Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani Arabic: أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi al-Sijistani
Abu Dawud's name in the style of Arabic calligraphy
|Era||Islamic golden age|
|Main interest(s)||ḥadīth and fiqh|
|Notable work(s)||Sunan Abī Dāwūd|
Abu Dawud was born in Sistan, eastern Iran (then-Persia) and died in 889 in Basra. Many scholars believe he was born in Baluchistan now part of Iran and Pakistan and later moved to Khorasan. Widely traveled among scholars of hadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Tihamah, Nishapur, and Merv among other places in order to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in fiqh, and as a result his collection focused largely on legal hadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work.
He wrote some 21 books in total. Some of the most prominent are:
Abu Dawud is a common Arabic name, which may refer to:Abu Dawood (817 or 818 – 889), a Muslim scholar of prophetic hadith
Abu Dawud (ISN 31) (born 1977), Guantanamo captive (Mahmoud Abd Al Aziz Abd Al Mujahid)
Abu Daoud (1937 – 2010)Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Al-Sunan al-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i (Arabic: سنن النسائي), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasa'i.Collyrium
In eye care, collyrium is an antique term for a lotion or liquid wash used as a cleanser for the eyes, particularly in diseases of the eye. The word collyrium comes from the Greek κολλύριον, eye-salve.The same name was also given to unguents used for the same purpose, such as unguent of tutty. Lastly, the name was given, though improperly, to some liquid medicines used against venereal diseases.
Pre-modern medicine distinguished two kinds of collyriums: the one liquid, the other dry. Liquid collyriums were composed of ophthalmic powders, or waters, such as rose-water, plantain-water, that of fennel, eyebright, etc, in which was dissolved tutty, white vitriol, or some other proper powder. Dry collyriums were pastilles of Rhasis, sugar-candy, iris, tutty prepared and blown into the eye with a little pipe.
The Sunan Abu Dawood reports, "Prophet Muhammad said: 'Among the best types of collyrium is antimony (ithmid) for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout.'" Maimonides (12th century Egypt) mentions the use of this eye salve.Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid)
Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi to Al-Kadid took place in May 629 AD, 8AH, 1st month, of the Islamic Calendar, Or according to other sources May 628 AD, 7AH, 3rd Month.Farewell Sermon
The Farewell Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الوداع, Khuṭbatu l-Wadāʿ), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is believed by Muslims to have been delivered by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (6 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj.
Muhammad al-Bukhari refers to the sermon and quotes part of it in his Sahih al-Bukhari. Part of it is also present in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu Dawood. Various versions of the sermon have been published, including several English translations. The sermon consists of a series of general exhortations for Muslims to follow the teachings that Muhammad had set forth in the Quran and sunnah.Haya (Islam)
Haya (Arabic: حياء, transl. modesty or decency, Urdu: حيا) is an Arabic word that means "natural or inherent, shyness and a sense of modesty". In Islamic terminology, it is mainly used in the context of modesty. The word itself is derived from the word Hayat, which means "life". The original meaning of Haya refers to "a bad or uneasy feeling accompanied by embarrassment". Haya encourages Muslims to avoid anything considered to be distasteful or abominable. Haya plays an important role in Islam, as it is one of the most important parts of Iman. The antonym of Haya in Arabic is badha'a (بذاءة, immodesty) or fahisha (فاحشة, lewdness or obscenity).Ibn an-Nawwahah
Ibn an-Nawwahah was a messenger for Musaylimah, a purported prophet during the time of Muhammad who had gained a significant following through his tricks and miracles, teachings and from the fact that he was from Yamamah. Many people of the Rabiah Tribe of Yamamah were greatly hostile to Muhammad and the tribe of Quraish, so in an exchange between a man of the Rabiah tribe and Musaylimah, one man said:
"...a liar of the Rabi'ah tribe of Yamamah is better than a truthful person of the Mazar tribe of the Hijaz"1Ibn an-Nawwahah went to Muhammad with a message from Musaylimah consisting of Musaylimah's idea that the world should be split between himself and Muhammad, as they were both prophets of Allah. Muhammad retorted that the division of the world is for Allah to decide. In an exchange between an-Nawwahah and some other messengers of Musaylimah recorded in Sunan Abu Dawood 14:2755:
I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say when he read the letter of Musaylimah: What do you believe yourselves? They said: We believe as he believes. He said: I swear by Allah that were it not that messengers are not killed, I would cut off your heads.Muhammad couldn't kill them because they were diplomatic emissaries, but this statement made by him would stick in the minds of some Muslims. Ultimately Ibn an-Nawwahah's life still ended by the sword of a Muslim, namely Qarazah ibn Ka'b as recorded in Sunan Abu Dawood 14:2756:
