Abitur

Abitur (German: [abiˈtuːɐ̯]) is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia. It is conferred on students who pass their final exams at the end of their secondary education, usually after eleven, twelve or thirteen years of schooling (see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years). In German, the term Abitur has roots in the archaic word Abiturium, which in turn was derived from the Latin abiturus (future active participle of abire, thus "someone who is going to leave").

As a matriculation examination, Abitur can be compared to A-levels, the Matura or the International Baccalaureate Diploma, which are all ranked as level 4 in the European Qualifications Framework.

In Germany

Overview

The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife ("certificate of general qualification for university entrance"), often referred to as Abiturzeugnis ("Abitur certificate"), issued after candidates have passed their final exams and have had appropriate grades in both the last and second last school year, is the document which contains their grades and formally enables them to attend university. Thus, it encompasses the functions of both a school graduation certificate and a college entrance exam.[1]

The official term in Germany for this certificate of education is Allgemeine Hochschulreife; the contraction Abi is common in colloquial usage. In 2005, a total of 231,465 students passed the Abitur exam in Germany. The numbers have risen steadily and in 2012, a total of 305,172 students obtained the Allgemeine Hochschulreife.[2] This number, reflecting those who pass the traditional Abitur at their high school, is, however, lower than the total count. Adding (for 2012) the 51,912 students who obtained the Hochschulreife at vocational training schools, that total number increases to 357,084. If those who obtain the Fachhochschulreife (144,399 in 2012) are also added, then the total of those who obtained the right to study at a university or a Fachhochschule is 501,483 (2012).[3]

History

Until the 18th century, every German university had its own entrance examination. In 1788 Prussia introduced the Abiturreglement, a law, for the first time within Germany, establishing the Abitur as an official qualification. It was later also established in the other German states. In 1834, it became the only university entrance exam in Prussia, and it remained so in all states of Germany until 2004. Since then, the German state of Hesse allows students with Fachhochschulreife (see below) to study at the universities within that state.

Equivalency

The academic level of the Abitur is comparable to the International Baccalaureate, the GCE Advanced Level and the Advanced Placement tests. Indeed, the study requirements for the International Baccalaureate differ little from the German exam requirements. It is the only school-leaving certificate in all states of Germany that allows the graduate (or Abiturient) to move directly to university. The other school leaving certificates, the Hauptschulabschluss and the Realschulabschluss, do not allow their holders to matriculate at a university. Those granted certificates of Hauptschulabschluss or Realschulabschluss can gain a specialized Fachabitur or an Abitur if they graduate from a Berufsschule and then attend Berufsoberschule or graduate from a Fachoberschule.

However, the Abitur is not the only path to university studies, as some universities set up their own entrance examinations. Students who successfully passed a "Begabtenprüfung" ("test of aptitude") are also eligible. Students from other countries who hold a high school leaving certificate that is not counted as being equivalent to the Abitur (such as the American high school diploma) and who do well enough on the ACT or SAT test, may also enter German universities. A person who does not hold the Abitur and did not take an aptitude test may still be admitted to university by completing at least the 10th grade and doing well on an IQ-Test (see: Hochbegabtenstudium).

Other qualifications called Abitur in colloquial usage

In German, the European Baccalaureate is called europäisches Abitur, and the International Baccalaureate is called internationales Abitur, both not to be confused with the German Abitur.

The term Fachabitur was used in all of Western Germany for a variation of the Abitur until the 1990s; the official term for the German qualification is fachgebundene Hochschulreife. This qualification includes only one foreign language (usually, English). The Abitur, in contrast, usually requires two foreign languages. The Fachabitur also allows the graduate to start studying at a university but is limited to a specified range of majors, depending on the specific subjects covered in his Fachabitur examinations. But the graduate is allowed to study for all majors at a Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences, in some ways comparable to polytechnics). Today, the school leaving certificate is called fachgebundenes Abitur ('restricted subject Abitur').

Now the term Fachabitur is used in most parts of Germany for the Fachhochschulreife (FHR). It was introduced in West Germany in the 1970s together with the Fachhochschulen. It enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule and, in Hesse, also at a university within that state. In the Gymnasiums of some states it is awarded in the year before the Abitur is reached. However, the normal way to obtain Fachhochschulreife is graduation from a German Fachoberschule, a vocational high school, also introduced in the 1970s.

