaqīfī) (Arabic: أبو عبيد بن مسعود بن عمرو بن عمير بن عوف الثقفی‎), or simply Abu Ubayd (أبو عبيد), was a commander in the army of the Rashidun Caliphate. He was from Ta'if in western Arabia,[1] and belonged to the tribe Banu Thaqif.

Al-Muthanna, commander of the Muslim Arabs in al-Hira, had asked Abu Bakr and later Caliph Umar for reinforcements against Sasanians in Mesopotamia, who were fighting him back. Umar chose Abu Ubayd who volunteered first, although he was not among the Muhajirun or Ansar (the Companions of Muhammad),[2] and dispatched him. Abu Ubayd arranged a force of 1,000 from his Thaqif tribe and increased his numbers in the way north.[3] He took over command from al-Muthanna for the second time, becoming commander of the forces in al-Hira region.[4] The combined Arab forces conducted raiding in the plains between al-Hira and Ctesiphon (the Sawad). The commander of the Sasanian army Rustam Farrukhzad dispatched an army under Bahman Jadhuyih to attack them.[3] In the upcoming battle at the bank of the Euphrates river near Babylon, known as the Battle of the Bridge, a white war elephant tore Abu Ubaid from his horse with its trunk, and trampled him under its foot. The Arab forces panicked and were defeated. His brother al-Hakam and his son Jabr were also killed after him.[5][6][7]

Abu Ubayd was also the father of the Shia leader al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, who rebelled against the Umayyads to revenge the Karbala event during the Second Fitna. Safiyah, wife of Abdullah ibn Umar, was also his daughter.[8]:305 Jariah, another of his daughters, was married to Umar ibn Sa'ad.

Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi
Native name
أبو عبيد التقفي
Other name(s)Abū 'Ubayd ibn Mas'ūd ibn 'Amr ibn 'Umayd ibn 'Awf al-Thaqafī (full name)
BornTa'if, Arabia
DiedNovember 634
Bank of the Euphrates, near Babylon, Sasanian Empire
AllegianceRashidun Caliphate
Service/branchRashidun army
RankField commander
Battles/warsMuslim conquest of Persia
Relationsal-Hakam (brother)
al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi (son)
Jabr (son)
Safiyah (daughter)
Jariah (daughter)

References

  1. ^ Mazhar-ul-Haq, A Short History of Islam: From the Rise of Islam to the Fall of Baghdad, 571 A.D. to 1258 A.D., 2nd edition, Bookland, 1977, p. 229.
  2. ^ Mujahid, Abdul Malik. "Golden Stories of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A)". Darussalam Publishers – via Google Books.
  3. ^ a b Crawford, Peter (16 July 2013). "The War of the Three Gods: Romans, Persians and the Rise of Islam". Pen and Sword – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Ibrahim, Mahmood (1 November 2011). "Merchant Capital and Islam". University of Texas Press – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Biladuri, Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Al (1 March 2011). "The Origins of the Islamic State: Being a Translation from the Arabic Accompanied With Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitab Futuh Al-buldan". Cosimo, Inc. – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Richard Nelson Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, (Cambridge University Press, 1975), 8-9.
  7. ^ Nafziger, George F.; Walton, Mark W. (30 August 2017). "Islam at War: A History". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
Abu Ubaidah (disambiguation)

Abu Ubaidah, Ubaida, Obaidah, Obaida, Ubaydah, and Ubayda (Arabic: أبو عبيدة‎, Abū ʿUbaidah) usually refers to Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, the Companion of the Prophet and Arab general.

The name may also refer to:

Abu ʿUbaidah, a 9th-century Muslim scholar

Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri, founding member of terrorist group al-Qaeda

Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi, also Abu Ubaidah

Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha

Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha (Arabic: المثنى بن حارثة الشيباني‎) was a Muslim Arab general in the army of the Rashidun Caliphate.

Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn

Abdullah Ali al-Asghar ibn Al-Husayn (09 Rajab 60 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH (10 October 680 CE)), or simply Ali Asghar ("Younger Ali"), was the youngest child of Al-Husayn (son of ‘Ali, grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the third Imam) and Rubab bint Imra’ al-Qays. He was killed during the Battle of Karbala, and is commemorated in shia as the "personified quintessence of the innocent victim."

Banu Thaqif

Banū Thaqīf is an Arab tribe that came originally from the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.

Battle of Kaskar

The Battle of Kaskar (Arabic: معركة كسكر‎) was fought between the advancing forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanian Empire in modern-day Iraq. Following the Battle of Namaraq, the defeated Persian noblemen and governor of Kaškar, Narsi, fled back to his estates in an attempt to save his life. The Muslims soon advanced towards his estate, however, and Narsi marched out to defend it. His flanks were commanded by the sons of Vistahm, Vinduyih and Tiruyih. Rostam Farrokhzad, another Persian noblemen, also sent the commander Jalinus to assist Narsi, but he did not arrive in time. In the ensuring battle, Narsi was soundly defeated, however he and his commanders managed to escape. Jalinus soon met the Muslim force as well, but he too was defeated.