Harithah ibn Mudarrib said that he came to Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and said (to him): There is no enmity between me and any of the Arabs. I passed a mosque of Banu Hanifah. They (the people) believed in Musaylimah. Abdullah (ibn Mas'ud) sent for them. They were brought, and he asked them to repent, except Ibn an-Nawwahah. He said to him: I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say: Were it not that you were not a messenger, I would behead you. But today you are not a messenger. He then ordered Qarazah ibn Ka'b (to kill him). He beheaded him in the market. Anyone who wants to see Ibn an-Nawwahah slain in the market (he may see him).It isn't completely settled whether Ibn an-Nawwahah was the only messenger or if other followers of Musaylimah had accompanied him, but it is more likely that an-Nawwahah was the only such messenger.Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzajani
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Sa'di al-Juzajani (Arabic: أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن يعقوب بن إسحاق السعدي الجوزجاني, born around 180 AH – died 872 CE/259 AH) was a Muslim hadith scholar, one of the imams of al-jarh wa al-ta'deel and a student of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Some of the hadith scholars that transmitted his narrations include Abu Dawood, al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasa'i.Islamic sexual jurisprudence
Islamic sexual jurisprudence concerns the Islamic laws of sexuality in Islam, as largely predicated on the Qur'an, the sayings of Muhammad (hadith) and the rulings of religious leaders' (fatwa) confining sexual activity to marital relationships between men and women. While most traditions discourage celibacy, all encourage strict chastity, modesty and privacy with regard to any relationships between genders, holding forth that their intimacy as perceived within Islam – encompassing a swath of life broader than sexual activity – is largely reserved for marriage. This sensitivity to gender difference and modesty outside of marriage can be seen in current prominent aspects of Islam, such as interpretations of Islamic dress and degrees of gender segregation.
While prohibitions against extramarital sex are strong, sexual activity itself is not a taboo subject. Permissible sexual relationships are described in Quran and Hadith as great wells of love and closeness. Even after marriage, there are limitations: a man should not have intercourse during his wife's menstruation and afterbirth periods. He is also considered to be sinning when penetrating anally. Islam itself is a natalist religion, therefore it encourages increasing procreation through marital sexual relationships. Actions and behaviours such as abortion (other than for medical risk to the pregnant woman) and homosexuality are also strictly forbidden; temporary contraceptive use is permitted for birth control.Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami' at-Tirmidhi (Arabic: جامع الترمذي), also known as Sunan at-Tirmidhi, is one of "the six books" (Kutub al-Sittah - the six major hadith collections). It was collected by Al-Tirmidhi. He began compiling it after the year 250 A.H. (A.D. 864/5) and completed it on the 10 Dhu-al-Hijjah 270 A.H. (A.D. 884, June 9). It contains 3,956 Ahadith, and has been divided into fifty chapters. It is also classified as a Sunan, which implies that the book has been chapterised according to legal chapters, such as Purification, Prayer, Poor-due and Fasting, narrated on the authority of Islamic prophet Muhammad, while the opinions of the companions are usually not mentioned.
Tirmidhi's method was that of placing the heading first, then mentioning one or two Ahadith which were related to the heading. These Ahadith are followed by his opinion as to the status of the Hadith. Subsequently, he mentions the opinions of the different jurists. He also indicates if there were other narrations transmitted by other companions on the same subject. His principal aim was to discuss the legal opinions of early jurists. Tirmidhi mostly mentioned those Ahadith which the jurists used as the basis for their legal decisions and he mentioned which school used which tradition/s. Hence this book became an important source for the different view-points of the various legal schools. The Jami' thus bears the distinction of being one of the oldest texts dealing with the difference of opinion amongst the various jurisprudential schools. Although Shafi'i (b. 150-d.204 A.H.) wrote his Kitab al-Umm before Tirmidhi's Jami', the Kitab al-Umm is less comprehensive in comparison to the Jami' of Tirmidhi.Kutub al-Sittah
The Kutub al-Sittah (Arabic: الكتب الستة, translit. Al-Kutub as-Sittah, lit. 'The six books') are six (originally five) books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) compiled by six Sunni Muslim scholars in the ninth century CE. They are sometimes referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah, which translates as "The Authentic Six". They were first formally grouped and defined by Ibn al-Qaisarani in the 11th century, who added Sunan ibn Majah to the list. Since then, they have enjoyed near-universal acceptance as part of the official canon of Sunni Islam.