The term Notabitur ('emergency Abitur') describes a qualification used only during World War I and World War II. It was granted to male German Gymnasium (prep school) students who voluntarily enlisted for military service before graduation as well as young women who were evacuated from the major cities before they could complete their Gymnasium education as planned (approximately three to five million children and teenagers had to be evacuated during the war). The Notabitur during World War I included an examination, roughly equivalent to the Abitur exam. The World War II Notabitur, in contrast, was granted without an examination. After the war this was a major disadvantage for the students concerned since, unlike its World War I counterpart, the certificate was generally not recognised in West Germany and never recognised in East Germany. Universities requested the Abitur to consist of written exams including at least two foreign languages (almost always Latin and French, the latter sometimes replaced by English). Students, who received the Notabitur during World War II were offered to re-enter school to prepare for and take the exam after the war had ended. Those special Abitur preparation classes were made up of young adults of different age and sex, which was very unusual at the time.

Abipedia
This German graduate (Abiturient) wrote on his car: "Class of 2008: Not knowing anything, but knowing where it is written. Abipedia" (a portmanteau word compiled from Abitur and Wikipedia)

Equivalent high school graduation certificate in other countries

The equivalent graduation certificate in the Czech Republic, Austria, Poland and other countries of continental Europe is the Matura; while in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the West Indies, it is A-levels; in Scotland it is Higher Grade; in the Republic of Ireland it is the Leaving Certificate; in Greece and Cyprus it is the "apolytirion" (a kind of high school diploma); in Malta it is the Matriculation Certificate (MATSEC), in Hungary it is called "érettségi bizonyítvány" roughly equivalent with the German phrase Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife as it is originating from the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy.

In Australia, the graduation certificate awarded to high school students is the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (SSCE). However, the name of the SSCE varies from state to state. In Victoria, it is called the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE).

In India various states call it differently. Each Indian state has its own examination board, some individual states having their own entrance test system. Passing the specified examination qualifies the student to enter into undergraduate program in a university. For example, in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana this is known as Board of Intermediate Examination (BIE).

For professional, specialist programs and well reputed institutions there are entrance tests. For engineering there is a Joint Engineering Entrance Joint Entrance Examination conducted at all India level. For medical undergraduate MBBS programs there is a national eligibility and entrance test known as NEET-UG National Eligibility and Entrance Test conducted at all of India. There is also an all India level examination conducted by Central Board of Secondary education CBSE the certification is known as Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC).

Exams

During the final examinations (Abiturprüfungen), students are tested in four or five subjects (at least one of which is oral). Procedures vary by state.

Course Type of examination
1st advanced course Written
2nd advanced course Written
Basic course or 3rd advanced course Written
Basic course Oral
Basic course Oral, presentation or BLL (literally "exceptional learning achievement", a 20-page paper or success in a recognized competition)

Although some tested subjects are chosen by the student, three areas must be covered:

Occasionally, schools (especially berufsorientierte Gymnasien) offer vocational subjects such as pedagogy, business informatics, biotechnology and mechanical engineering.

Final exams are usually taken from March to May or June. Each written basic-level examination takes about three hours; advanced-level examinations take four-and-a-half hours, and written exams are in essay format. Oral examinations last about 20 min. Papers are graded by at least two teachers at the school. In some parts of Germany students may prepare a presentation, research paper or participate in a competition, and may take additional oral exams to pass the Abitur if the written exam is poor.

Before reunification, Abitur exams were given locally in West Germany, but Bavaria conducted centralized exams (Zentralabitur) since 1854. After reunification, most states of the former East Germany continued centralized exams, and at the beginning of the 21st century, many states adopted centralized exams. In 2013, all other states except Rheinland-Pfalz also introduced centralized written exams at least in the core subjects (German, mathematics and the first foreign language, usually English). The exams are structured as follows:

The Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) of several states expanded the exams to scientific subjects and the social sciences. The physics and chemistry exams include an experiment that must be performed and analyzed.

Scoring

Each semester of a subject studied in the final two years yields up to 15 points for a student, where advanced courses count double. The final examinations each count quadruple.

The exact scoring system depends on the Bundesland, in which one takes Abitur. Passing the Abitur usually requires a composite score of at least 50%. Students with a score below that minimum fail and do not receive an Abitur. There are some other conditions that the student also has to meet in order to receive the Abitur: taking mandatory courses in selected subject areas, and limits to the number of failing grades in core subjects. Finally, students often have the option of omitting some courses from their composite score if they have taken more courses than the minimum required.

