Abu Sa'id Mirza

Mirza Abū Saʿīd Baig Mohammed Khan or Abū Saʿīd Mirza (Chagatay/Persian: ابو سعید میرزا‎) was an important member of the Timurid dynasty. He was the ruler of a large area in Transoxiana, Khurasan and the southern Caspian region. However, his greater claim to fame lies in his bloodline and subsequent lineage: Abu Sa'id Mirza was a male-line great-grandson of Timur the Lame, and he was the paternal grandfather of Babur, who would found the Mughal empire of India.

Mirza Abū Saʿīd Baig Muhammed
Mirza (royal title)
Sultan
Abu Said seated on a throne
Mughal illumination of Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza
ReignSamarkand: 1451–1469
Herat: 1459–1469
Born1424
Herat
Died1469 (aged 44–45)
SpouseKhanzada Begum
Rabia Sultan Begum
Shah Sultan Begum
Shahzada Begum
Aka Begum
Ruqaiya Sultan Begum
Malika Sultan Begum
Afaq Aghacha
Khadija Begi Agha
IssueSultan Ahmed Mirza
Sultan Muhammad Mirza
Sultan Mahmud Mirza
Umar Shaikh Mirza II
Sultan Murad Mirza
Sultan Walad Mirza
Ulugh Beg Mirza
Aba Bakr Mirza
Sultan Khalil Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
Fakhr Jahan Begum
Badi ul-Jamal Begum
Sultan Bakht Begum
Gowhar Shad Begum
Khadija Sultan Begum
Shahar Banu Begum
Payanda Sultan Begum
Zainab Sultan Begum
Aq Begum
Khvand Sultan Begum
Khanum Sultan Begum
DynastyHouse of Timur
FatherMuhammad Mirza
MotherShah Islam Agha

Background

Sultan Abu Said Mirza

Abū Saʿīd was the great-grandson of Timur, the grandson of Miran Shah, and the nephew of Ulugh Beg. He was the grandfather of Babur, by his son Umar Sheikh Mirza, the founder of the Mughal Empire in South Asia. As a young man his ancestry made him a principal in the century-long struggle for the remnants of Timur's empire waged between Timur's descendants, the Black Sheep Turkomans, and the White Sheep Turkomans (1405–1510).[1] He was the son of Muhammad Mirza son of Miran Shah son of Amir Timur (Herat, 1424–1469), and was a Timurid Empire ruler in Transoxiana, Khurasan and the southern Caspian region, what is today parts of Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan.

Reign

Conquests

He raised an army but failed to gain a foothold in Samarkand or Bukhara (1448–1449); established his base at Yasi and conquered much of Turkestan in 1450. In June 1451, he captured Samarkand with the aid of the Uzbek Turks under Abūl-Khayr Khān, thus securing rulership of the eastern part of Timur's Empire, Transoxiana.[2] He fought an inconclusive war with Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor of Khorasan in 1454; and took advantage of his cousin Jahan Shah's capture of Herat late in 1457 to capture it for himself in 1458, thus acquiring the rest of Timur's heartland and becoming the most powerful of the Timurid princes in central Asia. Also in 1457 he had the ruler's mother Gorhashad executed, even though she was over 80. He defeated an alliance of three other Timurid princes at the Battle of Sarakhs in March 1459, and conquered eastern Iran and most of Afghanistan by 1461, agreeing with Jahan Shah to divide Iran between them; when the White Sheep Turkoman chieftain Uzun Hasan attacked and killed Jahan Shah, Abu Sa'id spurned Uzun Hasan's peace offer and answered Jahan Shah's son's request for aid.

Capture

Captured (on 11 February 1469 [NS]) by Uzun Hasan with a small force at the calamitous Battle of Qarabagh (in modern Republic of Azerbaijan) during a campaign against the Ak Koyunlu (White Sheep) Turkomans,[3] he was handed over to Yadgar Muhammad Mirza on 17 February 1469, who executed him, ostensibly in retribution for Abū Sa'id's execution of Yadgar Muhammad Mirza's grandmother Queen Gawhar Shad,[4] who had been intriguing against him.

