Abraham Ribicoff

Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910 – February 22, 1998) was an American Democratic Party politician. He served in the United States Congress, as the 80th Governor of Connecticut and as President John F. Kennedy's Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. He was Connecticut's first and to date only Jewish governor.

Abraham Ribicoff
Abraham ribicoff
Chair of Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
In office
December 31, 1974 – January 3, 1981
Preceded bySam Ervin
Succeeded byWilliam Roth
United States Senator
from Connecticut
In office
January 3, 1963 – January 3, 1981
Preceded byPrescott Bush
Succeeded byChris Dodd
4th United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
In office
January 21, 1961 – July 13, 1962
PresidentJohn F. Kennedy
Preceded byArthur Flemming
Succeeded byAnthony J. Celebrezze
80th Governor of Connecticut
In office
January 5, 1955 – January 21, 1961
LieutenantCharles W. Jewett
John Dempsey
Preceded byJohn Davis Lodge
Succeeded byJohn Dempsey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Connecticut's 1st district
In office
January 3, 1949 – January 3, 1953
Preceded byWilliam J. Miller
Succeeded byThomas J. Dodd
Personal details
Born
Abraham Alexander Ribicoff

April 9, 1910
New Britain, Connecticut, U.S.
DiedFebruary 22, 1998 (aged 87)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Ruth Siegel
(m. 1931; died 1972)

Casey Mell (m. 1972)
EducationNew York University
University of Chicago (LLB)

Early life

Born in New Britain, Connecticut to Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants from Poland, Samuel Ribicoff, a factory worker, and Rose Sable Ribicoff, he attended local public schools. His relatively poor parents valued education and insisted that all his earnings from part-time boyhood jobs go toward his future schooling. After high school, he worked for a year at a nearby factory of the G. E. Prentice Company in order to earn additional funds for college. He enrolled at New York University in 1928, then transferred to the University of Chicago after the Prentice Company made him the Chicago office manager. While in Chicago, Ribicoff coped with school and work schedules and was permitted to enter the university's law school before finishing his undergraduate degree. Still a student, he married Ruth Siegel on 28 June 1931; they would have two children. Ribicoff served as editor of the University of Chicago Law Review in his third year and received a LLB cum laude in 1933, being admitted to the Connecticut bar the same year. After practicing law in the office of a Hartford lawyer, he set up his own practice, first in Kensington and later in Hartford.

Political career

Now interested in politics, Ribicoff began as a member of the Connecticut state legislature, serving in that body from 1938 to 1942. From 1941 until 1943 and again from 1945 to 1947 he was judge of Hartford Police Court. During his political career Ribicoff was a protégé of powerful Democratic state party chairman John Moran Bailey.

He was elected as a Democrat to the 81st and 82nd Congresses serving from 1949 until 1953. During that time he served on the Foreign Affairs Committee (a position usually reserved for members with more seniority) and generally proved to be a loyal supporter of Truman administration foreign and domestic policies. Generally liberal in his outlook, he surprised many by opposing a $32 million appropriation for the construction of a dam in Enfield, Connecticut, arguing that the money was better spent on military needs and foreign policy initiatives such as the Marshall Plan.

In 1952 he made an unsuccessful bid for election to fill a vacancy in the United States Senate, losing to Prescott Bush.

After returning to his legal practice for two years, he ran for governor against incumbent Republican John Davis Lodge, winning the election by a little over three thousand votes. As governor (1955–1961), Ribicoff soon faced the challenge of rebuilding his state in the wake of devastating floods that occurred in the late summer and fall of 1955, and he was able to lead bipartisan efforts to aid damaged areas. Ribicoff then successfully argued for increased state spending on schools and welfare programs. He also supported an amendment to the state constitution that enabled local municipalities to have greater governing powers. Easily reelected in 1958, Ribicoff had by now become active on the national political scene. A longtime friend of Senator John F. Kennedy, Ribicoff had nominated his fellow New Englander for vice president at the 1956 Democratic National Convention and was one of the first public officials to endorse Kennedy's presidential campaign.

When Kennedy became president, Ribicoff was offered his choice of cabinet posts in the new administration. He reportedly turned down the position of attorney general, fearing that as a Jew he might create needless controversy within the emerging civil rights movement, and instead chose to be secretary of health, education and welfare (HEW). Although he did manage to secure a revision of the 1935 Social Security Act that liberalized requirements for aid-to-dependent-children funds from Congress, Ribicoff was unable to gain approval for the administration's medicare and school aid bills. Eventually he tired of attempting to manage HEW, whose very size made it, in his opinion, unmanageable.

