Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب Sijn Abū Ghurayb) is a prison complex in Abu Ghraib, Iraq, located 32 kilometers (20 mi) west of Baghdad. Abu Ghraib prison was opened in the 1950s and served as a maximum-security prison with torture, weekly executions, and vile living conditions. From the 1980s the prison was used by Saddam Hussein to hold political prisoners, developing a reputation for torture and extrajudicial killing, and was closed in 2002.
Abu Ghraib gained international attention in 2003 following the Invasion of Iraq, when a scandal involving the torture and abuse of detainees committed by guards in part of the complex operated by US-led Coalition occupation forces was exposed.
In 2006, the United States transferred complete control of Abu Ghraib to the Federal government of Iraq, and was reopened in 2009 as Baghdad Central Prison (Arabic: سجن بغداد المركزي Sijn Baġdād al-Markizī) but was closed in 2014 due to security concerns from the Iraqi Civil War. The prison complex is currently vacant, and Saddam-era mass graves have been uncovered at the site.
|Abu Ghraib prison|
|Location||Abu Ghraib, Iraq|
The prison was built by British contractors in the 1950s. The prison held as many as 15,000 inmates in 2001. In 2002, Saddam Hussein's government began an expansion project to add six new cellblocks to the prison. In October 2002, he gave amnesty to most prisoners in Iraq. After the prisoners were released and the prison was left empty, it was vandalized and looted. Almost all of the documents relating to prisoners were piled and burnt inside of prison offices and cells, leading to extensive structural damage.
Known mass-graves related to Abu Ghraib include:
From 2003 until August 2006, Abu Ghraib prison was used for detention purposes by both the U.S.-led coalition occupying Iraq and the Iraqi government. The Iraqi government has controlled the area of the facility known as "The Hard Site". The prison was used to house only convicted criminals. Suspected criminals, insurgents or those arrested and awaiting trial were held at other facilities, commonly known as "camps" in U.S. military parlance. The U.S. housed all its detainees at "Camp Redemption", which is divided into five security levels. This camp built in the summer of 2004 replaced the three-level setup of Camp Ganci, Camp Vigilant and Abu Ghraib's Tier 1. The remainder of the facility was occupied by the U.S. military.
Abu Ghraib served as both a FOB (Forward Operating Base) and a detention facility. When the U.S. military was using the Abu Ghraib prison as a detention facility, it housed approximately 7,490 prisoners there in March 2004. Later population of detainees was much smaller, because Camp Redemption had a much smaller capacity than Camp Ganci had, and many detainees have been sent from Abu Ghraib to Camp Bucca for this reason. The U.S. military initially held all "persons of interest" in Camp Redemption. Some were suspected rebels, and some suspected criminals. Those convicted by trial in Iraqi court are transferred to the Iraqi-run Hard Site.
In the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal, reserve soldiers from the 327th Military Police battalion were charged under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with prisoner abuse, beginning with an Army Criminal Investigation Division investigation on January 14, 2004. In April 2004, U.S. television news-magazine 60 Minutes reported on a story from the magazine The New Yorker, which recounted torture and humiliation of Iraqi detainees by U.S. soldiers and contracted civilians. The story included photographs depicting the abuse of prisoners. The events created a substantial political scandal within the U.S. and other coalition countries.
On April 20, 2004, insurgents fired 40 mortar rounds into the prison, killing 24 detainees and injuring 92. Commentators thought the attack was either an attempt to incite a riot or retribution for detainees' cooperating with the United States. In May 2004, the U.S.-led coalition embarked on a prisoner-release policy to reduce numbers to fewer than 2,000. The U.S. military released nearly 1,000 detainees at the prison during the week ending August 27, 2005, at the request of the Iraqi government. In a May 24, 2004 address at the U.S. Army War College, President George W. Bush announced that the prison would be demolished. On June 14 Iraqi interim President Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer said he opposed this decision; on June 21 U.S. military judge Col. James Pohl ruled the prison was a crime scene and could not be demolished until investigations and trials were completed.
