Abu Hanifa

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (Arabic: أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان‎; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims,[5] was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,[6] who became the eponymous founder of the Hanafi school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, which has remained the most widely practiced law school in the Sunni tradition.[6] He is often alluded to by the reverential epithets al-Imām al-aʿẓam ("The Great Imam") and Sirāj al-aʾimma ("The Lamp of the Imams") in Sunni Islam.[6][3]

Born to a Muslim family in Kufa,[6] Abu Hanifa is known to have travelled to the Hejaz region of Arabia in his youth, where he studied under the most renowned teachers in Mecca and Medina at the time.[6] As his career as a theologian and jurist progressed, Abu Hanifa became known for favoring the use of reason in his legal rulings (faqīh dhū raʾy) and even in his theology.[6] Abu Hanifa's theological school is what would later develop into the Maturidi school of orthodox Sunni theology.[6] He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims.[7]

Abū Ḥanīfah
أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان
ابوحنیفه
Abu Hanifa Name
Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān with Islamic calligraphy
TitleThe Great Imam
Personal
Born699 (80 Hijri)
Kufa, Umayyad Caliphate
Died767 (150 Hijri)
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate
ReligionIslam
EthnicityPersian[1][2][3][4]
EraIslamic golden age
RegionKufa[1]
Main interest(s)Jurisprudence
Notable idea(s)Istihsan
Notable work(s)Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
Senior posting

Life

Childhood

Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq,[8][9] during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. His father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul (today in Afghanistan), was 40 years old at the time of Abū Ḥanīfah's birth.

His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather (Zuta) and great-grandfather (Mah). The historian Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi records a statement from Imām Abū Ḥanīfah's grandson, Ismail bin Hammad, who gave Abū Ḥanīfah's lineage as Thabit bin Numan bin Marzban and claiming to be of Persian origin.[3][4] The discrepancy in the names, as given by Ismail of Abū Ḥanīfah's grandfather and great-grandfather, are thought to be due to Zuta's adoption of the Arabic name (Numan) upon his acceptance of Islam and that Mah and Marzban were titles or official designations in Persia, with the latter, meaning a margrave, referring to the noble ancestry of Abū Ḥanīfah's family as the Sasanian Marzbans (equivalent of margraves). The widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry .[3][4]

Adulthood and death

In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State, but he declined the offer, choosing to remain independent. His student Abu Yusuf was later appointed Qadi Al-Qudat (Chief Judge of the State) by the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.[10]

In his reply to al-Mansur, Abū Ḥanīfah said that he was not fit for the post. Al-Mansur, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Abū Ḥanīfah of lying.

"If I am lying," Abū Ḥanīfah said, "then my statement is doubly correct. How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi (Judge)?"

Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abū Ḥanīfah arrested, locked in prison and tortured. He was never fed nor cared for.[11] Even there, the jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.

On the 15 Rajab 150[12] (August 15, 767[13]), Abū Ḥanīfah died in prison. The cause of his death is not clear, as some say that Abū Ḥanīfah issued a legal opinion for bearing arms against Al-Mansur, and the latter had him poisoned.[14] The fellow prisoner and Jewish Karaite founder, Anan Ben David, is said to have received life-saving counsel from the subject.[15] It was said that so many people attended his funeral that the funeral service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. On the authority of the historian al-Khatib, it can be said that for full twenty days people went on performing funeral prayer for him. Later, after many years, the Abū Ḥanīfah Mosque was built in the Adhamiyah neighbourhood of Baghdad. Abū Ḥanīfah also supported the cause of Zayd ibn Ali and Ibrahim al Qamar both Alid Zaidi Imams.