Political Connections

Abu Sa'id formed many political connections during his rule, including to the Uzbeks, the Qara Qoyunlu Turkmen, and a variety of Sufi figures. He has been linked to Khwāja ʿUbaydullah Aḥrār (d. 895 AH/1490 CE) at the time of his accession (1451 CE) in Samarqand.[5] He also sought support at the shrine of Ahmad Yasavi in Yasi.[6]

Marriages

Abu Sa'd had thirty nine wives;

  • Khanzada Begum, daughter of Abu'l Khayr Khan;
  • Rabia Sultan Begum, daughter of Muhammad Timur Mirza and Khand Sultan Begi;
  • Aqa Begum, Taghay Shah, daughter of Ulugh Beg bin Shahrukh Mirza;
  • Qutluq Sultan Khanum, a Genghisid lady;
  • Malika Sultan Begum, daughter of Ordu Bugha Tarkhan;
  • Shah Sultan Begum, a Mughal lady;
  • Shahzada Begum, daughter of Shah Sultan Muhammad of Badakshan;
  • Khanzada Makhdum Begum, daughter of Khanzada Taj-al-Din Tirmizi;
  • Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, daughter of Ala-ud-dawla Mirza bin Baysonqor bin Shah Rukh;
  • Saliha Sultan Agha, daughter of Jakah Barlas;
  • Jamal Begi Agha, a Barlas lady;
  • Daulat Bakht Agha, daughter of Qaran Shaikh Mughal;
  • Kanizak Begi Agha, daughter of Shaikh Yusuf Lakah;
  • Umid Agha, daughter of Sultan Ahmad Ghiyas Beg and niece of Sultan Muhammad Ghiyas Beg;
  • Qatak Begi Agha, daughter of Muhammad Khudaidad, former wife of Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor bin Shah Rukh;
  • Khurshid Begi Aghacha, daughter of Murad Akhtaji;
  • Dilshad Aghacha, daughter of Amir Buzurg bin Amir Bayan;
  • Bey Mulk Aghacha, daughter of Jan Darwaish;
  • Aafaq Aghacha, foster sister of Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah bin Baysonqor; bin Shah Rukh;
  • Shamim Aghacha, daughter of Amir Yahya Qushji;
  • Hanifa Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Amir Ajab Mughal;
  • Daulat Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Rustam Amir Tuta;
  • Bolghan Aghacha;
  • Makhdum Aghacha, relative of Sultan Ahmad Ghiyas Beg;
  • Sa'adat Bakht Aghacha, daughter of Ali Araka, Pirzada of Baghdad;
  • Afaq Aghacha;
  • Gawhar Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Khwaja Rapasti;
  • Gulshah Aghacha;
  • Shah Sultan Aghacha;
  • Subur Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Abdul Shaikh;
  • Khadija Begi Aghacha, daughter of Mulana Nasr-al-Din;
  • Nusrat Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Shah Saqd Wali Suldoz;
  • Begi Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Farrukh Shad Kohasan;
  • Gulrukh Sultan Aghacha, daughter of Yusuf bin Hamza;
  • Zainab Begi Aghacha, daughter of Sultan Ahmad Suldoz;
  • Khadija Begum, daughter of Amir Muhammad Sarik bin Amir Muhammad Khawaja;
  • Habiba Sultan Begum, daughter of Amir Jalal-ud-din Suhrab;

Legacy

Much has been made of Abū Saʿīd’s removal of tamgha taxes at the request of Khwāja Aḥrār,[7] but these taxes were removed by earlier Timurids as well,[8] and the action may have been as much a reversal of an earlier, little-liked ruler as a shift in policy toward Islamic taxation systems.[9] Khwandamir reports that court officials were deposed and sometimes killed for misappropriating funds, including the same Quṭb al-Dīn Ṭaʾūs Simnanī who later is responsible for the construction of the Juy-i Sulṭānī.[10] Women could also be caught up in the court intrigues. As mentioned in Aubin and discussed more fully by Manz,[11] Abū Saʿīd’s execution of Gawhar Shād, the wife of Shāh Rukh b. Timur (779-850/1377-1447) was viewed negatively by the contemporary chroniclers.

