Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib

Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: أَبُو طَالِب ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب‎;[a] c. 539 – c. 619), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula. He was an uncle of the Islamic Nabī (Prophet) Muhammad,[2] and father of the Rashid Caliph Ali, who is also regarded as the first Shi'ite Imam. After the death of his father Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, he inherited this position, and the offices of Siqaya and Rifada.[3] He was well-respected in Mecca despite a declining fortune.[4] There is a debate among Muslim scholars on whether he died a Muslim or a non-Muslim.

Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib
أَبُو طَالِب ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب
أَبُو طَالِب ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب
Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib
Born
'Imran (Arabic: عِمْرَان‎) or 'Abd Manaf (Arabic: عَبْد مَنَاف‎)[1]

c. 535 CE
Diedc. 619 CE (aged 83–84)
Mecca
Resting placeJannatul-Mu‘alla, Mecca
Known forbeing the uncle of Muhammad, father of ‘Ali, and Custodian of the Kaaba
MovementProtecting Muhammad
Opponent(s)Pagans of Makkah
Spouse(s)Fatimah bint Asad
ChildrenTalib
‘Aqeel
Ja‘far
'Ali
Tulayq
Fakhitah
Jumanah
Raytah
Parent(s)'Abd al-Muttalib
Fatimah bint Amr
RelativesAz-Zubayr (brother)
'Abdullah (brother)
Umm Hakim (sister)
Barrah (sister)
Arwa (sister)
'Atikah (sister)
Umamah/Umaymah (sister)

Early life

Abu Talib was born at Mecca in 539 CE. He was the son of the Hashimite chief, Abdul Muttalib, a brother of Muhammad's father, 'Abdullāh, who had died before Muhammad's birth. After the death of Muhammad's mother Āminah bint Wahb, Muhammad as a child was taken into the care of his grandfather, ‘Abdul-Muttalib. When Muhammad reached eight years of age, 'Abdul-Muttalib died. One of Muhammad's uncles was to take him in. The oldest, Al-Harith was not wealthy enough to take him in. Abu Talib, despite his poverty, took in Muhammad because of his generosity.[5] Although Abu Talib was responsible for Siqaya and Rifada (Food and Beverages) of Hajj pilgrims, he was poor.

Muhammad loved his uncle very much, and Abu Talib loved him in return.[6] Abu Talib is remembered as a gifted poet, and many poetic verses in support of Muhammad are attributed to him.[3][7] Once, as Abu Talib was about to leave for a trading expedition, Muhammad wept and could not bear to be separated from him. To this Abu Talib responded, "By God I will take him with me, and we shall never part from each other."[8]

Later in life, as an adult, Muhammad saw that Abu Talib was struggling financially after a severe drought. Muhammad decided to take charge of one of Abu Talib's children and he convinced Al-'Abbas to do the same. They discussed this matter with Abū Ṭālib, who asked that his favorite child 'Aqīl be left with him. Al-'Abbās chose Ja'far, and Muhammad chose 'Alī.[9][10][11][12][13]

Protecting Muhammad

In tribal society, a tribal affiliation is important, otherwise a man can be killed with impunity.[14] As leader of the Banu Hashim, Abu Talib acted as a protector to Muhammad. After Muhammad began preaching the message of Islam, members of the other Qurayshite clans increasingly came to feel threatened by Muḥammad. In attempts to quiet him, they pressured Abū Ṭālib to silence his nephew or control him. Despite these pressures, Abu Talib maintained his support of Muḥammad, defending him from the other leaders of the Quraysh. Leaders of the Quraysh directly confronted Abu Talib several times. Abu Talib brushed them off and continued to support Muhammad even when it put a rift between him and the Quraysh. In one account, the Quraysh even threatened to fight the Banu Hashim over this conflict.[15] In a particular narration of one such confrontation, Abu Talib summoned Muhammad to speak with the Quraysh. Muhammad asked the Quraysh leaders to say the shahada and they were astounded.[16]