The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508.[16] In 1533, Ottomans conquered Baghdad and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites.[17]

Sources and methodology

The sources from which Abu Hanifa derived Islamic law, in order of importance and preference, are: the Qur'an, the authentic narrations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad (known as hadith), consensus of the Muslim community (ijma), analogical reasoning (qiyas), juristic discretion (istihsan) and the customs of the local population enacting said law (urf). The development of analogical reason and the scope and boundaries by which it may be used is recognized by the majority of Muslim jurists, but its establishment as a legal tool is the result of the Hanafi school. While it was likely used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogical reason as a part of Islamic law.[18]

As the fourth Caliph, Ali had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi school of law based many of its rulings on the prophetic tradition as transmitted by those first generation Muslims residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities from the direct relatives (or Ahli-ll-Bayṫ) of Moḥammad from whom Abu Hanifa had studied such as Muhammad al-Baqir (thus apparently creating a link between Sunnis and Shias). Many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman.

Generational status

Abū Ḥanīfah is regarded by some as one of the Tabi‘un, the generation after the Sahaba, who were the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. This is based on reports that he met at least four Sahaba including Anas ibn Malik,[8] with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.[19][20] Others take the view that Abū Ḥanīfah only saw around half a dozen companions, possibly at a young age, and did not directly narrate hadith from them.[19]

Abū Ḥanīfah was born 67 years after the death of Muhammad, but during the time of the first generation of Muslims, some of whom lived on until Abū Ḥanīfah's youth. Anas bin Malik, Muhammad's personal attendant, died in 93 AH and another companion, Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah, died in 100 AH, when Abū Ḥanīfah was 20 years old. The author of al-Khairat al-Hisan collected information from books of biographies and cited the names of Muslims of the first generation from whom it is reported that the Abu Hanifa had transmitted hadith. He counted them as sixteen, including Anas ibn Malik, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah and Sahl ibn Sa'd.[21]

Reception

Madhhab Map3
Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (grass green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Northern Middle East, many parts of Egypt, Central Asia and most of the Indian subcontinent

Abu Hanifa ranks as one of the greatest jurists of Islamic civilization and one of the major legal philosophers of the entire human community.[22] He attained a very high status in the various fields of sacred knowledge and significantly influenced the development of Muslim theology.[23] During his lifetime he was acknowledged by the people as a jurist of the highest calibre.[24]

Outside of his scholarly achievements Abu Hanifa is popularly known amongst Sunni Muslims as a man of the highest personal qualities: a performer of good works, remarkable for his self-denial, humble spirit, devotion and pious awe of God.[25]

His tomb, surmounted by a dome erected by admirers in 1066 is still a shrine for pilgrims.[22] It was given a restoration in 1535 by Suleiman the Magnificent upon the Ottoman conquest of Baghdad.[17]

The honorific title al-Imam al-A'zam ("the greatest leader") was granted to him[26] both in communities where his legal theory is followed and elsewhere. According to John Esposito, 41% of all Muslims follow the Hanafi school.[27]

Abu Hanifa also had critics. The Zahiri scholar Ibn Hazm quotes Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah: "[T]he affairs of men were in harmony until they were changed by Abù Hanìfa in Kùfa, al-Batti in Basra and Màlik in Medina".[28] Early Muslim jurist Hammad ibn Salamah once related a story about a highway robber who posed as an old man to hide his identity; he then remarked that were the robber still alive he would be a follower of Abu Hanifa.[29]

Early Islam scholars

Early Islamic scholars
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607-661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taughtUmar (579-644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603 – 681) taught
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught
 
Husayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught
 
 
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught
 
 
 
 
Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught
 
 
Muhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Hanifa (699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695-740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taughtMalik ibn Anas (711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taught
 
Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)
 
 
 
Al-Shafi‘i (767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn Ibrahim
 
Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions
 
Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isma'il ibn Jafar (719-775)Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)
 
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibn Majah (824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith book
 
Abu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver Shia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari
 
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver Shia
 
Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver Shia
 
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver Shia
 
 
Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism
 
Rumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

Works

  • Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
  • Al-Fiqh al-Absat
  • Kitaab-ul-Aathaar narrated by Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani & Imam Abu Yusuf – compiled from a total of 70,000 hadith
  • Aalim wa'l-muta‘allim
  • At Tareeq Al Aslam Musnad Imam ul A’zam Abu Hanifah