Ribicoff reflected that he mainly sought out the position of HEW Secretary out of concern for education and "realized that the problems of health and welfare were so overriding that education was relegated to the back burner" during his tenure.[1]

He was finally elected to the United States Senate in 1962, replacing retiring incumbent Prescott Bush by defeating Republican nominee Horace Seely-Brown with 51% of the vote, and served in the Senate from January 3, 1963, until January 3, 1981.

Initially a supporter of Lyndon B. Johnson's programs, Ribicoff eventually turned against the Vietnam War and the president's management of it, believing that it drained badly needed resources away from domestic programs.

In addition, Ribicoff allied with consumer advocate Ralph Nader in creating the Motor Vehicle Highway Safety Act of 1966, which created the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The agency was responsible for many new safety standards on cars. These standards were questionable because up until then, the emphasis had always been put on the driver. In response, Ribicoff stated that:

"The driver has many faults. He is negligent; he is careless; he is reckless. We understand that... I think it will be the millennium if you will ever get a situation where the millions and millions of drivers will all be perfect. They will always be making errors and making mistakes."

At the 1968 Democratic National Convention, during a speech nominating George McGovern, he went off-script, saying, "And with George McGovern as President of the United States, we wouldn't have to have Gestapo tactics in the streets of Chicago." Many conventioneers, having been appalled by the response of the Chicago police to the simultaneously occurring anti-war demonstrations, promptly broke into ecstatic applause. Television cameras promptly focused on the indignant reaction of Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. Ribicoff spent the remaining years of his Senate career fighting for such liberal issues as school integration, welfare and tax reform, and consumer protection.

During the 1972 Democratic National Convention, Ribicoff turned down George McGovern's offer of the Democratic vice-presidential nomination, which eventually went to Senator Thomas Eagleton.[2] After the withdrawal of Eagleton, McGovern asked Ribicoff (among others) to take Eagleton's place. He refused, publicly stating that he had no further ambitions for higher office. McGovern eventually chose Sargent Shriver as his running mate. That year, following the death of his wife, Ribicoff married Lois Mell Mathes, who became known as "Casey", in 1972.[3]

During his time in the Senate, Ribicoff was chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations (94th and 95th Congresses) and its successor committee, the U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs (95th and 96th Congresses).

Future U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman worked in Ribicoff's Senate office as a summer intern, and met his first wife, Betty Haas, there.

On May 3, 1979, Ribicoff announced his intention to retire at the end of his third term. President Carter released a statement crediting Ribicoff with having "compiled a distinguished career of public service that can serve as model of decency, compassion and ability."[4]

Later life

In 1981, Ribicoff retired from the Senate and took a position as special counsel in the New York law firm of Kaye Scholer LLP and divided his time between homes in Cornwall Bridge, Connecticut and Manhattan. He was co-chairman of the 1988 Base Realignment and Closure Commission.

Having suffered in his later years from the effects of Alzheimer's disease, he died in 1998 at the Hebrew Home for the Aged at Riverdale in The Bronx, New York City and is interred at Cornwall Cemetery in Cornwall, Connecticut.

See also

References

  1. ^ Carter, Jimmy (October 17, 1979). "Department of Education Organization Act Remarks at the Bill Signing Ceremony". American Presidency Project.
  2. ^ Help Wanted New York Times, Aug. 28, 2008
  3. ^ Grimes, William (August 26, 2011). "Casey Ribicoff, 88, Senator's Widow and a Style Leader". The New York Times. p. A20.
  4. ^ "Ribicoff Decides He Won't Seek A Fourth Term". New York Times. May 4, 1979.

Further reading

  • Ribicoff, Abraham in American National Biography, American Council of Learned Societies, 2000.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
William J. Miller
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Connecticut's 1st congressional district

1949–1953
Succeeded by
Thomas J. Dodd
Party political offices
Preceded by
Brien McMahon
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Connecticut
(Class 3)

1952
Succeeded by
Thomas J. Dodd
Preceded by
Chester Bowles
Democratic nominee for Governor of Connecticut
1954, 1958
Succeeded by
John Dempsey
Preceded by
Thomas J. Dodd
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Connecticut
(Class 3)