Husayn ibn Ali

Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: ٱلْحُسَيْن ابْن عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب‎‎; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680; also transliterated as Husayn ibn Ali, Husain, Hussain and Hussein) was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā' (People of the Cloak), as well as the third Shia Imam.

Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Muawiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor in a clear violation of the Hasan-Muawiya treaty. When Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husain pledge allegiance to him. Husain refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, even though it meant sacrificing his life. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah; however, at a place near it known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (the 10th of Muharram in 61 AH) by Yazid, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners. Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution.Husayn is highly regarded by Shia Muslims for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid, the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust. The annual memorial for him and his children, family and companions occurs during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, and the day he was martyred is known as Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). Husayn's actions at Karbala fueled later Shia movements,

and the martyrdom of Husayn was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shia history. The timing of the Imam's life and martyrdom were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the seventh century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, and the stand of Husain and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors and injustice. Throughout history, many notable personalities, such as Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi, have cited Husain's stand against oppression as an example for their own fights against injustice.

Khazir River

The Khazir River (Arabic: الخازر‎) is a river of northern Iraq, a tributary of the Great Zab river, joining its right bank.

Mukhtar al-Thaqafi

Mukhtār ibn Abī ʿUbayd al-Thaqafī (Arabic: المختار بن أبي عبيد الثقفي‎; c. 622 – 3 April 687) was a pro-Alid revolutionary based in Kufa, who led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled over most of Iraq for eighteen months during the Second Islamic Civil War.

Born in Ta'if, Mukhtar moved to Iraq at a young age and grew up in Kufa. Following the death of Husayn ibn Ali, a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at the hands of the Umayyad army in the Battle of Karbala in 680, he allied with the rival caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca, but the alliance was short-lived. Mukhtar returned to Kufa where he declared Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a son of caliph Ali (r. 656–661) and brother of Husayn, the Mahdi and the Imam, and called for the establishment of an Alid caliphate and retaliation for Husayn's killing. He took over Kufa in October 685, after expelling its Zubayrid governor, and later ordered the execution of those involved in the killing of Husayn. Hostile relations with Ibn al-Zubayr ultimately led to Mukhtar's death by the forces of the Zubayrid governor of Basra, Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, following a four-month siege.

Although Mukhtar was defeated, his movement would have far-reaching consequences. After his death, his followers formed a radical Shia sect, later known as the Kaysanites, who developed several novel doctrines and influenced later Shia ideology. Mukhtar raised the social status of mawālī (local converts to Islam) and they became an important political entity. The mawālī and Kaysanites went on to play a significant role in the Abbasid Revolution sixty years later. Mukhtar is a controversial figure among Muslims; condemned by many as a false prophet, but revered by Shia because of his support for the Alids. Modern historians' views range from regarding him as a sincere revolutionary to an ambitious opportunist.

Muslim ibn Aqil

Muslim ibn Aqil al-Hashimi (Arabic: مسلم بن عقيل الهاشمي‎, translit. Muslim ibn ʿAqīl al-Hāshimī) was the son of Aqil ibn Abi Talib and a member of the clan of Bani Hashim, thus, he is a cousin of Husayn ibn Ali. The people of Kufa called upon Husayn to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty who was on his way to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage. He wanted to confirm the loyalty of the people of Kufa, so he sent his cousin and his ambassador, Muslim ibn Aqeel, a famous warrior, to Kufa to observe the situation. He sent a letter to Husayn confirming their loyalty, before knowing that the 30,000 followers that he gained would all betray him. He was executed by the newly installed governor, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, on the 20th of Rabi Ul Awal, 60 AH, and is buried at the back of Great Mosque of Kufa.

White elephant (animal)

A white elephant (also albino elephant) is a rare kind of elephant, but not a distinct species. Although often depicted as snow white, their skin is normally a soft reddish-brown, turning a light pink when wet. They have fair eyelashes and toenails. The traditional "white elephant" is commonly misunderstood as being albino, but the Thai term chang samkhan, actually translates as 'auspicious elephant', being "white" in terms of an aspect of purity.White elephants are only nominally white. Of those currently kept by the Burmese rulers—General Than Shwe regards himself as the heir of the Burmese kings—one is grey and the other three are pinkish, but all are officially white. The king of Thailand also keeps a number of white elephants, eleven of which are still alive. Former U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew once presented a white elephant to King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.

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