Confusion regarding Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar

The attribution of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar has been disputed by A.J. Wensick,[30] as well as Zubair Ali Zai.[31]

Other scholars have upheld that Abu Hanifa was the author such as Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari, al-Bazdawi, and Abd al-Aziz al-Bukhari.[32]

Scholars such as Mufti Abdur-Rahman have pointed out that the book being brought into question by Wensick is actually another work by Abu Hanifa called: "Al-Fiqh Al-Absat".[32]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 24–5. ISBN 978-1780744209.
  2. ^ Mohsen Zakeri (1995), Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa, p.293 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d S. H. Nasr (1975), "The religious sciences", in R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, Cambridge University Press. pg 474: "Abū Ḥanīfah, who is often called the "grand imam"(al-Imam al-'Azam) was Persian
  4. ^ a b c Cyril Glasse, "The New Encyclopedia of Islam", Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. pg 23: "Abu Hanifah, a Persian, was one of the great jurists of Islam and one of the historic Sunni Mujtahids"
  5. ^ ABŪ ḤANĪFA, Encyclopædia Iranica
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, "Abū Ḥanīfa", in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
  7. ^ Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi. Ahkam al-Quran. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya. pp. volume 1 page 100.
  8. ^ a b Meri, Josef W. (October 31, 2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781135456030.
  9. ^ Hisham M. Ramadan, Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, (AltaMira Press: 2006), p.26
  10. ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Abu Yusuf. Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ Ya'qubi, vol. III, p.86; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. III, pp. 268–270.
  12. ^ Ammar, Abu (2001). "Criticism levelled against Imam Abu Hanifah". Understanding the Ahle al-Sunnah: Traditional Scholarship & Modern Misunderstandings. Islamic Information Centre. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  13. ^ "Islamic Hijri Calendar For Rajab – 150 Hijri". habibur.com. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  14. ^ Najeebabadi, Akbar S. (2001). The History of Islam. vol, 2. Darussalam Press. pp. 287. ISBN 9960-892-88-3.
  15. ^ Nemoy, Leon. (1952). Karaite Anthology: Excerpts from the Early Literature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-300-00792-2.
  16. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
  17. ^ a b Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9.
  18. ^ See:
    *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pg. 236–237. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933.
    *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
    *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, pg. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984.
    *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, pg. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
    *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, pg. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007.
    *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, pg. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005.
    *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pgs. 89–113. 1974
  19. ^ a b Imām-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian
  20. ^ http://www.islamicinformationcentre.co.uk/alsunna7.htm last accessed June 8, 2011
  21. ^ "Imam-ul-A'zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian". Masud.co.uk. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  22. ^ a b Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 9781579580414.
  23. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781579580414.
  24. ^ Hallaq, Wael B. (January 1, 2005). The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 9780521005807.
  25. ^ Waines, David (November 6, 2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780521539067.
  26. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (January 1, 1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. BRILL. p. 840. ISBN 9004097902.
  27. ^ Esposito, John (2017). "The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims" (PDF). The Muslim 500. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  28. ^ Camilla Adang, "This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority," p.33. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006
  29. ^ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 15. Volume 3 of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419
  30. ^ Wensick, A.J. (1932). The Muslim Creed. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 125.
  31. ^ Zubair Ali ZaiIs Fiqh ul-Akbar Imaam Abu Haneefah's book. Taken from The Story of the Fabricated book and the Rabbaanee Scholars, pg. 19–20. Trns. Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari.
  32. ^ a b Ibn Yusuf Mangera, Mufti Abdur-Rahman (November 2007). Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained (First ed.). California, USA: White Thread Press. pp. 24–35. ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0.