1962, 1968, 1974
Succeeded by
Chris Dodd
Political offices
Preceded by
John Davis Lodge
Governor of Connecticut
1955–1961
Succeeded by
John Dempsey
Preceded by
Arthur Flemming
United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
1961–1962
Succeeded by
Anthony J. Celebrezze
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Prescott Bush
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Connecticut
1963–1981
Served alongside: Thomas J. Dodd, Lowell P. Weicker Jr.
Succeeded by
Chris Dodd
Preceded by
Sam Ervin
Chair of Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
1974–1981
Succeeded by
William Roth
1964 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1964 election. After the assassination of Democratic President John F. Kennedy in 1963, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson ascended to the presidency. As the 25th Amendment had not yet been passed, there was no process for filling the office of vice president until the next election, and Speaker of the House John William McCormack was next-in-line for the presidency from November 1963 to January 1965. Johnson carefully considered his running mate for the 1964 election, and put up "trial balloons" in the media about possible running mates. Among those speculated at the time were Connecticut Senators Abraham Ribicoff and Thomas J. Dodd, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, New York Mayor Robert Wagner, California Governor Pat Brown, and Minnesota Senators Hubert Humphrey and Eugene McCarthy. Many Democrats also hoped for Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the brother of former President John F. Kennedy, but Johnson carefully maneuvered to keep Kennedy off the ticket due to personal enmity between the two. After an interview in the Oval Office, Johnson announced his choice of Humphrey, who provided geographic balance to the ticket and had been a key lieutenant for Johnson in the Senate, particularly in regards to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Humphrey then easily won the vice presidential nomination on the first ballot at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. The Johnson-Humphrey ticket went on to beat the Goldwater-Miller ticket in the 1964 election. Humphrey later won the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination over McCarthy, but lost the election to Richard Nixon.

1968 Democratic National Convention

The 1968 Democratic National Convention was held August 26–29 at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois. As President Lyndon B. Johnson had announced he would not seek reelection, the purpose of the convention was to select a new presidential nominee to run as the Democratic Party's candidate for the office. The keynote speaker was Senator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and Senator Edmund S. Muskie

Maine were nominated for President and Vice President, respectively.

The convention was held during a year of violence, political turbulence, and civil unrest, particularly riots in more than 100 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4. The convention also followed the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy on June 5. Both Kennedy and Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota had been running for the Democratic nomination at the time.

1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1968 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1968 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey was selected as the nominee in the 1968 Democratic National Convention held from August 26 to August 29, 1968, in Chicago, Illinois.

1980 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 1980 United States Senate election in Connecticut took place on November 3, 1980, alongside other elections to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Abraham Ribicoff decided to retire. Democrat Chris Dodd won the open seat.

Albert L. Coles

Albert L. Coles (November 8, 1909 – December 18, 1978) was an American politician who served in the Connecticut Senate from the 22nd district from 1939 to 1947 and as the Attorney General of Connecticut from 1959 to 1963.

Casey Ribicoff

Casey Ribicoff (born Lois Ruth Mell; December 5, 1922, Chicago, Illinois – August 22, 2011, New York City, New York) was an American philanthropist, socialite and the second wife and widow of United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and later United States Senator from Connecticut, Abraham Ribicoff. Ribicoff was the President of the ladies auxiliary of Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, Florida and in 1963 became the first woman to be selected to serve on the hospital's board of trustees.

As a socialite, she was known as a great woman of style who, after years of appearing on best-dressed lists, was inducted into the international Best-Dressed Hall of Fame in 1988. Ribicoff counted among her friends Bill Blass (of whose estate she was the principal executor).

Ribicoff also counted Nancy Kissinger, Barbara Walters, Annette de la Renta, Dominick Dunne and Tom Brokaw among her close friends.

President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the board of the Kennedy Center, a seat in which she served for twenty years.

Chris Dodd

Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American lobbyist, lawyer, and Democratic Party politician who served as a United States Senator from Connecticut for a thirty-year period from 1981 to 2011.

Dodd is a Connecticut native and a graduate of Georgetown Preparatory School in Bethesda, Maryland, and Providence College. His father, Thomas J. Dodd, was also a United States Senator from 1959 to 1971. Chris Dodd served in the Peace Corps for two years prior to entering the University of Louisville School of Law, and during law school concurrently served in the United States Army Reserve.

Dodd returned to Connecticut, winning election in 1974 to the United States House of Representatives from Connecticut's 2nd congressional district and was reelected in 1976 and 1978. He was elected United States Senator in the elections of 1980, and is the longest-serving senator in Connecticut's history.