The best possible grade of 1.0 can be achieved if the score ranges between 823 and 900 points; the fraction of students achieving this score is normally only around 0.2-3%[4] even among the already selective population of Abitur candidates. Around 12%-30% of Abitur candidates achieve grades between 1.0 and 1.9.[5]

German Gymnasium Grade System
Grades by education Descriptor Conversion
grading Abitur grade (approximately to US system[i]) (approximately to UK system[i])[6]
15 points 1.0 "sehr gut" (very good: an outstanding achievement) A[7] A*
14 points
13 points 1.3 A
12 points 1.7 "gut" (good: an achievement substantially above average requirements)
11 points 2.0 A- B
10 points 2.3
9 points 2.7 "befriedigend" (satisfactory: an achievement which corresponds to average requirements) B+ C
8 points 3.0 B
7 points 3.3 B-
6 points 3.7 "ausreichend" (sufficient: an achievement which barely meets the requirements) C D
5 points 4.0 D E
4 points N/A "mangelhaft" / "ungenügend" / "nicht bestanden" (not sufficient / failed: an achievement that does not meet the requirements) F U (Ungraded)
3 points
2 points
1 point
0 points
  1. ^ a b This conversion serves as an orientation, conversions might differ.

Statistics

Historically, very few people received their Abitur in Germany because many attractive jobs did not require one. The number of persons holding the Abitur has steadily increased since the 1970s, and younger jobholders are more likely to hold the Abitur than older ones. The percentage of students qualified for tertiary education is still lower than the OECD average.

Percentage of students graduating with Abitur or FHR (Studienberechtigtenquote):

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Percentage 37.2% 36.1% 38.2% 39.2% 41.5% 42.5% 43.4% 44.5% 45.1% 46.5% 49.0%

Percentage of jobholders holding Hauptschulabschluss, Realschulabschluss or Abitur in Germany:[8]

1970 1982 1991 2000
Hauptschulabschluss 87.7% 79.3% 66.5% 54.9%
Realschulabschluss 10.9% 17.7% 27% 34.1%
Abitur 1.4% 3% 6.5% 11%

The International Abitur

The International Abitur is offered at schools outside Germany that are accredited by the German Government. The five Abitur exams (three written exams and two oral exams) are in the following subjects: German Literature, European History or Economics or Math or a Natural Science or a language. In February of senior year (grade 12), all students take the written examinations for the German International Abitur in three subjects including German. In late spring, students have mandatory oral examinations in two subjects, which are overseen by a German educational official. The final GPA includes grades from both junior and senior years, as well as for the five Abitur exams. The final diploma that students receive after successful completion of these exams allows them to qualify for admission to Universities in Germany.

See also

References

  1. ^ For some subjects, additional entrance exams may be required, for example in sports, music and fine arts.
  2. ^ "Fachserie 11, Reihe 1" (PDF) (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt. 5 Nov 2013. p. 282. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  3. ^ "Schnellmeldungsergebnisse zu Studienberechtigten der allgemeinbildenden und beruflichen Schulen" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt. 27 Feb 2014. p. 3. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  4. ^ German: Abiturnoten-Ländervergleich 2005 - Abiturnote "sehr gut" in den Bundesländern 2005 Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft, 15 August 2007
  5. ^ German: Abiturnoten-Ländervergleich 2005 - Verteilung der Abiturnoten in den Bundesländern 2005 Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft, 15 August 2007
  6. ^ "A-level results 2016: Trends and stats from the national data | Schools Week". Schools Week. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
  7. ^ See Education in the United States.
  8. ^ Frietsch, Rainer (November 2003). ""Intensivierung" von Bildungsabschlüssen zwischen 1970 - 2000" (PDF). Studien zum deutschen Innovationssystem (5–2004). ISSN 1613-4338. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
Abitur after twelve years

Abitur after twelve years, or Gymnasium in eight years (often abbreviated as G8 or Gy8) describes the reduction from the duration in the Gymnasium from nine to eight school years in many of the States of Germany. In the States Berlin, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern the reduction took place from seven to six years because, there, primary education goes until grade 6. The principal argument for the reduction are the comparatively long times for vocational education in Germany.