References

  • al-Quduri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (2010). Mukhtasar al-Quduri. Translated by Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani (First ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1842001183.
  • Nu'mani, Shibli (1998). Imām Abū Ḥanīfah – Life and Works. Translated by M. Hadi Hussain. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85738-59-9.
  • Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained

External links

Abdullah ibn Mubarak

ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Mubārak (118/726-797 AH/CE; Arabic: عبد الله بن المبارك) was born during the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak was an early, pious Muslim known for his memory and zeal for knowledge, collected hadīth (muhaddith), and was remembered for his asceticism. He earned the title Amir al-Mu'minin fi al-Hadith. His father, named Mubarak, was Turkmanish from Khurasan and became a client (mawālī) of an Arab trader from the tribe of Banī Hanẓala in the city of Hamadhān, and his mother was said to have been from Khwārizm. Mubarak later married Hind, the trader's daughter. It is said that ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak left his hometown of Merv, and while living in Hamadhān, went on to visit and speak often in Baghdād. Imam Ahmad said about Abdullah ibn Mubarak that there was no one more eager to travel for seeking knowledge than him. His teachers included Sufyān al-Thawrī and Abū Hanīfa. He wrote Kitāb al-Jihād, a collection of hadīth and sayings of the early Muslims on war, and Kitāb al-Zuhd wa al-Rāqa’iq, a book on asceticism. He was also known for defending Islamic borders (see Ribat) on the frontiers of Tarsus and al-Massisah, and later died at Hīt, near the Euphrates, in the year 797 CE.

Abu Hanifa Dinawari

Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, Arabic: أبو حنيفة الدينوري‎) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian. He was born in the region of Dinawar, in Kermanshah in modern-day western Iran. He studied astronomy, mathematics and mechanics in Isfahan and philology and poetry in Kufa and Basra. He died in Dinawar. His most renowned contribution is Book of Plants, for which he is considered the founder of Arabic botany.There is no consensus regarding his ethnic background among scholars. Ludwig Adamec considers him to be of Kurdish descent, while Encyclopedia of Islam classifies him as an Arab philologist and scientist of Iranian origin however, Encyclopaedia Iranica and Claude Cahen list him as Persian. The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity states that Dinawari was Iranian.

Abu Hanifa Mosque

The Abu Hanifa Mosque (Arabic: مسجد أبو حنيفة‎, translit. Masjid abū Ḥanīfah) or (Arabic: مسجد أبي حنيفة‎, translit. Masjid abī Ḥanīfah) also known as (Arabic: جامع الإمام الأعظم‎, translit. Gāmi` al-imām al-aʿẓam) is one of the most prominent Sunni mosques in Baghdad, Iraq.

It is built around the tomb of Abu Hanifah an-Nu'man, the founder of the Hanafi madhhab or school of Islamic religious jurisprudence. It is in the al-Adhamiyah district of northern Baghdad, which is named after Abu Hanifa's reverential epithet Al-imām al-aʿẓam ("The Great Leader").

Abu Yusuf

Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic: أبو يوسف‎) (d.798) was a student of jurist Abu Hanifah (d.767) who helped spread the influence of the Hanafi school of Islamic law through his writings and the government positions he held.

He served as the chief judge (qadi al-qudat) during reign of Harun al-Rashid. His most famous work was Kitab al-Kharaj, a treatise on taxation and fiscal problems of the state.

Abū Ḥanīfa (disambiguation)

Abū Ḥanīfa (Arabic: ابو حنیفه‎) is an Arabic Kunya and may refer to:

Abū Ḥanīfa, founder of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence

Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī, a 9th-century Kurdish polymath

Adhamiyah

Al-Adhamiyah (Arabic: الأعظمية‎, al-aʿẓamiyyah; BGN: Al A‘z̧amīyah), also Azamiya, is a neighborhood and east-central district of the city of Baghdad, Iraq. It is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad.

Adhamiyah is located north-west of the city center and is an upscale area. It has 100,000 inhabitants. This area was 85% Sunni, 15% Shi'ite before 2003 and the Iraqi invasion. Now, it serves as one of the few points of refugee for the Sunni minority of Baghdad, and nearly totally Sunni in its religious composition.