The Quraysh even tried to bribe Abu Talib. They told Abu Talib that if he let them get hold of Muhammad, then he could adopt 'Umarah ibn al Walid ibn al Mughirah, the most handsome youth in Quraysh.[15][17][18] When this also failed, the Quraysh elicited the support of other tribes to boycott trading with or marrying members of the Banu Hashim lineage. This boycott started seven years after Muhammad first received revelation and lasted for three years.[3] The goal was to put pressure on the Hashimites and even starve them into submission.[19] For the sake of security, many members of the Banu Hashim moved near to Abu Talib (Encyclopedia of Islam), and the place became like a ghetto.[19] This didn't cause undue hardship[20] because many had family members in other tribes that would smuggle goods to them.[19] Abu Talib's brother, Abu Lahab, sided with the Quraysh on this issue; he moved to a house in the district of Abd Shams to demonstrate support for the Quraysh.[19][21] He thought Muhammad was either mad or an impostor.[22]

Protecting Muhammad put considerable pressure on Abu Talib and the Banu Hashim. In one instance Abu Talib exclaimed to Muhammad, "Save me and yourself, and do not put a greater burden on me than I cannot bear." Muhammad responded, "Oh uncle! By God Almighty I swear, even if they should put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left that I abjure this cause, I shall not do so until God has vindicated it or caused me to perish in the process."[23] Seeing his nephew's emotion, Abu Talib responded, "Go, nephew, and say what you like. By God, I will never hand you over for any reason."[24]

Death

Abū Ṭālib died circa 619, at more than 80 years of age, about 10 years after the start of Muhammad's mission.[3] This year is known as the Year of Sorrow for Muhammad, because not only did his uncle Abu Talib die, but also his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, within a month of Abu Talib.

Before Abu Talib died, Muhammad asked him to pronounce the Shahadah.[16] In another tradition Abu Talib was dissuaded from saying the Shahadah by the Quraysh, false statement.[25] According to the historiographer Fred McGraw Donner, both of these traditions have very old isnads but the first variation has two different isnads which might suggest that the second variation is a modification of the older, first variation.[25]

In yet another variation of Abu Talib's death, Al-'Abbās, who was sitting next to Abu Talib as he died, saw Abu Talib moving his lips. Al-'Abbās claimed that Abu Talib had said the shahada but Muhammad replied that he had not heard it.[3][26][27] Some Muslims see this as proof that Abu Talib died a Muslim. However, the majority of sources state that Abu Talib died a pagan.

After Abu Talib's death, Muhammad was left unprotected. Abu Talib's brother and successor as the Chief of the family, that is Abu Lahab, did not protect him, as he was an enemy of Muhammad, so Muhammad and his followers faced incredible persecution. Muhammad is quoted as exclaiming, "By God, Quraysh never harmed me so much as after the death of Abu Talib."[28][29] The early Muslims relocated to Medina in order to escape persecution by the Quraysh.

Views

The memory of Abu Talib is influenced by political aims of the Sunnis and Shias.[30] The character of Abu Talib was elemental in the Abbasid/Shi'ite power struggle.

The Abbasids, who originally claimed to be Shi'ites, worked with Ajamis to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty, and both tried to legitimize their claim to power through ancestral relationship to Muhammad.[31] The Abbasids traced their ancestry to Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, while the Alids traced their ancestry to 'Ali, son of Abu Talib. Therefore, in order to assert their credibility, the Abbasids (who embraced Sunni Islam) tried to discredit Abu Talib by emphasizing that he died a pagan.[25]

Shi'ite

Shi'ites believe that the father of the first Imam, Ali, must be nearly as great as the Imam himself. Shia Muslims elevate Abu Talib and see him as a heroic defender of Muhammad. Many sources from this perspective claim that Abu Talib was indeed Muslim, he just kept his faith a secret so that he could better protect Muhammad.[32]

In one account, when Abu Talib was ill, Muhammad fed grapes to him that God forbade unbelievers to eat. This implies that Abu Talib had accepted Islam despite his outward actions.[33]

Shias also believe that the ancestors of Abu Talib were Muslims. Abu Talib was a descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim,[34] and Shi'ites believe that the "divine transmigration of the spirit" is applied to ancestors as well as descendants.[35] However, according to the 6th,[36] 9th,[37] and 19th[38] Surahs of the Quran, Ibrahim's ab (Arabic: أَب‎, usually 'father'), that is Azar, was a polytheist and disbeliever. Since term ab was also used among Arabs for uncles, certain Shi'ites[b] assert that Azar was not Abraham's biological father, but his uncle, thus implying that his biological father was the Biblical figure Terah,[40] who himself was described as a polytheist.[41][42]

In addition, when Muhammad married Khadija, Abu Talib recited the sermon of the marriage. This fact has also been used to prove Abu Talib's monotheism.[43]

Shi'ites quote several Sunni sources, such as Arjah-ul-Matalib by Maulana Ubaydullah Bismil[44] which reportedly contains 300 Sunni references on Abu Talib being a Muslim.