In Saxony and Thuringia it is, however, already a long established norm to take the Abitur after twelve years.Some German federal states have already reversed the reform even though sound academic insights on reform effects are scarce.

Berlin Cosmopolitan School

Berlin Cosmopolitan School (BCS) is a non-profit international school located in Berlin, Germany. The school offers preschool, kindergarten, primary and secondary schooling. BCS is an authorised International Baccalaureate World School and follows the Primary Years Programme (PYP) and the Diploma Programme (DP). The primary language of instruction is English with some classes taught in German. In order to graduate students can choose to take part in the IB Diploma Programme, the bilingual Abitur or both.

Colegio Goethe

Colegio Goethe (German: Deutsche Schule Asunción, Goethe-Schule) is a German international school in Asunción, Paraguay. The school serves pre-primary education through bachillerato/Abitur-level (senior high school) education.

Deutsche Schule Sankt Petersburg

Deutsche Schule Sankt Petersburg (DSP) is a German international school in St. Petersburg, Russia. As of 2010 it serves levels Vorschule (preschool) through grade 10, with plans to expand to grade 12 and the Abitur. The German government and the Central Agency for German Schools Abroad support the school, which was founded in September 2009.

Education in Germany

The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role. Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Most children, however, first attend Grundschule from the age of six to eleven.

German education is very important to the German government. There are many reasons for this, but one main reason behind this is due to the fact that Germany has the world's second oldest population. Many Germans are at the retired age and are not about of the labor market. Even if by 2060, if the population decreases the way that the Federal Statistical Office of Germany believes, the best outcome would still still result in a "decreased working-age population". Because of this the German government has found great importance from the "internationalization of education". Internationalization can help promote immigration to Germany and it can help Germany's labor shortage. Like many other countries, Germany does struggle with low death rates but also low birth rate. Many individuals are living for quite a while and even though that is fortunate for them, it harms the economy. The German population is getting older and simply cannot be supported by its youth. Immigration is seen as a solution to solve this. Internalization not only helps the labor market but also creates schools with a great global connection.

Germany's secondary education is separated into two parts, lower and upper. Lower-secondary education in Germany is meant to teach individuals basic general education and gets them ready to enter upper-secondary education. In the upper secondary level Germany has a vast variety of vocational programs. The format of secondary vocational education is put into a way to get individuals to learn high skills for a specific profession. "Most of Germany highly skilled workforce has gone through the dual system of vocational education and training also known as V.E.T.". Many Germans participate in the V.E.T. programs. These V.E.T. programs are partnered with about 430,000 companies, and about 80 percent of those companies hire individuals from those apprenticeship programs to get a full time job. This educational system is very encouraging to young individuals because they are able to actively see the fruit of their loom. The education system is encouraging to individuals because they know that most likely a job will be waiting for them when they are done with school. The skills that are gained through these V.E.T. programs are not easily transferable and once a company commits to an employ that came out of these vocational schools, they have a commitment to each other . Germany's V.E.T. programs prove that a college degree is not necessary for a good job and that training individuals for specific jobs could be successful as well German secondary education includes five types of school. The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 12 or 13. The Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediate pupils and finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife, after grade 10; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education and finishes with the final examination Hauptschulabschluss, after grade 9 and the Realschulabschluss after grade 10. There are two types of grade 10: one is the higher level called type 10b and the lower level is called type 10a; only the higher-level type 10b can lead to the Realschule and this finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife after grade 10b. This new path of achieving the Realschulabschluss at a vocationally oriented secondary school was changed by the statutory school regulations in 1981 – with a one-year qualifying period. During the one-year qualifying period of the change to the new regulations, pupils could continue with class 10 to fulfil the statutory period of education. After 1982, the new path was compulsory, as explained above.

Other than this, there is the Gesamtschule, which combines the Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium. There are also Förder- or Sonderschulen. One in 21 pupils attends a Förderschule. Nevertheless, the Förder- or Sonderschulen can also lead, in special circumstances, to a Hauptschulabschluss of both type 10a or type 10b, the latter of which is the Realschulabschluss.

The amount of extracurricular activity is determined individually by each school and varies greatly.

Many of Germany's hundred or so institutions of higher learning charge little or no tuition by international comparison. Students usually must prove through examinations that they are qualified.