Abū Saʿīd does not seem to have personally engaged in large-scale building projects, perhaps because of the time he spent on campaigns.[12] Quṭb al-Dīn Ṭāʾūs, a vizier under Abū Saʿīd, built the Jūy-i Sulṭāni canal in Herat,[13] which created the possibility for future building under Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara as it was completed while Abū Saʿīd was on his final campaign to Azerbaijan.[14] This and the Aq Sarāy (white palace) shifted the elite living space while the ruler was in Herat to outside the city walls, “marking a conscious break with the past.”[15] Other public works credited to Abū Saʿīd include repairs to the Gulistān dam “while at the same time appropriating the lands it watered”.[16] Buildings include an aiwan at the musalla in Herat,[17] repairs to Ghār-i Karukh which includes an inscription,[18] and construction of a spa and bath at Ūba (Obeh), a “resort for the Timurids” in their summer quarters.[19]

References

  1. ^ Jean Aubin, "Abū Saʿīd", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., vol. I (1960), pp. 147–148.
  2. ^ Soucek, Svat, A History of Inner Asia (2000), page 136.
  3. ^ Jean Aubin, "Abū Saʿīd", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., vol. I (1960), page 148.
  4. ^ Aubin, "Encyclopaedia of Islam", 2nd ed., 1:148
  5. ^ Jo-Ann Gross, Khoja Aḥrār. A Study of the Perceptions of Religious Power and Prestige in the Late Timurid Period. New York University Ph.D dissertation 1982, p. 102; Khwāndamīr, "Habibu’s-siyar. Tome Three. The Reign of the Mongol and the Turk." Trans. W. M. Thackston. Edited by Şinasi Tekin and Gönül Alpay Tekin. 2 vols. Sources of Oriental Languages and Literatures. Cambridge, MA, 1994, p. 208
  6. ^ Gross p. 99-102, Beatrice Forbes Manz. "Power, Politics and Religion in Timurid Iran." Edited by David Morgan, Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge / New York 2007, p. 215 n.33
  7. ^ V. V. Bartold. "Four Studies on the History of Central Asia." 3 vols. Leiden 1956-1963; Aubin 1:148; H. R Roemer, "The Successors of Tīmūr", In "The Cambridge History of Iran. Volume 6. The Timurid and Safavid Periods", edited by Peter Jackson and Laurence Lockhart. (Cambridge 1986) 117
  8. ^ Manz "Power" 81-2
  9. ^ Manz "Power" 267
  10. ^ Khwandamir/Thackston, 203, 204
  11. ^ Beatrice Forbes Manz, "Women in Timurid Dynastic Politics", in "Women in Iran from the Rise of Islam to 1800", edited by G. Nashat and L. Beck (Urbana / Chicago 2003), 134-5
  12. ^ Terry Allen, "Timurid Herat", Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. Reihe B, Geistwiss. Weisbaden 1983, p. 24
  13. ^ Allen "Timurid Herat" 49, 53; Terry Allen, "A Catalogue of the Toponyms and Monuments of Timurid Herat", Studies in Islamic Architecture. Cambridge 1981, p. 20-21
  14. ^ Allen "Timurid Herat" 23-4
  15. ^ Allen "Timurid Herat" 49, 52-3
  16. ^ Bernard O'Kane, "Timurid Architecture in Khurasan", Islamic Art and Architecture. Costa Mesa, CA 1987 15
  17. ^ O’Kane 20
  18. ^ O’Kane 251-2; Lisa Golombek and Donald Wilber, "The Timurid Architecture of Iran and Turan". 2 vols, Princeton Monographs in Art and Archeology. Princeton, NJ 1988 1:327
  19. ^ Allen "Timurid Herat" p. 24
Abu Sa'id Mirza
Preceded by
‘Abdullah
Timurid Empire (in Samarkand)
1451–1469
Succeeded by
Sultan Ahmad
Preceded by
Ibrahim, then Interregnum (Black Sheep)
Timurid Empire (in Herat)
1459–1469
Succeeded by
Yadigar Muhammad
Abdallah Mirza

‘Abdallah Mirza (also spelled ‘Abdullah Mirza) (after 1410 – June 1451) was a short-lived ruler of the Timurid Empire, which encompassed the territory shared by present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, along with substantial areas of India, Mesopotamia and Caucasus.

