Abu Dawood

Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani Arabic: أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني‎), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.

Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi al-Sijistani
أبو داود السجستاني
Abu Dawud's name in the style of Arabic calligraphy
Born817–18 CE
Died889 CE
EraIslamic golden age
DenominationSunni Islam
Main interest(s)ḥadīth and fiqh
Notable work(s)Sunan Abī Dāwūd
Senior posting


Abu Dawud was born in Sistan, eastern Iran (then-Persia) and died in 889 in Basra. Many scholars believe he was born in Baluchistan now part of Iran and Pakistan and later moved to Khorasan. Widely traveled among scholars of hadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Tihamah, Nishapur, and Merv among other places in order to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in fiqh, and as a result his collection focused largely on legal hadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work.

School of thought and Quotes

Imam Abu Dawud was a follower of Hanbali although some have consider him Shafi.[2]

Imam Abu Dawud himself has stated: "From this book of mine four (4) Hadith are sufficient for an intelligent and insightful person.[3] They are:

  • Deeds are to be judged only by intentions.[4]
  • Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.
  • None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself.
  • The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion."


He wrote some 21 books in total. Some of the most prominent are:

  • Sunan Abu Dāwūd, containing some 4,800 hadith, is his principal work. These are usually numbered after the edition of Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid (Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa Muhammad, 1354/1935), where 5,274 are distinguished. He indicated that all the hadith in his collection were authenticated (sahih) unless specifically marked as unauthenticated (ḍaʿīf). Some Islamic scholars (such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani) believe a number of the unmarked ones to be ḍaʿīf as well.
  • In another work, Kitab al-Marāsīl, he lists 600 mursal hadith which, after extensive background investigation, he concludes are nonetheless sahih.
  • Risālat Abu Dāwūd ilā Ahli Makkah; his letter to the inhabitants of Makkah describing his Sunan Abu Dāwūd.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9.
  2. ^ http://www.islamicencyclopedia.org/islamic-pedia-topic.php?id=54
  3. ^ "Imam Abu Dawud". www.sunnah.org. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
  4. ^ Shahih Al Bukhari, Imam Al Bukthari, Vol.1 Book 1 Hadith 1
  5. ^ Translation of the Risālah by Abū Dāwūd Archived August 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Abu Dawud

Abu Dawud is a common Arabic name, which may refer to:Abu Dawood (817 or 818 – 889), a Muslim scholar of prophetic hadith

Abu Dawud (ISN 31) (born 1977), Guantanamo captive (Mahmoud Abd Al Aziz Abd Al Mujahid)

Abu Daoud (1937 – 2010)

Al-Sunan al-Sughra

Al-Sunan al-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى‎), also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i (Arabic: سنن النسائي‎), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasa'i.


In eye care, collyrium is an antique term for a lotion or liquid wash used as a cleanser for the eyes, particularly in diseases of the eye. The word collyrium comes from the Greek κολλύριον, eye-salve.The same name was also given to unguents used for the same purpose, such as unguent of tutty. Lastly, the name was given, though improperly, to some liquid medicines used against venereal diseases.

Pre-modern medicine distinguished two kinds of collyriums: the one liquid, the other dry. Liquid collyriums were composed of ophthalmic powders, or waters, such as rose-water, plantain-water, that of fennel, eyebright, etc, in which was dissolved tutty, white vitriol, or some other proper powder. Dry collyriums were pastilles of Rhasis, sugar-candy, iris, tutty prepared and blown into the eye with a little pipe.

The Sunan Abu Dawood reports, "Prophet Muhammad said: 'Among the best types of collyrium is antimony (ithmid) for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout.'" Maimonides (12th century Egypt) mentions the use of this eye salve.

Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid)

Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi to Al-Kadid took place in May 629 AD, 8AH, 1st month, of the Islamic Calendar, Or according to other sources May 628 AD, 7AH, 3rd Month.