Dodd served as general chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1995 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Senate Banking Committee until his retirement from politics. In 2006, Dodd decided to run for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, but eventually withdrew after running behind several other competitors.

In January 2010, Dodd announced that he would not run for re-election. Dodd was succeeded by fellow Democrat Richard Blumenthal. Dodd then served as chairman and chief lobbyist for the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) during 2011–2017. In 2018, Dodd returned to the practice of law, joining the firm Arnold & Porter.

Electoral history of Jimmy Carter

Electoral history of Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and 76th Governor of Georgia (1971–1975).

Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1966

Ellis Arnall - 231,480 (29.38%)

Lester Maddox - 185,672 (23.56%)

Jimmy Carter - 164,562 (20.89%)

James H. Gray - 152,973 (19.41%)

Garland T. Byrd - 39,994 (5.08%)

Hoke O'Kelley - 13,271 (1.68%)Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1970

Jimmy Carter - 388,280 (48.62%)

Carl E. Sanders - 301,659 (37.77%)

Chevene King - 70,424 (8.82%)

J. B. Stoner - 17,663 (2.21%)

McKee Hargett - 9,440 (1.18%)

Thomas J. Irvin - 4,184 (0.52%)

Adam B. Matthews - 3,332 (0.42%)Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary runoff, 1970

Jimmy Carter - 506,462 (59.42%)

Carl E. Sanders - 345,906 (40.58%)Georgia gubernatorial election, 1970

Jimmy Carter (D) - 620,419 (59.28%)

Hal Suit (R) - 424,983 (40.60%)

Write-ins - 1,261 (0.12%)1972 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally)

Thomas Eagleton - 1,742 (59.07%)

Frances Farenthold - 405 (13.73%)

Mike Gravel - 226 (7.66%)

Endicott Peabody - 108 (3.66%)

Clay Smothers - 74 (2.51%)

Birch Bayh - 62 (2.10%)

Peter Rodino - 57 (1.93%)

Jimmy Carter - 30 (1.02%)

Shirley Chisholm - 20 (0.68%)

Moon Landrieu - 19 (0.64%)

Edward T. Breathitt - 18 (0.61%)

Ted Kennedy - 15 (0.51%)

Fred R. Harris - 14 (0.48%)

Richard G. Hatcher - 11 (0.37%)

Harold E. Hughes - 10 (0.34%)

Joseph M. Montoya - 9 (0.31%)

William L. Guy - 8 (0.27%)

Adlai Stevenson III - 8 (0.27%)

Robert Bergland - 5 (0.17%)

Hodding Carter - 5 (0.17%)

Cesar Chavez - 5 (0.17%)

Wilbur Mills - 5 (0.17%)

Wendell Anderson - 4 (0.14%)

Stanley Arnold - 4 (0.14%)

Ron Dellums - 4 (0.14%)

John J. Houlihan - 4 (0.14%)

Roberto A. Mondragon - 4 (0.14%)

Reubin O'Donovan Askew - 3 (0.10%)

Herman Badillo - 3 (0.10%)

Eugene McCarthy - 3 (0.10%)

Claiborne Pell - 3 (0.10%)

Terry Sanford - 3 (0.10%)

Ramsey Clark - 2 (0.07%)

Richard J. Daley - 2 (0.07%)

John DeCarlo - 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Gruening - 2 (0.07%)

Roger Mudd - 2 (0.07%)

Edmund Muskie - 2 (0.07%)

Claude Pepper - 2 (0.07%)

Abraham Ribicoff - 2 (0.07%)

Pat Taylor - 2 (0.07%)

Leonard F. Wodcoock - 2 (0.07%)

Bruno Agnoli - 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Albright - 1 (0.03%)

William A. Barrett - 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Berrigan - 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Berrigan - 1 (0.03%)

Julian Bond - 1 (0.03%)

Hargrove Bowles - 1 (0.03%)

Archibald Burton - 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Burton - 1 (0.03%)

William Chappell - 1 (0.03%)

Lawton Chiles - 1 (0.03%)

Frank Church - 1 (0.03%)

Robert Drinan - 1 (0.03%)

Nick Galifianakis - 1 (0.03%)

John Goodrich - 1 (0.03%)

Michael Griffin - 1 (0.03%)

Martha Griffiths - 1 (0.03%)

Charles Hamilton - 1 (0.03%)

Patricia Harris - 1 (0.03%)

Jim Hunt - 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Inouye - 1 (0.03%)