On April 2, 2005, the prison was attacked by more than 60 insurgents in the engagement known as the Battle of Abu Ghraib. In the two hours before being forced to retreat, the attackers suffered at least 50 casualties according to the U.S. military. Thirty-six persons at or in the prison, including U.S. military personnel, civilians and detainees, were injured in the attack. The attackers used small arms, rockets, and RPGs as weapons, and threw grenades over the walls. A suicide VBIED detonated just outside the front wall after Marines fired on it. Officials believe that the car bomb was intended to breach the prison wall, enabling an assault and/or mass escape for detainees. Insurgents also attacked military forces nearby on highways en route to the prison for reinforcement and used ambushes along the roads. Al Qaeda in Iraq claimed responsibility.
In March 2006, the U.S. military decided to transfer the 4,500 inmates to other prisons and transfer control of the Abu Ghraib prison to Iraqi authorities. The prison was reported emptied of prisoners in August 2006. The formal transfer was made on September 2, 2006. The formal transfer was conducted between Major General Jack Gardner, Commander of Task Force 134, and representatives of the Iraqi Ministry of Justice and the Iraqi Army.
In February 2009, Iraq reopened Abu Ghraib under the new name of Baghdad Central Prison. It was designed to house 3,500 inmates. The government said it planned to increase the number up to 15,000 prisoners by the end of the year.
A major prison break occurred on 21 July 2013, and media outlets reported a mass breakout of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Reportedly, at least 500 prisoners escaped. A senior member of the security and defense committee in parliament described the prisoners as mostly those who were "convicted senior members of al-Qaeda and had received death sentences." A simultaneous attack occurred at another prison, in Taji, around 12 miles north of Baghdad, where 16 members of the Iraqi security forces and six militants were killed. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) issued a statement on a jihadist forum claiming that they were responsible for organising and executing the prison break, which had taken months of preparation, and claimed that the attacks involved 12 car bombs, suicide bombers and a barrage of mortars and rockets. They also claimed that they killed more than 120 government troops, though the Iraqi authorities claimed that 25 members of the security forces were killed, along with 21 prisoners and at least 10 militants.
On April 15, 2014 the Iraqi Justice Ministry announced that it had closed the prison amid fear that it could be taken over by ISIL, which controlled much of Anbar Province at the time. All 2,400 inmates were moved to other high-security facilities in the country. It was not made clear if the closure is temporary or permanent.
Abu Ghraib prison[...]'s 4,500 inmates will be transferred to a new facility at the nearby Baghdad airport military base and other camps. [...] Abu Ghraib, where US soldiers abused Iraqi detainees, will be handed over to Iraqi authorities once the prisoner transfer to Camp Cropper and other US military prisons in the country is finished.
The U.S. Army's 205th Military Intelligence Brigade (205th MI BDE) and its three battalions have a history dating back to World War II. The brigade has been in a continuous active service since 1944. The brigade was constituted on 12 July 1944 in the Army of the United States as the 205th Counter Intelligence Corps Detachment. It was allotted to the Regular Army on 6 October 1950. The unit served during World War II in Northern France, the Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace and Central Europe. It was reorganized and redesignated as the 205th Military Intelligence Detachment on 25 June 1958.
In Vietnam, the 205th took part in the Tet Offensive; the Tet 69/Counteroffensive; and the Summer-Fall Campaign of 1969. In October 1983, the Detachment was consolidated with Headquarters, 135th Military Intelligence Group and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 205th Military Intelligence Group. On 16 October 1985, the 205th MI Group was redesignated the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade.
More than two thirds of the brigade deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina with Task Force Eagle in December 1995, redeploying to Germany in November 1996. The brigade continued to provide intelligence support to V Corps, and to the ongoing Joint and Combined Operations in the Balkans, from principal operating bases in Germany and Italy.