Farewell Sermon

The Farewell Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الوداع‎, Khuṭbatu l-Wadāʿ), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is believed by Muslims to have been delivered by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (6 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj.

Muhammad al-Bukhari refers to the sermon and quotes part of it in his Sahih al-Bukhari. Part of it is also present in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu Dawood. Various versions of the sermon have been published, including several English translations. The sermon consists of a series of general exhortations for Muslims to follow the teachings that Muhammad had set forth in the Quran and sunnah.

Haya (Islam)

Haya (Arabic: حياء‎, transl. modesty or decency, Urdu: حيا‎) is an Arabic word that means "natural or inherent, shyness and a sense of modesty". In Islamic terminology, it is mainly used in the context of modesty. The word itself is derived from the word Hayat, which means "life". The original meaning of Haya refers to "a bad or uneasy feeling accompanied by embarrassment". Haya encourages Muslims to avoid anything considered to be distasteful or abominable. Haya plays an important role in Islam, as it is one of the most important parts of Iman. The antonym of Haya in Arabic is badha'a (بذاءة, immodesty) or fahisha (فاحشة, lewdness or obscenity).

Ibn an-Nawwahah

Ibn an-Nawwahah was a messenger for Musaylimah, a purported prophet during the time of Muhammad who had gained a significant following through his tricks and miracles, teachings and from the fact that he was from Yamamah. Many people of the Rabiah Tribe of Yamamah were greatly hostile to Muhammad and the tribe of Quraish, so in an exchange between a man of the Rabiah tribe and Musaylimah, one man said:

"...a liar of the Rabi'ah tribe of Yamamah is better than a truthful person of the Mazar tribe of the Hijaz"1Ibn an-Nawwahah went to Muhammad with a message from Musaylimah consisting of Musaylimah's idea that the world should be split between himself and Muhammad, as they were both prophets of Allah. Muhammad retorted that the division of the world is for Allah to decide. In an exchange between an-Nawwahah and some other messengers of Musaylimah recorded in Sunan Abu Dawood 14:2755:

I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say when he read the letter of Musaylimah: What do you believe yourselves? They said: We believe as he believes. He said: I swear by Allah that were it not that messengers are not killed, I would cut off your heads.Muhammad couldn't kill them because they were diplomatic emissaries, but this statement made by him would stick in the minds of some Muslims. Ultimately Ibn an-Nawwahah's life still ended by the sword of a Muslim, namely Qarazah ibn Ka'b as recorded in Sunan Abu Dawood 14:2756:

Harithah ibn Mudarrib said that he came to Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and said (to him): There is no enmity between me and any of the Arabs. I passed a mosque of Banu Hanifah. They (the people) believed in Musaylimah. Abdullah (ibn Mas'ud) sent for them. They were brought, and he asked them to repent, except Ibn an-Nawwahah. He said to him: I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say: Were it not that you were not a messenger, I would behead you. But today you are not a messenger. He then ordered Qarazah ibn Ka'b (to kill him). He beheaded him in the market. Anyone who wants to see Ibn an-Nawwahah slain in the market (he may see him).It isn't completely settled whether Ibn an-Nawwahah was the only messenger or if other followers of Musaylimah had accompanied him, but it is more likely that an-Nawwahah was the only such messenger.

Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzajani

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Sa'di al-Juzajani (Arabic: أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن يعقوب بن إسحاق السعدي الجوزجاني‎, born around 180 AH – died 872 CE/259 AH) was a Muslim hadith scholar, one of the imams of al-jarh wa al-ta'deel and a student of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Some of the hadith scholars that transmitted his narrations include Abu Dawood, al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasa'i.

Islamic sexual jurisprudence

Islamic sexual jurisprudence concerns the Islamic laws of sexuality in Islam, as largely predicated on the Qur'an, the sayings of Muhammad (hadith) and the rulings of religious leaders' (fatwa) confining sexual activity to marital relationships between men and women. While most traditions discourage celibacy, all encourage strict chastity, modesty and privacy with regard to any relationships between genders, holding forth that their intimacy as perceived within Islam – encompassing a swath of life broader than sexual activity – is largely reserved for marriage. This sensitivity to gender difference and modesty outside of marriage can be seen in current prominent aspects of Islam, such as interpretations of Islamic dress and degrees of gender segregation.