In order to enter university, students are, as a rule, required to have passed the Abitur examination; since 2009, however, those with a Meisterbrief (master craftsman's diploma) have also been able to apply. Those wishing to attend a "university of applied sciences" must, as a rule, have Abitur, Fachhochschulreife, or a Meisterbrief. If lacking those qualifications, pupils are eligible to enter a university or university of applied sciences if they can present additional proof that they will be able to keep up with their fellow students through a Begabtenprüfung or Hochbegabtenstudium (which is a test confirming excellence and above average intellectual ability).

A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils on vocational courses to do in-service training in a company as well as at a state school.

European Baccalaureate

The European Baccalaureate (or EB) is a bilingual educational diploma, which certifies the completion of secondary studies in a European School or Accredited European School by the Board of Governors of the intergovernmental organisation, "The European Schools".

The diploma is awarded for the successful achievement of coursework and concomitant examinations which require that students take a minimum of 10 courses as well as be fully proficient in two languages. Students may take up to 14 courses. It is officially recognised as an entry qualification for Higher Education in all the member states of the European Union (EU), as well as in a number of others. All participating countries are legally obligated to ensure EB diploma holders enjoy the same rights and benefits as other holders of secondary school-leaving certificates in their jurisdictions.

The name ‘European Baccalaureate’ belongs solely to the European Schools, which, since their establishment, have had a monopoly over its use in all the official languages of the EU. (This diploma should not be confused with other types of educational qualifications which also bear the name Baccalaureate like the International Baccalaureate. In German, the European Baccalaureate is called the Europäisches Abitur, not to be confused with the German Abitur.)

Extended Secondary School (East Germany)

The extended secondary school, officially twelve-class general educational polytechnic secondary school, abbreviation EOS, was the standard institution of higher education in the education system of East Germany. It finished with the final examination called Reifeprüfung /Abitur (A-Level) at the end of the 12th grade, granting the Reifezeugnis, the certificate of eligibility for university entrance. The school structure was a four-class comprehensive school without any internal or external differentiation. The EOS was established in 1959 to replace the hitherto existing Oberschule as laid down by the Act on Socialistic Development of the School System in the German Democratic Republic effective December 2, 1959. The designation Gymnasium was not common in East Germany.

German International School Dubai

German International School Dubai (German: Deutsche Internationale Schule Dubai, DISD) is a German international school in Academic City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It serves kindergarten and grades 1-12.It was established in 2008. As of February 2015 the school has over 500 students in school grades and over 100 in kindergarten. The German International School Dubai moved to its new campus in Academic City in the 2015-2016 school year.The school proctors the Abitur exam.

German International School New York

The German International School New York (also known as Deutsche Internationale Schule New York, or 'GISNY' for short) is a private, bilingual (German/English) college preparatory school that enrolls over 400 students in grades Pre-K through 12. The School is located in White Plains, New York, approximately 25 miles north of New York City, and is divided into three schools on the same campus: the Lower School, the Middle School and the Upper School.

Many GISNY students are citizens of German-speaking countries. Increasingly, however, the school enrolls a diverse community that includes families from all over the world. Today, more than a third of GISNY students are US citizens or reside in the US permanently.

GISNY is accredited by the New York State Association of Independent Schools (NYSAIS), the Permanent Conference of the Departments of Education of the Federal Republic of Germany(German: Ständige Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), and is a New York non-public Elementary and Secondary School. GISNY is a partner school of the German initiative "Schulen: Partner der Zukunft" and was awarded the title of "excellent foreign school" by the German Bundesverwaltungsamt (BVA) in August 2009 and again in November 2014.

German International School of Silicon Valley

The German International School of Silicon Valley (GISSV) is a school educating children from preschool to grade 12 using bilingual full immersion at sites in Mountain View and San Francisco in California. Students graduate the school with both the German International Abitur and the California High School Diploma. The school is accredited with the Western Association of Schools (WASC) as well as the California Association of Independent Schools (CAIS) and by the German government (ZfA) as official German School Abroad (DAS = Deutsche Auslandsschule).

German School Kuala Lumpur

The German School Kuala Lumpur (German: Deutsche Schule Kuala Lumpur, DSKL; Malay: Sekolah Jerman Kuala Lumpur) is an International School in Malaysia that is located on Lorong Utara B in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, near the Tun Hussein Onn Eye Hospital. The syllabus at this school is based on the German Education Curriculum.