Sunni

It is reported in Sunni Islam (Most Notably the Wahhabi Sect) that the Quranic verse 28:56 ("O Prophet! Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He will") was revealed concerning Abu Talib's rejection of Islam at the hands of his nephew.[45][46]

In one account by the historian al-Mada'ini, and widely circulated by the Abbasids, one of two men states, "I wish that Abu Talib had embraced Islam, for the Apostle of God would have been delighted at that. But he was an unbeliever."[47]

Along the same lines, there is a similar account where Ali informs Muhammad of Abu Talib's death by saying, "Your uncle, the erring old man, has died."[33]

Family

Abu Talib was married to Fatimah bint Asad. They had four sons:

and three daughters:

By another wife, Illa, he had a fifth son:

Education to his children

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ‘Imrān (Arabic: عِمْرَان‎) or ‘Abd Manāf (Arabic: عَبْد مَنَاف‎).[1]
  2. ^ Unlike Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, who considered Terah as the uncle of Abraham.[39]:15

References

  1. ^ a b "Abu-Talib (a.s.) The Greatest Guardian of Islam". duas.org. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  2. ^ Ibn Sa'd, Al-Tabaqat al-Kobra, Vol. 1, P. 93
  3. ^ a b c d e Rubin, Uri (2013). Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 77.
  5. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 54.
  6. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 93.
  7. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 33.
  8. ^ The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University of New York Press. 1988. p. 44.
  9. ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.162.
  10. ^ Tārīkh Al-Tabarī (vol 2 p.63), Tārīkh ibn Al-Athīr (vol 2 p.24), Musnad of Aḥmed ibn Ḥanbal (vol 1 p.159), Al-Sīrat al-Nabawīyah by ibn Kathīr (vol 1 p.457-459).
  11. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhī (vol 2 p.301), Al-Ṭabaqāt Al-Kubrā - ibn Sa'd (vol 3 kklkp.12), Usd Al-Ghābah (vol 4 p.17), Kanz al-'Ummāl (vol 6 p.400), Tārīkh Al-Ṭabarī (vol 2 p.55), Tārīkh Baghdād (vol 2 p.18)
  12. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 81.
  13. ^ The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University Press. 1985. p. 83.
  14. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2000). Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library. p. 13.
  15. ^ a b Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 150.
  16. ^ a b The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 95.
  17. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 97.
  18. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 88.
  19. ^ a b c d Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 129.
  20. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. xliv.
  21. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 90.
  22. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 52.
  23. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 89.
  24. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 96.
  25. ^ a b c Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 245.
  26. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 99.
  27. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 152.
  28. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 136.
  29. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 135.
  30. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 149.
  31. ^ Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 237.
  32. ^ (150 Rubin)
  33. ^ a b Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 239.
  34. ^ Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 240.
  35. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 108.
  36. ^ Quran 6:74–90
  37. ^ Quran 9:113–114
  38. ^ Quran 19:41–50
  39. ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  40. ^ "Was Azar the Father of Prophet Abraham?". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  41. ^ Book of Joshua, 24:2
  42. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Abraham and his father
  43. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 40.
  44. ^ Maulana Ubaidullah Bismil. Arjah Ul Matalib Sawaneh Umri Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  45. ^ Diane Morgan (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 114. ISBN 9780313360251.
  46. ^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009). The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 7). MSA Publication Limited. p. 202. ISBN 9781861796615.
  47. ^ Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 238.
  48. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Tabir. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1967). Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. I Parts I & II, pp. 135-136. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
  49. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Tabir, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 35. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
Preceded by
Zubayr ibn 'Abd al-Muṭṭalib
Head of Banū Hāshim
?–619
Succeeded by
Abū Lahab
539

Year 539 (DXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Strategius without colleague (or, less frequently, year 1292 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 539 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

549

Year 549 (DXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 549 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

619

Year 619 (DCXIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 619 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Abd al-Muttalib (name)

Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: عبد المطلب‎, translit. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c.497–578) was the grandfather of Muhammad.