Henry M. Jackson - 1 (0.03%)

Robery Kariss - 1 (0.03%)

Allard K. Lowenstein - 1 (0.03%)

Mao Zedong - 1 (0.03%)

Eleanor McGovern - 1 (0.03%)

Martha Mitchell - 1 (0.03%)

Ralph Nader - 1 (0.03%)

George Norcross - 1 (0.03%)

Jerry Rubin - 1 (0.03%)

Fred Seaman - 1 (0.03%)

Joe Smith - 1 (0.03%)

Benjamin Spock - 1 (0.03%)

Patrick Tavolacci - 1 (0.03%)

George Wallace - 1 (0.03%)1976 Democratic presidential primaries

Jimmy Carter - 6,235,609 (39.27%)

Jerry Brown - 2,449,374 (15.43%)

George Wallace - 1,955,388 (12.31%)

Mo Udall - 1,611,754 (10.15%)

Henry M. Jackson - 1,134,375 (7.14%)

Frank Church - 830,818 (5.23%)

Robert Byrd - 340,309 (2.14%)

Sargent Shriver - 304,399 (1.92%)

Unpledged - 283,437 (1.79%)

Ellen McCormack - 238,027 (1.50%)

Fred R. Harris - 234,568 (1.48%)

Milton Shapp - 88,254 (0.56%)

Birch Bayh - 86,438 (0.54%)

Hubert Humphrey - 61,992 (0.39%)

Ted Kennedy - 19,805 (0.13%)

Lloyd Bentsen - 4,046 (0.03%)

Terry Sanford - 404 (0.00%)1976 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally)

Jimmy Carter - 2,239 (74.48%)

Mo Udall - 330 (10.98%)

Jerry Brown - 301 (10.01%)

George Wallace - 57 (1.90%)

Ellen McCormack - 22 (0.73%)

Frank Church - 19 (0.63%)

Hubert Humphrey - 10 (0.33%)

Henry M. Jackson - 10 (0.33%)

Fred R. Harris - 9 (0.30%)

Milton Shapp - 2 (0.07%)

Robert Byrd, Cesar Chavez, Leon Jaworski, Barbara Jordan, Ted Kennedy, Jennings Randolph, Fred Stover - each 1 vote (0.03%)United States presidential election, 1976

Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (D) - 40,831,881 (50.1%) and 297 electoral votes (23 states and D.C. carried)

Gerald Ford/Bob Dole (R) - 39,148,634 (48.0%) and 240 electoral votes (27 states carried)

Ronald Reagan/Bob Dole (R) - 1 electoral vote (faithless elector)

Eugene McCarthy (Independent) - 740,460 (0.9%)

Roger MacBride/David Bergland (Libertarian) - 172,553 (0.2%)

Lester Maddox/William Dyke (American Independent) - 170,274 (0.2%)

Thomas J. Anderson/Rufus Shackelford (American) - 158,271 (0.2%)

Peter Camejo/Willie Mae Reid (Socialist Workers) - 90,986 (0.1%)1980 Democratic presidential primaries

Jimmy Carter (inc.) - 10,043,016 (51.13%)

Ted Kennedy - 7,381,693 (37.58%)

Unpledged - 1,288,423 (6.56%)

Jerry Brown - 575,296 (2.93%)

Lyndon LaRouche - 177,784 (0.91%)

Cliff Finch - 48,032 (0.25%)1980 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally)

Jimmy Carter (inc.) - 2,123 (64.04%)

Ted Kennedy - 1,151 (34.72%)

William Proxmire - 10 (0.30%)

Koryne Kaneski Horbal - 5 (0.15%)

Scott M. Matheson, Sr. - 5 (0.15%)

Ron Dellums - 3 (0.09%)

Robert Byrd - 2 (0.06%)

John Culver - 2 (0.06%)

Kent Hance - 2 (0.06%)

Jennings Randolph - 2 (0.06%)

Warren Spannaus - 2 (0.06%)

Alice Tripp - 2 (0.06%)

Jerry Brown - 1 (0.03%)

Dale Bumpers - 1 (0.03%)

Hugh L. Carey - 1 (0.03%)

Walter Mondale - 1 (0.03%)

Edmund Muskie - 1 (0.03%)

Thomas J. Steed - 1 (0.03%)New York Liberal Party presidential convention, 1980

John B. Anderson - 85,590 (87.67%)

Jimmy Carter - 9,896 (10.14%)