While prohibitions against extramarital sex are strong, sexual activity itself is not a taboo subject. Permissible sexual relationships are described in Quran and Hadith as great wells of love and closeness. Even after marriage, there are limitations: a man should not have intercourse during his wife's menstruation and afterbirth periods. He is also considered to be sinning when penetrating anally. Islam itself is a natalist religion, therefore it encourages increasing procreation through marital sexual relationships. Actions and behaviours such as abortion (other than for medical risk to the pregnant woman) and homosexuality are also strictly forbidden; temporary contraceptive use is permitted for birth control.

Jami` at-Tirmidhi

Jami' at-Tirmidhi (Arabic: جامع الترمذي‎), also known as Sunan at-Tirmidhi, is one of "the six books" (Kutub al-Sittah - the six major hadith collections). It was collected by Al-Tirmidhi. He began compiling it after the year 250 A.H. (A.D. 864/5) and completed it on the 10 Dhu-al-Hijjah 270 A.H. (A.D. 884, June 9). It contains 3,956 Ahadith, and has been divided into fifty chapters. It is also classified as a Sunan, which implies that the book has been chapterised according to legal chapters, such as Purification, Prayer, Poor-due and Fasting, narrated on the authority of Islamic prophet Muhammad, while the opinions of the companions are usually not mentioned.

Tirmidhi's method was that of placing the heading first, then mentioning one or two Ahadith which were related to the heading. These Ahadith are followed by his opinion as to the status of the Hadith. Subsequently, he mentions the opinions of the different jurists. He also indicates if there were other narrations transmitted by other companions on the same subject. His principal aim was to discuss the legal opinions of early jurists. Tirmidhi mostly mentioned those Ahadith which the jurists used as the basis for their legal decisions and he mentioned which school used which tradition/s. Hence this book became an important source for the different view-points of the various legal schools. The Jami' thus bears the distinction of being one of the oldest texts dealing with the difference of opinion amongst the various jurisprudential schools. Although Shafi'i (b. 150-d.204 A.H.) wrote his Kitab al-Umm before Tirmidhi's Jami', the Kitab al-Umm is less comprehensive in comparison to the Jami' of Tirmidhi.

Kutub al-Sittah

The Kutub al-Sittah (Arabic: الكتب الستة‎, translit. Al-Kutub as-Sittah, lit. 'The six books') are six (originally five) books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) compiled by six Sunni Muslim scholars in the ninth century CE. They are sometimes referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah, which translates as "The Authentic Six". They were first formally grouped and defined by Ibn al-Qaisarani in the 11th century, who added Sunan ibn Majah to the list. Since then, they have enjoyed near-universal acceptance as part of the official canon of Sunni Islam.

Not all Sunni Muslim jurisprudence scholars agree on the addition of Ibn Majah. In particular, the Malikis and Ibn al-Athir consider al-Mawatta' to be the sixth book. The reason for the addition of Ibn Majah's Sunan is that it contains many Hadiths which do not figure in the other five, whereas all the Hadiths in the Muwatta' figure in the other Sahih books.

Majma al-Zawa'id

Majmau' al-Zawa'id wa Manba' al-Fawa'id (Arabic: مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد‎) is a secondary hadith collection written by Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami (1335–1404 CE/735–807 AH). It compiles the 'unique' hadith of earlier primary collections.


A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion. According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity.The concept is based not on the Quran but on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad), recorded by Abu Dawood, Abu Hurairah narrated that Muhammad said:

Allah will raise for this community at the end of every hundred years the one who will renovate its religion for it.

Mujaddids tend to come from the most prominent Islamic scholars of the time, although they are sometimes pious rulers.