Abd al-Muttalib, Abdul-Muttalib, or variations of this name, may also refer to:

Al-Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib (fl. 6th century), uncle of Muhammad

Az-Zubayr ibn Abd al-Muttalib (fl. 6th century), paternal uncle of Muhammad

Barrah bint Abdul Muttalib (fl. 6th century), aunt of Muhammad

Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (c. 539–c. 619), leader of Banu Hashim clan, Quraysh tribe, Mecca, Arabia

Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (545–c.570), father of Muhammad

Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib (born c.546), paternal aunt of Muhammad

Abu Lahab ibn 'Abdul Muttalib or Abu Lahab (c.549–624), paternal uncle of Muhammad

Umama bint Abdulmuttalib (born 540), paternal aunt of Muhammad

Atika bint Abdul Muttalib (fl. 624), aunt of Muhammad

Arwa bint Abdul Muttalib (born c.560), aunt of Muhammad

Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (c.567–c.653), companion and paternal uncle of Muhammad

Safiyyah bint Abd al-Muttalib (c.569–c.640), companion and aunt of Muhammad

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib (c.570–625), companion and paternal uncle of Muhammad

Abdul Muttalib (Dai) (died 1354), 14th Dai of the Dawoodi Bohra Ismaili Muslims, 1345–1354

Abd al-Muttalib ibn Ghalib (1790–1886), Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca, 1827, 1851–1856, 1880–1881

Ismail Abdul Muttalib (born 1954), Member of the Parliament of Malaysia for Maran, Pahang

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab (born 1986), the "underwear bomber"

Abu Talib

Abu Taleb or Abu Talib may refer to:

Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (549-619), Arab leader and head of the Banu Hashim clan

Abu Talib al-Makki (died 996), Arab scholar, jurist and mystic

Abu Taleb Rostam (997-1029), Buyid amir of Ray, Iran

Mirza Abu Taleb Khan (1752-1805/6), Indo-Persian administrator famous for his travelogue about Europe

Sufi Abu Taleb (1925–2008), President of Egypt

Fat'hi Abu Taleb (born 1933), Jordanian army Field-Marshal

Abu Talib (musician) (1939-2009), American blues musician

Yousef Abu-Taleb (born 1980), American actor

Muhammad Jailani Abu Talib (born 1985), Singaporean poet, editor and writer

Al Imran

āl ʿimrān (Arabic: آل عمران‎, "The Family of Imran") is the third chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with two hundred verses (āyāt).

According to the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican traditions, ʿImrān (Joachim) is the husband of Saint Anne and the father of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The chapter takes its name from the family of Imran mentioned in verse (āyah) 33.

Aminah

Aminah bint Wahb (Arabic: آمنة بنت وهب‎ ʼĀmena bint Wahab, died 577 AD) was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Bahira

Bahira (Arabic: بحيرى‎, Classical Syriac: ܒܚܝܪܐ‎), or Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was an Arab Ebionite, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muhammad his future as a prophet. His name derives from the Syriac bḥīrā, meaning “tested (by God) and approved”.

Disputed issues in early Islamic history

There are a number of uncertainties and disputed issues in the early history of Islam.Most of these disputes can be traced to Shi'a-Sunni disagreements. Shi'a often argue that history has been distorted to further a Banu Umayyad agenda. In many cases, complications with the historiography of early Islam have also resulted in lack of consensus within denominations of Islam.

Fakhitah bint Abi Talib

Fākhitah bint Abī Tālib (also known as Hind) (فاختة بنت أبي طالب) was a cousin and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Fatimah bint Asad

Fatimah bint Asad (c. 68 BH – 4 AH ; c. 555–626 CE) (Arabic: فاطمة بنت أسد‎, Fāṭimah bint ʾAsad) was the mother of Ali bin Abi Talib.

Jumanah bint Abi Talib

Jumanah bint Abi Talib (Arabic: جمانة بنت أبي طالب‎) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

She was a daughter of Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and Fatimah bint Asad. She married her cousin, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith, and they had a son, Ja'far.Abu Sufyan was hostile to Islam for a long time. In 630 he told Jumanah that he intended to convert. She responded: "Finally, you see that Bedouins and foreigners have followed Muhammad, while you have been his confirmed foe! You should have been the first person to assist him!" She accompanied him on his journey to meet Muhammad at Al-Abwa; but Muhammad refused to see him. They followed Muhammad all the way back to Mecca. After the conquest, Jumanah accompanied some women from the Muttalib clan on a visit to Muhammad. She "softened" him about her husband; but it was only after the Battle of Hunayn that he accepted Abu Sufyan's conversion as genuine.Muhammad assigned Jumanah an income of 30 wasqs from Khaybar.She is not known to have narrated any hadith from Muhammad.