Abstaining - 2,142 (2.19%)United States presidential election, 1980

Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush (R) - 43,903,230 (50.7%) and 489 electoral votes (44 states carried)

Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (D) (inc.) - 35,480,115 (41.0%) and 49 electoral votes (6 states and D.C. carried)

John B. Anderson/Patrick Joseph Lucey (Independent) - 5,719,850 (6.6%)

Ed Clark/David H. Koch (Libertarian) - 921,128 (1.1%)

Barry Commoner/LaDonna Harris (Citizens) - 233,052 (0.3%)

Others - 252,303 (0.3%)

Electoral history of Mike Gravel

Electoral history of Mike Gravel, Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives (1965–1966), United States Senator from Alaska (1969–1981), candidate for the 1972 Democratic Party Vice Presidential nomination and 2008 Democratic and later Libertarian Presidential nomination

Alaska's At-large congressional district, 1966 (Democratic primary):

Ralph Julian Rivers (inc.) – 17,042 (52.52%)

Mike Gravel – 15,404 (47.48%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Alaska, 1968:

Mike Gravel – 17,971 (52.88%)

Ernest Gruening (inc.) – 16,015 (47.12%)Alaska United States Senate election, 1968:

Mike Gravel (D) – 36,527 (45.13%)

Elmer E. Rasmuson (R) – 30,286 (37.42%)

Ernest Gruening (I) (inc.) (write-in) – 14,118 (17.44%)1972 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Thomas Eagleton – 1,742 (59.07%)

Frances Farenthold – 405 (13.73%)

Mike Gravel – 226 (7.66%)

Endicott Peabody – 108 (3.66%)

Clay Smothers – 74 (2.51%)

Birch Bayh – 62 (2.10%)

Peter Rodino – 57 (1.93%)

Jimmy Carter – 30 (1.02%)

Shirley Chisholm – 20 (0.68%)

Moon Landrieu – 19 (0.64%)

Edward T. Breathitt – 18 (0.61%)

Ted Kennedy – 15 (0.51%)

Fred R. Harris – 14 (0.48%)

Richard G. Hatcher – 11 (0.37%)

Harold E. Hughes – 10 (0.34%)

Joseph M. Montoya – 9 (0.31%)

William L. Guy – 8 (0.27%)

Adlai Stevenson III – 8 (0.27%)

Robert Bergland – 5 (0.17%)

Hodding Carter – 5 (0.17%)

Cesar Chavez – 5 (0.17%)

Wilbur Mills – 5 (0.17%)

Wendell Anderson – 4 (0.14%)

Stanley Arnold – 4 (0.14%)

Ron Dellums – 4 (0.14%)

John J. Houlihan – 4 (0.14%)

Roberto A. Mondragon – 4 (0.14%)

Reubin O'Donovan Askew – 3 (0.10%)

Herman Badillo – 3 (0.10%)

Eugene McCarthy – 3 (0.10%)

Claiborne Pell – 3 (0.10%)

Terry Sanford – 3 (0.10%)

Ramsey Clark – 2 (0.07%)

Richard J. Daley – 2 (0.07%)

John DeCarlo – 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Gruening – 2 (0.07%)

Roger Mudd – 2 (0.07%)

Edmund Muskie – 2 (0.07%)

Claude Pepper – 2 (0.07%)

Abraham Ribicoff – 2 (0.07%)

Pat Taylor – 2 (0.07%)

Leonard Woodcock – 2 (0.07%)

Bruno Agnoli – 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Albright – 1 (0.03%)

William A. Barrett – 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Berrigan – 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Berrigan – 1 (0.03%)

Julian Bond – 1 (0.03%)

Hargrove Bowles – 1 (0.03%)

Archibald Burton – 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Burton – 1 (0.03%)

William Chappell – 1 (0.03%)

Lawton Chiles – 1 (0.03%)

Frank Church – 1 (0.03%)

Robert Drinan – 1 (0.03%)

Nick Galifianakis – 1 (0.03%)

John Goodrich – 1 (0.03%)

Michael Griffin – 1 (0.03%)

Martha Griffiths – 1 (0.03%)

Charles Hamilton – 1 (0.03%)

Patricia Harris – 1 (0.03%)

Jim Hunt – 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Inouye – 1 (0.03%)

Henry M. Jackson – 1 (0.03%)

Robery Kariss – 1 (0.03%)

Allard K. Lowenstein – 1 (0.03%)