As a member of the Timurid dynasty, Abdallah Mirza was a great-grandson of Timur, a grandson of Shahrukh Mirza and a son of Sultan Ibrahim Mirza. Granted the governorship of Fars by his grandfather, Abdallah Mirza found his position threatened by his cousin Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor during the 1447 succession crisis which followed Shah Rukh's death, and was forced to abandon the province. As a supporter of Ulugh Beg, he was imprisoned by 'Abd al-Latif following the latter's rise to power. When 'Abd al-Latif was murdered, he was released and made ruler of Samarkand, for which he was forced to lavish money upon the troops that supported him. Despite this, he did not enjoy widespread popularity.

During his relatively brief reign, a revolt created by Sultan Muhammad's brother Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor did not seriously threaten him, but a rising initiated by Abu Sa'id Mirza, whose home base, at the time, was in Bukhara, proved to be fatal. Marching from Tashkent to Samarkand with the support of Abu'l-Khayr Khan, Abu Sa'id Mirza defeated Abdallah Mirza and executed him in 1451, taking his place on the throne.

Abu Sayeed (disambiguation)

Abu Sayeed is a Bangladeshi politician.

Abu Sayeed (also spelled Sayed, Saeed, Sa'eid, Said, Sid, or Sayid) may also refer to:

Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, 7th century Ansari

Abu Said Gorgani, 9th century Persian mathematician

Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi, 9th century Bahraini monarch

Abu Sa'id Al-Janadi (died 920), Islamic scholar

Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr (967-1049), Persian Sufi poet

Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi (1013–1119), Iraqi Sufi saint

Abu Sa'id Gardezi (died 1061), Persian geographer

Abu Said al-Baji (1156–1231), Tunisian Sufi Wali

Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan (1305–1335), Ilkhanate emperor

Abu Said Uthman III (died 1420), Moroccan Marinid ruler

Abu Sa'id Mirza (1424–1469), Timurid monarch

Abu Sayeed Chowdhury (1921–1987), Bangladeshi jurist

Abdullah Abu Sayeed (born 1939), Bangladeshi television presenter

Abu Sayed Mohammad Abdul Awal (born 1957), Bangladesh Navy officer

Abu Sayeed (film director), Bangladeshi film director

Abu Sayeed M Ahmed, Bangladeshi architect

Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza

Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza bin Baysonqor Beg (Chagatai/Persian: ابوالقاسم بابر میرزا بن بایسنقر بیگ‎), was a Timurid ruler in Khurasan (1449–1457). He was the son of Ghiyath-ud-din Baysonqor ibn Shahrukh Mirza, and thus a great-grandson of Amir Timur.

Babur was one of the many people involved in the succession struggle that took place during Shah Rukh's last years. Together with Khalil Sultan (a great-great-grandson of Timur), he plundered the baggage-train of the army and then made his way to Khurasan. Meanwhile, Ulugh Beg also invaded Khurasan in 1448 in an attempt to defeat Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonghor (علاء الدولہ میرزا بن بایسنغر‬), who held Herat. Ulugh Beg defeated Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonghor at Tarnab and took Mashhad, while his son Abdal-Latif Mirza conquered Herat. Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonghor fled to south-western Afghanistan. However, Ulugh Beg felt Transoxiana, where he had already ruled for decades, to be more important, and soon left the area. On the way back, Babur sent a force that inflicted heavy losses on his army.

With a power vacuum now in Khurasan, Babur quickly seized control. Mashad and Herat fell to him in 1449. Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonghor occasionally raided the area but was not a significant factor. Together with Ulugh Beg and Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor (سلطان محمد ابن بایسنغر ‬ ) (who gained control of central Persia), Babur became one of the three important Timurid rulers. This balance of power was soon upset by Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor, who invaded Khurasan. The campaign started out badly for Babur, with a defeat at Mashad in March 1450 convinced him to cede parts of his territory. However, Babur soon recovered and took Sultan Muhammad prisoner, and then executed him. He then marched to Shiraz to take control of Sultan Muhammad's lands.

At this point Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep Turkmen ended his loyalty to the Timurids. He quickly put Qum and Saveh to siege. Babur began to march against him but was forced to return to Herat, due to the overwhelming superiority of the Black Sheep's armies and a plot hatched against him by 'Ala' al-Daula. Most of Persia was taken from the Timurids by 1452, with the exception of Abarquh, which was conquered by the Black Sheep in 1453. While Kirman was temporarily conquered some time later and a few attempts were made to seize Ray, Persia as a whole was never retaken by the Timurids.