Not all Sunni Muslim jurisprudence scholars agree on the addition of Ibn Majah. In particular, the Malikis and Ibn al-Athir consider al-Mawatta' to be the sixth book. The reason for the addition of Ibn Majah's Sunan is that it contains many Hadiths which do not figure in the other five, whereas all the Hadiths in the Muwatta' figure in the other Sahih books.Majma al-Zawa'id
Majmau' al-Zawa'id wa Manba' al-Fawa'id (Arabic: مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد) is a secondary hadith collection written by Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami (1335–1404 CE/735–807 AH). It compiles the 'unique' hadith of earlier primary collections.Mujaddid
A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion. According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity.The concept is based not on the Quran but on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad), recorded by Abu Dawood, Abu Hurairah narrated that Muhammad said:
Allah will raise for this community at the end of every hundred years the one who will renovate its religion for it.
Mujaddids tend to come from the most prominent Islamic scholars of the time, although they are sometimes pious rulers.Muntakhab Ahadith
Muntakhab Ahadith is a collection of hadith compiled in Arabic by the Islamic scholar Muhammad Yusuf Kandhalawi. The book is divided into seven sections and several sub-sections which correspond to the "Sifat-us-Sahaba" or "Characteristics of the Companions" that Jamaat Tabligh refers to and tries to implement. Over time, the seventh point has been stopped as being referred to on its own, hence the Sifat are referred to as "The Six Qualities".
The book in its present form was organized by Maulana Muhammad Saad Kandhlawi the original compiler's grandson, who also translated the book into the Urdu language.
The book is very popular and is heavily used by Tablighi Jamaat.
The book contains Quranic Ayaahs and Hadeeths from various authentic Hadeeth books of the past, in easy understandable translation to Urdu.
Ahadeeth have been selected from books like Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Muwatta Imam Malik, Al Sunan Al Sughra, Sunan Ibn Majah etc.
Some scholars dispute the authenticity of this book and its relevance to the Tablighi Jamaat (though the specific aspect of authenticity is not mentioned - whether in authenticity of Hadeeth, authorship, etc.), and proponents of this dispute vehemently deny this book to be associated with Maulana Yusuf Kandhlawi. However, the clear sectioning of the book into the six qualities, with subsections for each quality, makes it easy for the layman to look up narrations from the Quran and Ahadeeth relating to the six qualities. Explanations from scholars are easily sought since the exact verses and narrations can be quoted. Moreover, the plague of Chinese whispers in Tabligh with regards to laymen wrongly quoting Quranic verses and Prophetic narrations is being effectively eradicated. This has positively facilitated the internalising of the six qualities in light of the Quran, Ahadeeth, Sunnah and guidance of the rightly-guided scholars, which is one of the overarching aims of the Tablighi Jamaat.Qadariyah
Qadariyah (or Qadariya) is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Some of their doctrines were later adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris.Qadariya was one of the first philosophical schools in Islam. The earliest document associated with the movement is the Risala by Hasan al-Basri, which was composed between 75/694 and 80/699, though debates about free will in Islam probably predate this text.According to Sunni sources, the Qadariyah were censured by Muhammad himself by being compared to Zoroastrians, who likewise deny predestination. It is reported in Sunan Abu Dawood:
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet said, "The Qadariyyah are the Magians of this community. If they are ill, do not pay a sick visit to them, and if they die, do not attend their funerals."Rashidun
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the later Abbasid Caliphate based in Baghdad. It is a reference to the Sunni imperative "Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood).Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawood (Arabic: سنن أبي داود, translit. Sunan Abī Dāwūd) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections), collected by Abu Dawood.Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan Ibn Mājah (Arabic: سُنن ابن ماجه) is one of the six major Sunni hadith collections (Kutub al-Sittah). The Sunan was authored by Ibn Mājah (b. 209/824, d. 273/887).
Suwayd or Suwaid may refer to:
an Arabic given name meaning "dark-coloured, black" (from أسود "black")
one of the ansar (followers of Muhammad) mentioned by Al-Waqidi
a follower of Muhammad whose name is reported as "Tariq ibn Suwayd or Suwayd ibn Tariq" who received the injunction against alcohol in Sunan Abu Dawood (28.3864)
"Abu Suwayd and the Pretty Old Woman", a story in vol. 5 of 1001 Nights, see List of stories within One Thousand and One Nights
the Arabic name of Sweden
Early Islamic scholars
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence
People of Khorasan
|Poets and artists|