Mao Zedong – 1 (0.03%)

Eleanor McGovern – 1 (0.03%)

Martha Mitchell – 1 (0.03%)

Ralph Nader – 1 (0.03%)

George Norcross – 1 (0.03%)

Jerry Rubin – 1 (0.03%)

Fred Seaman – 1 (0.03%)

Joe Smith – 1 (0.03%)

Benjamin Spock – 1 (0.03%)

Patrick Tavolacci – 1 (0.03%)

George Wallace – 1 (0.03%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Alaska, 1974:

Mike Gravel (inc.) – 22,834 (54.31%)

Gene Guess – 15,090 (35.89%)

Dick Greuel – 3,367 (8.01%)

Donald W. Hobbs – 756 (1.80%)Alaska United States Senate election, 1974:

Mike Gravel (D) (inc.) – 54,361 (58.28%)

Clyde R. Lewis (R) – 38,914 (41.72%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Alaska, 1980:

Clark Gruening – 39,719 (54.89%)

Mike Gravel (inc.) – 31,504 (43.53%)

Michael Beasley – 1,145 (1.58%)2008 New Hampshire Democratic Vice Presidential primary:

Raymond Stebbins – 50,485 (46.93%)

William Bryk – 22,965 (21.35%)

John Edwards* – 10,553 (9.81%)

Barack Obama* 6,402 (5.95%)

Bill Richardson* (write-in) – 5,525 (5.14%)

Hillary Clinton* (write-in) – 3,419 (3.18%)

Joe Biden* – 1,512 (1.41%)

Al Gore* – 966 (0.90%)

Dennis Kucinich* – 762 (0.71%)

Bill Clinton* – 388 (0.36%)

John McCain* – 293 (0.27%)

Christopher Dodd* – 224 (0.21%)

Ron Paul* – 176 (0.16%)

Jack Barnes, Jr.* – 95 (0.09%)

Mike Gravel* – 91 (0.09%)

Joe Lieberman* – 67 (0.06%)

Mitt Romney* – 66 (0.06%)

Mike Huckabee* – 63 (0.06%)

Rudy Giuliani* – 46 (0.04%)

Darrel Hunter* – 20 (0.02%)2008 Democratic presidential primaries:Excluding Florida and Michigan, only primary and caucuses votes:

Barack ObamaPN – 16,706,853

Hillary Clinton* – 16,239,821

John Edwards* – 742,010

Bill Richardson* – 89,054

Uncommitted – 82,660

Dennis Kucinich* – 68,482

Joe Biden* – 64,041

Mike Gravel* – 27,662

Christopher Dodd* – 25,300

Others – 22,556Including Florida and Michigan:

Hillary Clinton* – 18,225,175 (48.03%)

Barack ObamaPN – 17,988,182 (47.41%) (name removed from the Michigan ballot)

John Edwards* – 1,006,275 (2.65%)

Uncommitted – 299,610 (0.79%)

Bill Richardson* – 106,073 (0.28%)

Dennis Kucinich* – 103,994 (0.27%)

Joe Biden* – 81,641 (0.22%)

Scattering – 44,348 (0.12%)

Mike Gravel* – 40,251 (0.11%)

Christopher Dodd* – 35,281 (0.09%)(* – dropped out from race)(PN – presumptive nominee)

2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries (selected):

New Hampshire primary – 404 (0.14%)

South Carolina primary – 241 (0.05%)

Alaska caucuses – failed to achieve threshold

California primary – 8,184 (0.16%)

Massachusetts primary – 1,463 (0.12%)

Utah primary – 166 (0.13%)

Maryland primary – 804 (0.09%)

Wisconsin primary – 517 (0.05%)

Mississippi primary – 591 (0.17%)

North Carolina primary – 12,448 (0.78%)2008 Libertarian National Convention (Presidential tally):First ballot:

Bob Barr – 153

Mary Ruwart – 152

Wayne Allyn Root – 123

Mike Gravel – 71

George Phillies – 49

Steve Kubby – 41

Michael Jingozian – 23

Ron Paul – 6

Christine Smith – 6

Penn Jillette – 3

Daniel Imperato – 1

William Koehler – 1

None of the above – 2Second ballot:

Bob Barr – 188

Mary Ruwart – 162

Wayne Allyn Root – 138

Mike Gravel – 71

George Phillies – 38

Steve Kubby – 32

Ron Paul – 3

Stephen Colbert – 1

Jesse Ventura – 1

None of the above – 1Third ballot:

Bob Barr – 186

Mary Ruwart – 186

Wayne Allyn Root – 146

Mike Gravel – 71

George Phillies – 31

Ron Paul – 1

None of the above – 2Fourth ballot:

Bob Barr – 202

Mary Ruwart – 202

Wayne Allyn Root – 149

Mike Gravel – 76

None of the above – 2

John J. Bracken

John J. Bracken (February 11, 1908 – January 23, 1994) was an American politician who served as the Attorney General of Connecticut from 1955 to 1959.He died on January 23, 1994, in Hartford, Connecticut at age 85.