In 1454 Babur invaded Transoxiana, then under the control of Abu Sa'id Mirza in retaliation for the latter's seizure of Balkh. He quickly laid siege to Samarkand. The conflict between the two soon ended, however, with the Oxus River agreed to as the border. This remained in effect until Babur's death in 1457. He was succeeded by his son Mahmud.

Battle of Qarabagh

Battle of Qarabagh was fought on February 4, 1469 between Aq Qoyunlu under Uzun Hasan and Timurids of Samarkand under Abu Sa'id Mirza resulting in the latter's defeat, imprisonment and execution. After the battle the Timurids forever lost any hopes of gaining Iraq or Iran back into their kingdom.

Battle of Sarakhs (1459)

Battle of Sarakhs took place in March 1459, at a location between Merv and Sarakhs.It was fought between the Timurids of Samarkand under Abu Sa'id Mirza and the confederacy of his rivals to Central Asian throne, the Timurids of Khurasan and Marv, namely; Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, his son Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah and Sultan Sanjar Mirza.

Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah

Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah (died c. 1459) was a Timurid ruler of Herat in the fifteenth century. He was the son of Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, a great-grandson of Timur.

Ibrahim came to power in Herat in the aftermath of the death of Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor. Babur's son Mirza Shah Mahmud had succeeded him but, as he was still a boy, his hold on power was weak. Ibrahim overthrew Shah Mahmud weeks after Babur's death and therefore became the ruler of Khurasan.

In July 1457, however, the Timurid ruler of Transoxiana, Abu Sa'id Mirza, invaded. Abu Sa'id occupied Balkh but was unable to conquer Herat. Ibrahim's troubles were increased when Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep Turkmen invaded as well. After occupying Gurgan, he defeated Ibrahim outside Astarabad. Ibrahim's father Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor met up with him in Herat to offer assistance, but in the end they both fled from the region. Jahan Shah entered Herat on June 28, 1458 but soon withdrew. But Ibrahim was not able to recover his realm; Khurasan instead fell to Abu Sa'id Mirza.

Shortly after, Ibrahim and Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor formed an alliance with Sultan Sanjar Mirza (a grandson of Timur's son 'Umar Shaikh) against Abu Sa'id Mirza. The opposing forces met during the Battle of Sarakhs in March 1459, where Abu Sa'id defeated them. Ibrahim and his father fled, while Sultan Sanjar Mirza was executed. Ibrahim died only a few months later; his father died the following year.

Mihr Nigar Khanum

Mihr Nigar Khanum was the first wife of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the King of Samarkand and Bukhara. She was a princess of Moghulistan by birth and was the eldest daughter of Yunus Khan, the Great Khan of Moghulistan and his chief consort Aisan Daulat Begum. She was also the aunt of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire of India as well as its first Emperor.In July 1500, after her husband's death, she was captured by Muhammad Shaybani, the Khan of the Uzbeks; and was forcibly married to him as part of the spoils.

Muhammad Mirza

Sultan Muhammad Mirza was a Timurid Prince, grandson of the Central Asian conqueror Timur by his third son Miran Shah. Little is known about his life, though through his son Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza, he was the great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire of India.

Qutlugh Nigar Khanum

Qutlugh Nigar Khanum (also spelled Kutlak Nigar Khanum; d. 1505) was the first wife and chief consort of Umar Shaikh Mirza II, the ruler of Ferghana Valley. She was a princess of Moghulistan by birth and was a daughter of Yunus Khan, the Great Khan of Moghulistan.

She was also the mother of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire of India as well as its first emperor.

Siege of Samarkand (1494 / 1496)

After the death of King Abu Sa'id Mirza, the great-grandson of Amir Timur Beg Gurkani (Taimur Lung), his much reduced Timurid Empire was divided among four of his sons namely;