The base of the population consists of people with a high intellectual background, whether it be politicians, artists, scholars and even sports figures. The name is a reference to Abū Ḥanīfah an-Nuʿmān, known as al-Imām al-Aʿẓam (Arabic: الإِمَـام الأَعـظَـم‎, "The Great Imam"), a renowned scholar and founder of the prominent Sunni Hanafī school of Islamic religious jurisprudence. Abu Hanifa Mosque is a prominent landmark, built around the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah an-Nuʿmān.

Al-Qadi al-Nu'man

Abu Hanifa al-Nu‘man ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn Ahmad ibn Hayyun al-Tamimi, generally known as al-Qāḍī al-Nu‘mān also Qāżi Noʿmān (died 974 CE/ 363 AH) was an Isma'ili jurist and the official historian of the Fatimid caliphs. He was also called Qadi Quddat and Da'i Duat.

Alqama ibn Qays

Alqama ibn Qays al-Nakha'i (d. AH 62 (681/682)) was a well-known scholar from among the taba'een and pupil of Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud, who called him the most erudite of his disciples. He also related traditions from Ali ibn Abi Talib, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas [Sa`d ibn Malik] and `Uthman.Alqama is the founder of the School of Kufa in Islamic religious sciences. He followed in the footsteps of Ibn Mas‘ud in praying and conduct, in practising Islam as a whole. Amr ibn Sharahil al-Shabi, who was among the scholars who narrated ahadith from Alqama, frequently suggested to those near him: ‘Come and let us go to the one who resembles Ibn Mas‘ud the most in conduct and attitudes.’ His major student was Ibrahim al-Nakhai, a faqih from Kufa

Imam Abu Hanifa, who is generally accepted as one of the greatest of Muslim jurists, admired Alqama so much that he used to comment: ‘Alqama is probably more profound in (knowledge) of hadith and fiqh than some Companions.’

Asad ibn al-Furat

Asad ibn al-Furat (Arabic: أسد بن الفرات‎; 759-828) was a jurist and theologian in Ifriqiya, who began the Muslim conquest of Sicily.

His family, originally from Harran in Mesopotamia, emigrated with him to Ifriqiya. Asad studied in Medina with Malik ibn Anas, the founder of the Malikite school, and in Kufa with a disciple of Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafite tradition. He collected his views on religious law in the Asadiyya, which had great influence in Ifriqiya.

After his return to Ifriqiya he became a judge in Kairouan, where he soon came into conflict with the Aghlabid Emir Ziyadat Allah I (817-838) after criticising his luxurious and impious lifestyle. In order to get rid of this unwelcome critic, Ziyadat appointed Asad the leader of an expedition to Byzantine Sicily. In 827 Asad landed with a force of Arabs in Sicily and following a defeat of Byzantine troops proceeded to besiege Syracuse. However, the city could not be taken and Asad soon died of plague.

Asad was prominent in establishing the Malikite Madh'hab in Ifriqiya.

Asmatullah Rohani

Asmatullah Rohani is son of a prominent judge Hamdullah and he comes from Yousufzia tribe in eastern Kunar Province. His entire family is known as an intellectual family in eastern Kunar province because his father and his uncles were well educated and they have served as judges in several different provinces of Afghanistan. His family comes originally from Pashat district in Kunar province. However, later his immediate family settled in Tanar district of Kunar province. Asmatullah Rohani was born on August 3, 1937 in city of Balkh when his father was a judge in Northern Mazar-e Sharif province, Afghanistan. He passed away peacefully in Guelph on September 24, 2017.

He completed his primary education at Shiah Koat Ahdad primary school in Nangarhar province and later in 1950 he was admitted to Madrassah Imam Abu Hanifa in Kabul. Asmatullah Rohani graduated from Madrassah Imam Abu Hanifa in 1957 and then went on and got his BA in 1961 from faculty of Islamic law at Kabul University. In 1972 he went to Australia on a scholarship for his higher education in international law and later in 1976 he went to Japan for further studies in International law.