The 205th MI BDE took part of Operation Iraqi Freedom where it was involved in the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse investigations and resulting scandal, beginning in late 2003. Major General George Fay initially began the investigation, which was later finished by Lieutenant General Anthony Jones in 2004. As a result of the Fay Report, Colonel Thomas Pappas, commander of the 205th from 2003 to 2005, received an Article 15 for "dereliction of duty" in his leadership role at the Abu Ghraib prison. He was also relieved of his command in May 2005, one month shy of his scheduled rotation from that position. Sergeant Samuel Provance, an enlisted intelligence analyst from one of the brigade's battalions, also received an Article 15, for "disobeying a direct order" for speaking to the media during the investigations.Ray Starmann, a former 205th MI BDE intelligence officer and author of the books "Smoke and Mirrors" and "Charlie Foxtrot", wrote a scathing critique of the brigade in 2005 in light of revelations from the Abu Ghraib prison investigations, titled, "Decline and Fall of the 205th MI Brigade". "MI just exited stage left – out of a wing at Abu Ghraib prison".
The 205th "cased its colors" on 21 June 2007 and was deactivated.372nd Military Police Company (United States)
The 372nd Military Police Company is a law enforcement unit within the U.S. Army Reserve. The unit is based out of Cresaptown, Maryland. Eleven former members of this unit were charged and found guilty in the Abu Ghraib scandal. Another member of the company, Joseph Darby, was awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award for exposing the abuse at the prison.
The 372nd MP Company is credited with the securing and stabilization of the city of AL-Hilla (Babylon), alongside of the 1st Marines (MEF).
The unit was responsible for guarding main supply routes (MSRs).Abu Ghraib
Abu Ghraib ( (listen); Arabic: أبو غريب, Abū Ghurayb) is a city in the Baghdad Governorate of Iraq, located just west of Baghdad's city center, or northwest of Baghdad International Airport. It has a population of 189,000 (2003). The old road to Jordan passes through Abu Ghraib. The government of Iraq created the city and Abu Ghraib District in 1944.
The placename has been translated as "father of little crows" (in the sense of "place abundant in small crows"), but this translation has been suspected of being a "folk etymology", and the name may be related to gharb 'west' instead.Abu Ghraib was known for the Abu Ghraib Infant Formula Plant, which Western intelligence agencies perennially claimed to be a biological weapons production facility. The plant was built in 1980 and painted with a dappled camouflage pattern during the Iran–Iraq War. It was bombed during the Gulf War, and the Iraqi government allowed CNN reporter Peter Arnett to film the destroyed building along with a conspicuous hand-painted sign that read, "baby milk factory". Iraq partially rebuilt the facility afterward, and US Secretary of State Colin Powell falsely cited it again as a weapons production plant in the run-up to the Iraq War, even though the CIA’s own investigation had concluded that the site had been bombed “in the mistaken belief that it was a key BW [Biological Weapon] facility.” Also, an examination of suspected weapons facilities by the Iraq Survey Group later determined that the plant, in disuse for some time, housed discarded infant formula, but found no evidence of weapons production.The city is also the site of Abu Ghraib prison, which was one of the sites where political dissidents were incarcerated under former ruler Saddam Hussein. Thousands of these dissidents were tortured and executed. After Saddam Hussein's fall, the Abu Ghraib prison was used by American forces in Iraq. In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison earned international notoriety for the torture and abuses by members of the United States Army during the post-invasion period.Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, personnel of the United States Army and the Central Intelligence Agency committed a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. These violations included physical and sexual abuse, torture, rape, sodomy, and murder. The abuses came to widespread public attention with the publication of photographs of the abuse by CBS News in April 2004. The incidents received widespread condemnation both within the United States and abroad, although the soldiers received support from some conservative media within the United States.The administration of George W. Bush asserted that these were isolated incidents, not indicative of general U.S. policy. This was disputed by humanitarian organizations such as the Red Cross, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch. These organizations stated that the abuses at Abu Ghraib were not isolated incidents, but were part of a wider pattern of torture and brutal treatment at American overseas detention centers, including those in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Guantanamo Bay. Several scholars stated that the abuses constituted state-sanctioned crimes.The United States Department of Defense removed seventeen soldiers and officers from duty, and eleven soldiers were charged with dereliction of duty, maltreatment, aggravated assault and battery. Between May 2004 and March 2006, these soldiers were convicted in courts-martial, sentenced to military prison, and dishonorably discharged from service. Two soldiers, Specialist Charles Graner and PFC Lynndie England, were sentenced to ten and three years in prison, respectively. Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, the commanding officer of all detention facilities in Iraq, was reprimanded and demoted to the rank of colonel. Several more military personnel who were accused of perpetrating or authorizing the measures, including many of higher rank, were not prosecuted. It was reported that most inmates were innocent of the crimes they were accused of and were simply detained due to their being in the wrong place at the wrong time.Documents popularly known as the Torture Memos came to light a few years later. These documents, prepared shortly before the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States Department of Justice, authorized certain enhanced interrogation techniques, generally held to involve torture of foreign detainees. The memoranda also argued that international humanitarian laws, such as the Geneva Conventions, did not apply to American interrogators overseas. Several subsequent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, including Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006), have overturned Bush administration policy, and ruled that Geneva Conventions apply.