Umar Shaikh Mirza II, King of Ferghana

Sultan Ahmed Mirza, King of Samarkand, Bukhara & Hissar

Sultan Mahmud Mirza, King of Balkh

Ulugh Beg Mirza II, King of KabulA civil war between two brothers Umar Shaikh Mirza II (father of Babur), King of Fergana and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, King of Samarkand and Bukhara was being fought in 1492 when Umar Shaikh died of natural causes leaving his son, the 12-year-old Babur in charge of his Kingdom. Ahmed Mirza, Babur's uncle wasted no time in attacking Babur's Kingdom but failed in his attempt. Ahmed Mirza later also died of natural causes. After Sultan Ahmed Mirza’s death, Sultan Mahmud Mirza moved to Samarkand and reigned there for some five or six months, reportedly attempting to regulate the collection of taxes and strengthen his army. But with the deaths of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Sultan Mahmud Mirza and Umar Shaikh Mirza II, all occurring during the space of a year, civil strife intensified. The richest amirs tried to make use of the child Timurids, preferring to enthrone the weakest of them.Sultan Ali Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza was thus raised in Bukhara. But the young Timurid Sultan Baysonqor Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza’s coming to power in Samarkand roused the governors of other provinces. Sultan Ali Mirza left Bukhara on a campaign against Samarkand, but the inhabitants of the city put up a fierce resistance. These events and the confusion and anarchy with which they were attended in the kingdom of Samarkand did not escape the observation of Babur who resolved to try his fortune. In 1496, the 15-year-old Babur marched to attack Samarkand. At the same moment and induced by the same motives Sultan Masud Mirza the older brother of Sultan Ali Mirza and Baysonqor Mirza was on his way to besiege the city. Thus that unfortunate city, unfortunate from its very wealth and former prosperity, saw itself beleaguered on three sides at the same time by the arms of three different potentates who acted without concert; Babur having advanced towards it from Andijan; Masud Mirza from Hissar and Sultan Ali from Bukhara.

Siege of Shahrukhiya

Abu Sa'id Mirza occupied Herat on July 19, 1457. But he had to immediately abandon the city in order to deal with the Balkh revolt by the sons of Abdal-Latif Mirza, one of whom he killed in battle while the other Juki Mirza escaped to the steppes in the north under the protection of Abul-Khayr Khan, the Khan of the Uzbek principality of Tura, a part of the empire of Desht-i Kipchak region that lies to the east of Ural mountains.Meanwhile, Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah had mustered a force of 1,000 men and had taken Jurjan on October 19, 1458 from Kara Koyunlu. Sultan Husayn Mirza was just 20 years old. Abu Sa'id Mirza invaded Jurjan which Sultan Husayn Mirza hastily abandoned and fled towards Khwarazm again. Abu Sa'id Mirza appointed his son Sultan Mahmud Mirza as Jurjan's governor.

Around 1459–60, Juki Mirza received aid from Abul-Khayr Khan and his wife (a daughter of Ulugh Beg), an Uzbek army under Burke Sultan was sent in his support. Some of the late Ulugh Beg's troops also joined Juki Mirza. Before Abu Sa'id Mirza could join his army it was defeated and Juki Mirza advanced as far as Kufin. From there he invaded the Transoxiana up to Amu Darya. Abu Sa'id Mirza received intelligence of this and marched with his army out of Herat to face this threat.

When Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah learned that Abu Sa'id Mirza had left Herat to crush the rebellion of his relative Juki Mirza, he attacked Jurjan again and at the Battle of Jauzi Wali in May, 1461 he defeated Sultan Mahmud Mirza and appointed Abdal-Rahman Arghun the territory's governor. He then besieged Herat from August–October, 1461.Meanwhile, Abu Sa'id Mirza followed up the predatory Uzbek bands as well as Juki Mirza. On his approach the Uzbek horde retreated across the Syrdarya, while Juki Mirza was besieged at Shahrukhiya. But it was then Abu Sa'id Mirza received the bad news of the defeat of his son Sultan Mahmud Mirza by Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah at the Battle of Jauzi Wali and that his beloved new Capital Herat was now besieged. He speedily concluded a truce with Juki Mirza and marched towards Herat but before he arrived Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah raised the siege. Abu Sa'id Mirza drove him out of his territories and following him into his own lands taking Jurjan and Mazandaran.This success enabled Abu Sa'id Mirza to turn his undivided force to complete the destruction of Juki Mirza. He besieged that prince in Shahrukhiya a strong and populous city on the Syrdarya and after a siege of one year Khwaja Ubaydullah Ahrar negotiated a surrender. Abu Sa'id Mirza took city and he spared its inhabitants. He treated his captor Juki Mirza with respect in Shahrukhiya and Samarkand. But in January, 1464 he was transferred to Qila Ikhtiyar-al-Din in Herat where he died in that year.