Muntakhab Ahadith

Muntakhab Ahadith is a collection of hadith compiled in Arabic by the Islamic scholar Muhammad Yusuf Kandhalawi. The book is divided into seven sections and several sub-sections which correspond to the "Sifat-us-Sahaba" or "Characteristics of the Companions" that Jamaat Tabligh refers to and tries to implement. Over time, the seventh point has been stopped as being referred to on its own, hence the Sifat are referred to as "The Six Qualities".

The book in its present form was organized by Maulana Muhammad Saad Kandhlawi the original compiler's grandson, who also translated the book into the Urdu language.

The book is very popular and is heavily used by Tablighi Jamaat.

The book contains Quranic Ayaahs and Hadeeths from various authentic Hadeeth books of the past, in easy understandable translation to Urdu.

Ahadeeth have been selected from books like Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Muwatta Imam Malik, Al Sunan Al Sughra, Sunan Ibn Majah etc.

Some scholars dispute the authenticity of this book and its relevance to the Tablighi Jamaat (though the specific aspect of authenticity is not mentioned - whether in authenticity of Hadeeth, authorship, etc.), and proponents of this dispute vehemently deny this book to be associated with Maulana Yusuf Kandhlawi. However, the clear sectioning of the book into the six qualities, with subsections for each quality, makes it easy for the layman to look up narrations from the Quran and Ahadeeth relating to the six qualities. Explanations from scholars are easily sought since the exact verses and narrations can be quoted. Moreover, the plague of Chinese whispers in Tabligh with regards to laymen wrongly quoting Quranic verses and Prophetic narrations is being effectively eradicated. This has positively facilitated the internalising of the six qualities in light of the Quran, Ahadeeth, Sunnah and guidance of the rightly-guided scholars, which is one of the overarching aims of the Tablighi Jamaat.


Qadariyah (or Qadariya) is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Some of their doctrines were later adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris.Qadariya was one of the first philosophical schools in Islam. The earliest document associated with the movement is the Risala by Hasan al-Basri, which was composed between 75/694 and 80/699, though debates about free will in Islam probably predate this text.According to Sunni sources, the Qadariyah were censured by Muhammad himself by being compared to Zoroastrians, who likewise deny predestination. It is reported in Sunan Abu Dawood:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet said, "The Qadariyyah are the Magians of this community. If they are ill, do not pay a sick visit to them, and if they die, do not attend their funerals."


The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the later Abbasid Caliphate based in Baghdad. It is a reference to the Sunni imperative "Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood).

Sunan Abu Dawood

Sunan Abu Dawood (Arabic: سنن أبي داود‎, translit. Sunan Abī Dāwūd) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections), collected by Abu Dawood.

Sunan ibn Majah

Sunan Ibn Mājah (Arabic: سُنن ابن ماجه‎) is one of the six major Sunni hadith collections (Kutub al-Sittah). The Sunan was authored by Ibn Mājah (b. 209/824, d. 273/887).



Suwayd or Suwaid may refer to:

an Arabic given name meaning "dark-coloured, black" (from أسود "black")

one of the ansar (followers of Muhammad) mentioned by Al-Waqidi

a follower of Muhammad whose name is reported as "Tariq ibn Suwayd or Suwayd ibn Tariq" who received the injunction against alcohol in Sunan Abu Dawood (28.3864)

"Abu Suwayd and the Pretty Old Woman", a story in vol. 5 of 1001 Nights, see List of stories within One Thousand and One Nights

the Arabic name of Sweden

Early Islamic scholars
Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607-661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taughtUmar (579-644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603 – 681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught
Husayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught
Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught
Muhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695-740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taughtMalik ibn Anas (711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taught
Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)
Al-Shafi‘i (767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn Ibrahim
Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions
Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Jafar (719-775)Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith book
Abu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver Shia
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver Shia
Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver Shia
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver Shia
Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism
Rumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran
People of Khorasan
Islamic scholars
Poets and artists
Historians and
political scientists

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