Jon O. Newman

Jon Ormond Newman (born 1932) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

List of Jewish members of the United States Congress

This is a list of members of the United States Congress who practiced Judaism as a religion. It does not include members who had Jewish ancestry but were not religiously practicing. In the 115th Congress, there were 24 American Jews in the House and eight in the Senate; in the 116th Congress, which commenced on January 3, 2019, there are 28 in the House and nine in the Senate.

Prescott Bush

Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was an American banker and politician. After working as a Wall Street executive investment banker, he represented Connecticut in the United States Senate from 1952 to 1963. A member of the Bush family, he was the father of President George H. W. Bush, who was also the Vice President prior to his presidency, and the paternal grandfather of President George W. Bush and Governor Jeb Bush.

Born in Columbus, Ohio, Bush graduated from Yale College and served as an artillery officer during World War I. After the war, he worked for several companies, becoming a minor partner of the A. Harriman & Co. investment bank in 1931. He served in several high-ranking United States Golf Association offices, including president of that organization. Bush settled in Connecticut in 1925.

Bush won election to the Senate in a 1952 special election, narrowly defeating Democratic nominee Abraham Ribicoff. In the Senate, Bush staunchly supported President Dwight D. Eisenhower and helped enact legislation to create the Interstate Highway System. Bush won re-election in 1956 but declined to seek re-election in 1962, retiring from the Senate the following year.

Ronald Duman

Ronald S. Duman is a Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology Director, Division of Molecular Psychiatry and Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities at Yale University.

Venice Shoreline Crips

Venice Shoreline Crips, or known as VSC, is a Crips-based gang based out of Venice, Los Angeles, California.

Wallace Turner

Wallace Turner (March 15, 1921 – September 18, 2010) was an American journalist and government administrator. A native of Florida, he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1957 while working for The Oregonian in Portland, Oregon. Turner later worked in the Kennedy administration before returning to the newspaper business where he worked for The New York Times.

West Rock, New Haven

West Rock is an official neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut.

It includes part of West Rock Ridge State Park and the campus of Southern Connecticut State University. The north end of the official neighborhood contains the Brookside neighborhood.

Almost the entire neighborhood is made up of public housing projects, many of which have been recently demolished and are being rebuilt under the Federal HOPE VI program. These include Brookside, Abraham Ribicoff and Abraham Ribicoff extension.

Predominated by lower income African American families and is surrounded by state forest, with limited public transportation connecting it to the rest of New Haven.

The community is separated from neighboring Hamden, CT by a chain link fence on the Hamden side of the border, which runs the length of the neighborhood impeding foot traffic between West Rock and the Woodin Street neighborhood of Hamden. The fence has been the subject of much political and racial conflict between the two municipalities.

William R. Cotter (politician)

William Ross (Bill) Cotter (July 18, 1926 – September 8, 1981) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Connecticut.

He was born in Hartford, Connecticut and graduated from Trinity College in 1949.

In 1953, he was elected to the city's court of common council and from 1955–1957 served as an aide to Governor Abraham Ribicoff.

He then served as Connecticut's deputy insurance commissioner from 1957 to 1964 and as insurance commissioner from 1964 through 1970.

He was elected as a Democrat to the Ninety-second and to the five succeeding Congresses and served from January 3, 1971, until his death from pancreatic cancer in East Lyme, Connecticut on September 8, 1981. In 1982, the William R. Cotter Federal Building at Hartford was named in his honor.

William Roth

William Victor Roth Jr. (July 22, 1921 – December 13, 2003) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, Delaware. He was a veteran of World War II and a member of the Republican Party. He served from 1967 to 1970 as the lone U.S. Representative from Delaware and from 1971 to 2001 as a U.S. Senator from Delaware.Roth was a sponsor of legislation creating the Roth IRA, an individual retirement plan that can be set up with a broker.

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