Sultan Ahmed Mirza

Sultan Ahmed Mirza was the eldest son of Abu Sa'id Mirza on whose death he became the Timurid ruler of Samarkand and Bukhara from 1469 until 1494. During his rule, he successfully repelled at least one invasion attempt by the Kara Koyunlu, and failed in an attempt to conquer Khurasan from its ruler Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara. He was embroiled in the Timurid Civil Wars with his brothers Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Sultan Mahmud Mirza. He died while returning from his Ferghana expedition against Babur, the twelve-year-old son and successor of Umar Shaikh Mirza II. As he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his brother, Sultan Mahmud Mirza.

Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara

Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara (Persian: حسین بایقرا‎ / Husayn Bāyqarā) was born in Herat in June–July 1438 C.E. to Ghiyas ud-din Mansur Mirza son of Bayqarah Mirza I son of Umar Shaikh Mirza I son of Amir Timur Beg Gurkani. He was the Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 until May 4, 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470.

Sultan Mahmud Mirza

Sultan Mahmud Mirza (c. 1453 – January 1495) was a prince of Timurid branch of Transoxiana, son of Abu Sa'id Mirza.

Sultan Muhammad (Badakhshan)

Sultan Muhhammad was a 15th-century ruler of Badakhshan. He was the last ruler of the region to be a descendant of Alexander the Great. Abu Sa'id Mirza, ruler of the Timurid Empire, killed Muhammad and supplanted him as ruler of the territory.

Timurid civil wars

Timurid civil wars are a series of succession crisis and turf wars in Central Asia of the princes of the Timurid Empire mainly during the 15th century and early 16th century. They are divided into periods following deaths of important monarchs;

First Timurid succession crisis - After the death of Timur the Lame (1405 - 1409)

Second Timurid succession crisis - After the death of Shahrukh Mirza (1447 - 1459)

Third Timurid succession crisis - After the death of Abu Sa'id Mirza (1469 - 1507)

Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law", as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

Umar Shaikh Mirza II

Umar Sheikh Mirza II (1456–1494 C.E.) was the ruler of the Fergana Valley. He was the fourth son of Abu Sa'id Mirza, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, eastern Iran and Afghanistan.

His first wife and chief consort was Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, a princess of the Chagatai Khanate and daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan. Umar had two other wives and had three sons and five daughters from his wives. His eldest son was Babur Mirza from his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum. His sons from this other two wives were Jahangir Mirza II and Nasir Mirza. His eldest son Babur Mirza founded the Mughal Empire in 1525 and was the first Mughal Emperor of India.

Umar Sheikh Mirza died in a freak accident in Aksi fort, North Fergana, on 10 June 1494. It occurred when he was in his dovecote, which was built at the edge of the building, collapsed, thus making eleven-year-old Babur, the ruler of Fergana.

Yadgar Muhammad Mirza

Yadigar Muhammad directs here, for the last khan of Kazan Khanate see: Yädegär MöxämmädYadgar Muhammad Mirza (died 1470) was the Timurid ruler of Herat in opposition to Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah for 6 weeks of 1470.

Yadgar Muhammad Mirza was born to Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor, who was a grandson of Shahrukh Mirza. It was his family ties that caused Uzun Hasan, sultan of the Ak Koyunlu confederation, to hand over to him Abu Sa'id Mirza after defeating him at the Battle of Qarabagh and capturing him in 1469. Abu Sa'id, who had previously ordered the execution Shahrukh Mirza's wife, was killed by Yadgar Muhammad Mirza.

Later in 1469, Uzun Hasan had Yadgar Muhammad Mirza proclaimed as Abu Sa'id's successor and provided him with Timurid forces so that he could take over Khurasan, which was then controlled by Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah. Although Yadgar Muhammad Mirza was defeated by Husayn in battle in September, fresh reinforcements were sent by the Ak Koyunlu leader. Furthermore, two of Uzun Hasan's sons arrived to assist him. Eventually Husayn was compelled to evacuate Herat, which Yadgar Muhammad Mirza occupied in July 1470. Despite this, his troops were unreliable and Husayn reentered Herat six weeks later. Yadgar Muhammad Mirza, who was captured, was promptly executed by his enemy. He was the last descendant of Shahrukh Mirza to play a dominant role in the politics of the Timurid principalities.

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