Many of the torture techniques used were developed at Guantánamo detention center, including prolonged isolation; the frequent flyer program, a sleep deprivation program whereby people were moved from cell to cell every few hours so they couldn't sleep for days, weeks, even months; short shackling in painful positions; nudity; extreme use of heat and cold; the use of loud music and noise and preying on phobias.Aidan Delgado
Aidan Delgado is an American attorney, author, and war veteran. His 2007 book The Sutras of Abu Ghraib detailed his experiences during his deployment in Iraq. He graduated from Georgetown Law in 2011.Battle of Abu Ghraib
The Battle of Abu Ghraib was a battle between Iraqi insurgents and United States forces at Abu Ghraib prison on April 2, 2005.
Insurgents linked to Al-Qaeda in Iraq launched a surprise attack on the American section of Abu Ghraib prison, known as Camp Redemption, by firing heavy mortars and rockets at the facility, and then assaulting with small arms, grenades, and vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices. The attempted siege was successfully repelled by the US forces after two hours, resulting in over 40 wounded in action, and an estimate 70 insurgents were killed.Fay Report
The Fay Report was a military investigation into the torture and abuse of prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. It was sparked by leaked images of Iraqi prisoners, hooded and naked, being mistreated obtained by the United States and global media in April 2004. The Fay Report was one of five such investigations ordered by the military and was the third to be submitted, as it was completed and released on August 25, 2004. Prior to the report's release, seven reservist military police had already been charged for their roles in the abuse at the prison, and so the report examined the role of military intelligence, specifically the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade that was responsible for the interrogation of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. General Paul J. Kern was the appointing authority for the report and oversaw the investigation. The chief investigators were Major General George Fay, whom the report is named after, and Lieutenant General Anthony R. Jones.
