Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan

Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan (June 2, 1305, Ujan – December 1, 1335) (Persian, Arabic: ابو سعید بہادر خان ), also spelt Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sa'id Behauder (Mongolian: ᠪᠦᠰᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠲᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠨBusayid Baghatur Khan, Бусайд баатар хаан/Busaid baatar khaan, [ˈbusæt ˈbaːtər xaːŋ] in modern Mongolian), was the ninth ruler of Ilkhanate c. 1316-1335. This kingdom encompasses the present day countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, as well as portions of Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan
Il-Khan
Bahadur Khan (Valiant King)
Sultan Abu Sa'id
Ilhanli Ebu said enguriye 720
Double dirham of Abu Sa'id
Reign1316-1335
Coronation1316
PredecessorÖljaitü
SuccessorArpa Ke'un
BornJune 2, 1305
Ujan
DiedDecember 1, 1335 (aged 30)
Soltaniyeh
ConsortUljay Qutlugh Khatun
Baghdad Khatun
Dilshad Khatun
Malika Khatun
Adil Shah Khatun
Sarqadaq Khatun
IssueUnnamed daughter[1]
Full name
Abu Said
HouseBorjigin
DynastyIlkhanate of the Mongol Empire
FatherÖljaitü
سکه ابوسعید
Silver coin of Abu Sa'id

Biography

After defeating the forces of Golden Horde and the rebellion groups of the Keraites Rinchin, in 1306 and 1322 respectively, the Mongols gave the infant heir-apparent of Öljaitü, Abu Sa'id, the title of Baghatur (from Mongolian "баатар", meaning "hero, warrior").

During the earlier years of Abu Sa'id's reign, the Judeo-Muslim scholar and Vizier Rashid-al-Din Hamadani was beheaded. This left the emir Chupan as the de facto ruler of Ilkhanate. In 1325, Chupan defeated a force led by Muhammad Üzbeg, Khan of the Golden Horde. In turn, the emir Chupan invaded the Golden Horde's territories.

Abu Sa'id then fell in love with Baghdad Khatun, one of emir Chupan's daughters. The emir's efforts to keep Abu Sa'id from marrying his daughter, who was still married to Hasan Buzurg (another powerful kingmaker of the era), did not help the situation. In August 1327, Abu Sa'id had one of Chupan's sons, Demasq Kaja, killed, apparently for his activities with a former concubine of Öljaitü's. Later, Chupan himself was killed by the Kartids, who were the lords of Herat. In the meantime, the Mamluks beheaded Timurtash, another son of Chupan, who was a governor and had revolted against the Ilkhanate years before, and had shown unusual mercy.

In the 1330s, the outbreak of the Black Death ravaged the Ilkhanate. Abu Sa'id and his sons were among those who fell victims to the plague.[2] In consequence of which, Abu Sa'id died without an heir or an appointed successor, thus leaving the Ilkhanate vulnerable, leading to clashes of the major families, such as the Chupanids, the Jalayirids, and new movements like the Sarbadars. On his return to Persia, the great voyager Ibn Battuta was amazed to discover that the realm which had seemed to be so mighty only twenty years before, had dissolved so quickly. The Ilkhanate lost cohesion after the death of Abu Sa'id, and that of his successor, Arpa Ke'un, becoming a plethora of little kingdoms run by Mongols, Turks, and Persians.

Family

Consorts

Abu Sa'id married six times:

  • Uljay Qutlugh Khatun (m. 5 July 1317), daughter of Ghazan Khan and Bulughan Khatun, and widow of Prince Bastam;
  • Baghdad Khatun (m. 1327 - div. 1333, executed 16 December 1336), daughter of Amir Chupan, and former wife of Hasan Buzurg;
  • Malika Khatun, daughter of Tuka ibn Sulamish bin Tingiz Kurkan;
  • Dilshad Khatun (m. 1333, died 27 December 1351), daughter of Demasq Kaja and Tursin Khatun, daughter of Irinjin Kurkan and Konchak Khatun, daughter of Tekuder;
  • Adil Shah Khatun (died 7 May 1332), daughter of Tukal ibn Amir Isan Qutlugh;
  • Sarqadaq Khatun, daughter of Daulat Shah Suldoz, relative of Amir Chupan;
Daughter

Abu Sa'id had one daughter

  • A daughter (born 18 May 1336) - with Dilshad Khatun;

Genealogy

References

  1. ^ Charles, Melville; Zaryab, Abbas. "DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  2. ^ Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia By Ann K. S. Lambton
  • Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.

External links

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Öljeitü
Ilkhanid Dynasty
1316–1335
Succeeded by
Arpa Ke'un
1335

Year 1335 (MCCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Abu Sayeed (disambiguation)

Abu Sayeed is a Bangladeshi politician.