Dinavar

Dinawar (Persian: دینور‎) was a major city in the 8th-11th centuries, located to the northeast of Kermanshah in western Iran. The ruins of the city is now located in Dinavar District, in Sahneh County, Kermanshah Province.

In the early Islamic times, it was called Mah al-Kufa, the element Mah probably originating from the fact that in the Seleucid period, the city was located in the heartland of Media. Dinawar historically has produced many scholars including Ebn Qotayba, Fakhr-un-Nisa, and Abu Hanifa Dinawari. Dinawar was also the center of the Kurdish principality of the Hasanwayhids. It was sacked by Mardavij in 931. According to Ibn Athir it was plundered by Oghuz Turkmens of the Iva tribe in around 568/1172-73. According to Hamdollah Mostowfi, it was a small town in the 14th century. But it was devastated again by Timur. Today only field of ruins are available.

Hanafi

The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي‎ Ḥanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia in Sunni Islam are Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali.Hanafi is the fiqh with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims. It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the Indian subcontinent, northwest China and Central Asia. In the modern era, Hanafi is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Iraq, parts of Iran, parts of Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of India and China, and Bangladesh.

List of Muslim theologians

This is an incomplete list of notable Muslim theologians.

Mawla

Mawlā (Arabic: مَوْلَى‎), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts. In the Quran and hadith it is used in two senses: Lord; and guardian, trustee, helper. In the pre-Islamic era the term originally applied to any form of tribal association. During the early Islamic era, this institution was adapted to incorporate new converts to Islam into the Arab-Muslim society and the word mawali gained currency as an appellation for non-Arab Muslims.

Mohammad Siddiq Chakari

Mohammad Siddiq Chakari (born 4 August 1961) is an Afghan politician.

Chakari was born in Chakari, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. He studied at the Madrasa E Abu Hanifa until grade 12 and travelled to Saudi Arabia for further and higher education. He completed a masters degree (MA) and was a successful graduate of Islamic Studies.

When he returned to his country, he joined the mujahideen and was a leader of the fight against the Soviet invasion. After 14 years of jihad Chakari was given a place in the Afghan cabinet as information minister.

He also wrote and translated his book, Lizat-E-Eman, Sifat-E-Qumandaan, and Moral-e-mujahid in Persian and Arabic.

He was also appointed an advisory minister to President Hamid Karzai

Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

Muhammad Hayyat al-Sindhi (Urdu: محمد حيات سنڌي‎) (died 3 February 1750) was an Islamic scholar who lived during the period of the Ottoman Empire.

He belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism.

Muhammad al-Shaybani

Abu 'Abdullah Muḥammad ibnu-l-Ḥasan Ibn Farqad ash-Shaybānī (Arabic: محمد بن الحسن الشيباني‎; 749/50 – 805), the father of Muslim international law, was an Islamic jurist and a disciple of Abu Hanifa (later being the eponym of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence), Malik ibn Anas and Abu Yusuf.

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: أصول الفقه‎) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) is based.

Traditionally four main sources (Qur’an, Sunnah, consensus (Ijma), analogical reason (Qiyas)) are analysed along with a number of secondary sources and principles.

The main subject areas of discussion are these:

General evidences and principles (adillah ijmalliya wa al-qawaid)

Resolution of conflict and discrepancy (ta'deel wa tarjeeh)

Determination of rules and adoption/emulation of rules (ijtihad wa taqlid)

Islamic Law (hukm shari)

Qiyas

In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (Arabic: قياس‎) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction. Here the ruling of the Sunnah and the Qur'an may be used as a means to solve or provide a response to a new problem that may arise. This, however, is only the case providing that the set precedent or paradigm and the new problem that has come about will share operative causes (عِلّة, ʿillah). The ʿillah is the specific set of circumstances that trigger a certain law into action. An example of the use of qiyās is the case of the ban on selling or buying of goods after the last call for Friday prayers until the end of the prayer stated in the Quran 62:9. By analogy this prohibition is extended to other transactions and activities such as agricultural work and administration.

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