The Fay Report noted that "contracting-related issues contributed to the problems at Abu Ghraib prison". General Fay also wrote that "The general policy of not contracting for intelligence functions and services was designed in part to avoid many of the problems that eventually developed at Abu Ghraib...". The report identified lack of contractor oversight as a cause of both the insufficient training that contractors received and inadequate contract management. While over half the interrogators at the prison were employees of Caci International, up to 35% lacked any formal military interrogation training. Questions have also been raised about whether CACI's background checks on prospective employees were adequate. In addition to questions about contractors qualifications, the report also notes that military personnel were ill-prepared for the tasks of contract administration, monitoring and oversight.The Fay Report implicated 27 members of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade in the abuse, including four civilian contractors and an additional three military police to the seven previously charged. Eight members were also cited for not reporting the mistreatment. Colonel Thomas M. Pappas, who was commander and the top military intelligence officer at Abu Ghraib, along with four lower-ranking officers were subject to possible criminal charges as well as administrative action and another four officers ranking higher than colonel. The report "revealed disturbing facts" of the cited forty-four cases of abuse, with General Kern going as far to call some of these abuses torture. One example of such mistreatment cited in the report was a 'game' where guards and interrogators competed with dogs to see who could make naked teenage prisoners defecate out of fear first.In addition to the abuse, the report cited at least eight cases of ghost detainees, or inmates hidden from the International Committee of the Red Cross and other human rights groups. General Kern acknowledged there could be more than a dozen cases, and other reports later confirmed there could have been more than 100, bringing forth media questions about the role of the CIA at the prison.The report concluded that higher-ranking officials such as Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, the top US commander in Iraq, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, as well as Pentagon and Justice Department officials were not culpable but bore responsibility for creating conditions that led to the abuse and recommended further investigation. These conditions included commanders being under-prepared for the mass influx of prisoners, poor leadership and discipline, unclear directives, and a lack of troops, and questioned how only lower-ranking personnel were solely responsible for some of the 'torture methods' carried out.Geoffrey D. Miller
Geoffrey D. Miller (born c. 1949) is a retired United States Army Major General who commanded the US detention facilities at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Iraq. Detention facilities in Iraq under his command included Abu Ghraib prison, Camp Cropper, and Camp Bucca. He is noted for having trained soldiers in using torture, or "enhanced interrogation techniques" in US euphemism, and for carrying out the "First Special Interrogation Plan," signed by the Secretary of Defense, against a Guantanamo detainee.Miller was born in Gallipolis, Ohio. He attended Ohio State University where he earned an undergraduate degree in History, following this with a Master of Science in Education Administration at the University of Southern California. Miller is the nephew of Bob Evans, of Bob Evans Restaurants, franchiser from Rio Grande, Ohio.
Miller joined the US Army in 1972 and was trained in field artillery and army command. He spent time in Germany before being stationed in Korea in 1980. There, he rose to become assistant chief of staff for operations in Korea. Miller later returned to the United States to become the deputy chief of staff for personnel and installation management for the US Army.Ivan Frederick
Ivan Frederick II (born 1966), is a former staff sergeant in the United States Army. He was the highest in rank of the seven U.S. military police personnel who have been charged with torturing prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. In 2004, Frederick pleaded guilty to conspiracy, dereliction of duty, maltreatment of detainees, assault, and indecent acts. He was sentenced to 8 years confinement and loss of rank and pay, and he received a dishonorable discharge.He was released on parole in October 2007, after spending four years in prisonHe was the senior enlisted soldier at the prison from October to December 2003.
Prior to his deployment to Iraq, Frederick was a corrections officer at Buckingham Correctional Center in Dillwyn, Virginia.Jeremy Sivits
Jeremy C. Sivits (born 21 January 1979) is a former U.S. Army reservist, one of several soldiers charged and convicted by the U.S. Army in connection with the 2003–2004 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal in Baghdad, Iraq during and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He was a member of the 372nd Military Police Company during this time.Sivits took photographs at the Abu Ghraib prison which became notorious after being aired on 60 Minutes II. His father, David Sivits, a former serviceman, said that he was trained as a mechanic, not a prison guard, and that he "was just doing what he was told to do." Sivits was the first soldier convicted in connection with the Abu Ghraib incidents.Joe Darby
Sergeant Joseph M. Darby (born c. 1979) is a former U.S. Army Reservist known as the whistleblower in the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. Darby is a graduate of North Star High School, near his hometown at the time, Jenners, Pennsylvania.At the time, Darby served as an M.P. at the Abu Ghraib prison, in Abu Ghraib, Iraq. After learning of the abuse, Darby was the first person to take steps to alert the U.S. military command.Joshua Casteel
Joshua Casteel (27 December 1979 – 25 August 2012) was a United States Army soldier, conscientious objector, playwright, and divinity student. He volunteered for the army in 2002 and conducted interrogations in Abu Ghraib prison.