Abu Sayeed (also spelled Sayed, Saeed, Sa'eid, Said, Sid, or Sayid) may also refer to:

Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, 7th century Ansari

Abu Said Gorgani, 9th century Persian mathematician

Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi, 9th century Bahraini monarch

Abu Sa'id Al-Janadi (died 920), Islamic scholar

Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr (967-1049), Persian Sufi poet

Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi (1013–1119), Iraqi Sufi saint

Abu Sa'id Gardezi (died 1061), Persian geographer

Abu Said al-Baji (1156–1231), Tunisian Sufi Wali

Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan (1305–1335), Ilkhanate emperor

Abu Said Uthman III (died 1420), Moroccan Marinid ruler

Abu Sa'id Mirza (1424–1469), Timurid monarch

Abu Sayeed Chowdhury (1921–1987), Bangladeshi jurist

Abdullah Abu Sayeed (born 1939), Bangladeshi television presenter

Abu Sayed Mohammad Abdul Awal (born 1957), Bangladesh Navy officer

Abu Sayeed (film director), Bangladeshi film director

Abu Sayeed M Ahmed, Bangladeshi architect

Baghdad Khatun

Baghdad Khatun (Persian: بغداد خاتون‎; died 16 December 1335) (lit. Queen Baghdad), was a Chobanid princess, the daughter of Chupan. She was the Empress consort of the Ilkhanate as the wife of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan.

Dilshad Khatun

Dilshad Khatun (Persian: دلشاد خاتون‎; died 27 December 1351) (lit. Queen Dilshad)(mean'Happy Hearted'), also Delshad, was a Chobanid princess. She was the wife of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, and after him Hasan Buzurg, the first ruler of the Jalayirid Sultanate, and the mother of his son and successor Shaikh Awais.

Leo IV, King of Armenia

Leo IV or Leon IV (Armenian: Լեւոն Դ, Levon IV) (also numbered Leo V; ) (1309 – August 28, 1341) was the last Hethumid king of Cilicia, ruling from 1320 until his death. He was the son of Oshin of Armenia and Isabel of Korikos, and came to the throne on the death of his father. His name is sometimes spelled as Leo or Leon.

He spent his minority under the regency of Oshin of Korikos. During this period, the kingdom was much harassed by Mamluks and Mongols. In 1320, the Egyptian sultan Naser Mohammed ibn Kelaoun invaded and ravaged Christian Armenian Cilicia. In a letter dated July 1, 1322, and sent from Avignon, Pope John XXII reminded Mongol ruler Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan of the alliance of his ancestors with Christians, asking him to intervene in Cilicia. At the same time he advocated that he abandon Islam in favor of Christianity. Mongol troops were sent to Cilicia, but only arrived after a ceasefire had been negotiated for 15 years between Constantin, patriarch of the Armenians, and the sultan of Egypt.The regent Oshin had married his stepmother, Joan of Taranto, and Leo was forced to marry Alice Oshin's daughter by his first wife, Margaret d'Ibelin, on August 10, 1321. Oshin murdered a number of members of the royal family to consolidate his own power, and Leo's reaction upon reaching his majority in 1329 was violent. Oshin, his brother Constantine, Constable of Armenia and Lord of Lampron, and Leo's wife Alice were all murdered on the king's orders, Oshin's head being sent to the Il-Khan and Constantine's head to Al-Nasr Muhammad.

Leo was strongly pro-Western and favored a union of the Armenian and Roman Churches, which deeply displeased the native barons. His second marriage on December 29, 1331 to Constance, daughter of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou, widow of Henry II of Cyprus, further aroused anti-Western sentiment.

In 1337, Al-Nasr Muhammad invaded again, taking the city of Ayas, and Leo was forced to conclude a humiliating truce, surrendering territory and a large indemnity and promising to have no dealings with the West. He spent the last years of his reign holed up in the citadel at Sis, hoping for Western aid. On August 28, 1341 he was murdered by his own barons. His only son by Alice, Hethum, had died before 1331; the barons elected his cousin Constantine II to succeed him.

List of state leaders in 1316

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1316.

List of state leaders in 1317

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1317.

List of state leaders in 1318

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1318.

List of state leaders in 1319

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1319.

List of state leaders in 1320

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1320.

List of state leaders in 1321

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1321.

List of state leaders in 1322

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1322.

List of state leaders in 1323

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1323.

List of state leaders in 1325

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1325.

List of state leaders in 1327

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1327.

List of state leaders in 1328

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1328.

List of state leaders in 1329

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1329.

Mughal-Mongol genealogy

The rulers of the Mughal Empire shared certain genealogical relations with the Mongol royals. As they emerged in a time when this distinction had become less common, the Mughals identification as such has stuck and they have become known as one of the last Mongol successor states. As descendants of Timur, they are also members of the Timurid Dynasty, and therefore were connected to other royal families in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Far East.

Timur was directly descended from Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan.

Uljay Qutlugh Khatun

Uljay Qutlugh Khatun (Persian: الجای قتلق خاتون‎; born 14 March 1297) (lit. "Queen Uljay Qutlugh), also Öljei Qutlugh, Oljai Kutlugh or Uljaki, was a Mongol princess, and Empress consort of the Ilkhanate as the principal wife of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan.

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)

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