List of ziyarat locations

This is a list of notable ziyarat (pilgrimage site) locations around the world.

Rayta bint Abi Talib

Rayṭah bint Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: رَيْطَة بِنْت أَبِي طَالِب‎) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad.

Second and third deputation with Abu Talib

This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina.Following the failed attempt from the Meccan polytheists to have those Muslims who were part of the second migration to Abyssinia expelled and handed back to their persecutors, the Meccans tried to negotiated with Muhammad's protector and uncle Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was still in Mecca with his nephew to have Muhammad ostracized, a significant demand from the Meccans considering that social death would often result in death or slavery in the Pre-Islamic Arabian culture (Arabic: Jahiliyyah).

Historical sources do not give the exact date of these two meetings with Abu Talib. They seem, however more likely to have taken place in 7 BH (614–615 CE) with a brief lapse of time in between.

Shia view of Ali

Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him, along with his descendants, to be one of the divinely appointed successors of Muhammad who are claimed by the Shia the only legitimate religious and political leaders of the Muslim community. Although Ali was regarded, during the lifetime of Muhammad, as his initial successor, it would be 25 years before he was recognized with the title of Caliph (successor). Like the rest of his household, Shias claim that Ali is infallible and sinless and is one of The Fourteen Infallibles of the household of Muhammed.

Tradition states that Ali was born inside the Kaaba in Mecca, and was a member of the Quraysh tribe. Ali's father and Muhammad's uncle, Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, was custodian of the Kaaba and a sheikh of the Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful tribe of the Quraysh. His mother, Fatimah bint Asad, was also from the Banu Hashim. In Arab culture it was a great honor for Ali that both of his parents belonged to the Banu Hashim. Ali was also one of descendants of Ishmael (Isma'il) the son of Abraham (Ibrahim).

During his childhood, Ali spent his first six years under his father's roof. Then, as a result of famine in and around Mecca, Muhammad asked his uncle, Abu Talib, to allow Ali to come and live in the house of his cousin. It would be another four years until Muhammad would announce his Prophethood. When the divine command came for Muhammad to begin to preach, Ali, only a child of ten years, was the first male to publicly announce his support for his cousin. Over the coming years, Ali stood firmly in his support of Muhammad during the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans.

Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad. There Muhammad told Ali that he had been ordered by God to give his daughter, Fatimah, to Ali in marriage. For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders. With the exception of the Battle of Tabouk, Ali took part in all the battles fought for Islam during this time.

After the assassination of the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, the Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad) in Medina selected Ali to be the new Caliph. He encountered defiance and civil war (First Fitna) during his reign. Tragically, while Ali was praying and bowing to God in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite assassin, struck him with a poison-coated sword. Ali died on the 21st of Ramadan in the city of Kufa in 661 CE. Ali is highly regarded for his knowledge, belief, honesty, devotion to Islam, loyalty to Muhammad, his equal treatment of all Muslims, and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies. In addition, he is respected as the rightful successor of Muhammad. Ali retains his stature as the foremost authority on the Tafsir (Quranic exegesis), Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and religious thought.

The compilation of sermons, lectures, and quotations attributed to Ali are compiled in the form of several books. Nahj al-Balagha is the most revered of them. It is considered by historians and scholars to be an important work in Islamic literature.

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Arabic: عبيدة بن الحارث‎) (c.562-624) was a cousin and a companion of Muhammad.

Ubaydah was the son of Al-Harith ibn Muttalib ibn Abdmanaf ibn Qusayy, hence a second cousin of Abd Allah ibn Abd al Muttalib and of Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib. His mother, Sukhayla bint Khuza'i, was from the Thaqif tribe. He had two full brothers, Al-Tufayl and Al-Husayn, who were more than twenty years younger than himself. Ubaydah's appearance is described as "medium, swarthy, with a handsome face."Ubaydah is known for shooting the first arrow of Islam and for being the first Muslim to die on the battlefield in defense of Islam.

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