In 2005 he received an honorable discharge as a conscientious objector. He was active in the anti-war movement before dying of lung cancer in 2012.Lynndie England
Lynndie Rana England (born November 8, 1982) is a former United States Army Reserve soldier who served in the 372nd Military Police Company and became known for her involvement in the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. She was one of eleven military personnel convicted in 2005 by Army courts-martial for mistreating detainees and other crimes in connection with the torture and prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad during the occupation of Iraq. She was sentenced to three years in prison and dishonorably discharged from the Army. England was incarcerated from September 27, 2005 to March 1, 2007 when she was released on parole.Sabrina Harman
Sabrina D. Harman (born January 5, 1978) is a former United States Army reservist, one of several persons convicted by the U.S. Army in connection with the 2003–2004 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal in Baghdad, Iraq, during and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Harman and several other soldiers were tried for allowing and inflicting sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of Iraqi prisoners of war. Harman held the rank of specialist in the 372nd Military Police company during her tour of duty in Iraq. She was sentenced to six months in prison, reduction in rank and a bad conduct discharge.Harman was imprisoned in the Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar in San Diego, California.Samuel Provance
Samuel Provance is a former U.S. Army military intelligence sergeant, known for disobeying an order from his commanders in the 302nd Military Intelligence Battalion by discussing with the media his experiences at the Abu Ghraib Prison, where he was assigned from September 2003 to February 2004. After being disciplined for his actions, he eventually brought his case to the United States Government in February 2006, resulting in a Congressional subpoena of the Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The main points of his testimony are that military intelligence soldiers and contracted civilian interrogators had abused detainees, that they directed the military police to abuse detainees, the extent of this knowledge at the prison, and the subsequent cover-up of these practices when investigated.
Military intelligence soldiers from the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, with firsthand knowledge, had in fact spoken with the media weeks before Provance did, which corroborate his claims, saying they wanted to "do what's right ... get the truth out," but they chose to remain anonymous, "because of concern that their military careers would be ruined." In addition, the military police themselves said they were ordered and encouraged by interrogators to treat detainees harshly, to "soften" them up for interrogations, and were commended by their commander for doing so.Santos Cardona
Santos A. Cardona (1974 – 28 February 2009) was a sergeant in the United States Army. He was one of the members of the U.S. military police personnel who were charged with torturing prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.Scott Higham
Scott Higham is a Pulitzer Prize-winning member of The Washington Post's investigations unit. He has conducted numerous investigations for the news organization, including an examination of abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison, and waste and fraud in Homeland Security contracting. The Abu Ghraib investigation was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, and the series on contracting won the Investigative Reporters and Editors Award for large newspapers. He has also conducted investigations into spending at Guantanamo Bay and conflicts of interests on Capitol Hill.Higham, Sari Horwitz and Sarah Cohen were awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for their investigation into the deaths of foster children in Washington DC. Higham and Sari Horwitz are also co-authors of Finding Chandra: A True Washington Murder Mystery. The non-fiction book chronicles the 2001 disappearance of Washington, DC intern Chandra Levy, whose remains were found one year later in an isolated area of the city's 2,800-acre (11 km2) Rock Creek Park. The book was a finalist for an Edgar Award, sponsored by Mystery Writers of America.Steven L. Jordan
Steven L. Jordan (born 1956) is a former United States Army Reserve officer. Jordan volunteered to return to active duty to support the war in Iraq, and as a civil affairs officer with a background in military intelligence, was made the director of the Joint Interrogation Debriefing Center at Abu Ghraib prison.
He is best known for his alleged involvement in the 2004 Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. In 2007, he was put on trial for prisoner abuse but was declared innocent of the charges. He left the Army in 2009.Thomas Pappas
Thomas M. Pappas is a former United States Army colonel who is a civilian intelligence officer with the Army's Training and Doctrine Command at Fort Eustis, Virginia.
He was the Brigade Commander of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade and the senior military intelligence officer at Abu Ghraib prison during the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal, which brought him significant notoriety. In May 2005, Pappas was disciplined by the Army for failing to properly supervise and train subordinates and for allowing military dogs to be present during prisoner interrogations.