The German School of Kuala Lumpur (DSKL) is a non-profit private institution run by the Society Persatuan Sekolah Jerman Malaysia (Deutscher Schulverein Malaysia). It provides education for students from Kindergarten including Preschool (1 year) to Primary School (4 years) and thereafter Secondary School (8 years) which leads to the German University Entrance Qualification "DIAP" (Deutsches Internationales Abitur).

Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study.

Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern, and south Europe.

The word "γυμνάσιον" (gymnasion) was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages (including Greek, German, Russian, Spanish, Scandinavian, Dutch and Polish), whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym.

Hauptschule

A Hauptschule (German: [ˈhaʊptʃuːlə], "general school") is a secondary school in Germany, starting after four years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Any student who attends a German elementary school can go to a Hauptschule or Gesamtschule, while students who want to attend a Realschule or Gymnasium need to have good marks in order to do so. The students spend five to six years at the Hauptschule, from 5th to 9th (or 10th) grade. They finish around age 15 to 17.

Joseph ibn Abitur

Joseph ibn Abitur was a Spanish rabbi of around the 10th century. He was a student of Moses ben Hanoch.

Abitur was from a very prestigious Spanish family from the city of Mérida. His great great grandfather was a communal and Rabbinic leader. Besides being a great Torah scholar, Abitur was also a paytan of note. He also wrote a commentary on the Bible in Hebrew. When Moses ben Hanoch's son Hanoch was chosen to succeed his father, Abitur felt compelled to leave Spain and travel to the Yeshivas in Babel. On his way he stopped in Egypt before arriving in Baghdad. He eventually went to Damascus, where he died. He wrote many Teshuvas, some of which are extant.

According to Sefer ha-Qabbalah, during his stay in Egypt, Ibn Abitur produced an Arabic translation of the Talmud for the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Llah.

Matriculation examination

A matriculation examination or matriculation exam is a final examination held at secondary schools. After passing the examination, the students receive a school leaving certificate, which allows them to matriculate at university and take up their studies.

The following matriculation examinations are conducted:

A-levels – in England.

Abitur – in Germany and Lithuania.

Baccalauréat – in France.

Te'udat Bagrut – in Israel.

Tawjihi - in Jordan and the Palestinian territories.

Eindexamen – in the Netherlands.

Exit examination – in the United States.

International Baccalaureate Diploma – International.

Küpsuseksamid — in Estonia.

Leaving Certificate – in Ireland.

Matric – in South Africa and formerly in Australia.

Matura – in Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

Student degree – in the Nordic countries.

Studentereksamen, Danish student degree.

Studentexamen, Swedish student degree.

Generell Studiekompetanse, Norwegian student degree.

Stúdentspróf, Icelandic student degree.

Studentsprógv, Faroese student degree.

Ylioppilastutkinto, Finnish student degree.

Selectividad – in Spain.

Unified State Exam – in Russia.

Mittlere Reife

The Mittlere Reife (German: [ˈmɪtləʁə ˈʁaɪfə], "Middle Maturity") is a school leaving certificate in Germany that is usually awarded after ten years of schooling. It is roughly comparable with the British GCSE.The official name varies between the federal states, such as Realschulabschluss, Wirtschaftsschulabschluss, Qualifizierter Sekundarabschluss I, Sekundarabschluss I – Realschulabschluss and Mittlerer Schulabschluss. The Mittlere Reife can be awarded to students who attend a number of different schools, including the Hauptschule, the Realschule, the Werkrealschule, the Berufsfachschule, the Wirtschaftschule, and the Gesamtschule.

Students awarded the Mittlere Reife in most cases will not be allowed to progress directly into a German university, but must attend another school that awards the Abitur such as the Aufbaugymnasium or the Abendgymnasium or an equivalent type of school. Once students earn an Abitur, they may go on to university.

Non-German graduation certificates that compare to the Mittlere Reife such as the American high school diploma generally do not qualify the bearer for attending a German university. However those holding a high school diploma will be able to study at a German university nevertheless if they did well on the SAT or ACT.

SIS Swiss International School

The SIS Swiss International Schools are a group of 16 private day schools in Switzerland, Germany and Brazil offering continuous education from kindergarten through to college. As of 2018, more than 3,600 students are enrolled with the SIS.SIS has been operating schools in Switzerland since 1999, in Germany since 2008, and in Brazil since 2011. It is a joint venture of Kalaidos Education Group (Switzerland) and Klett Group (Germany).

Schule Schloss Salem

Schule Schloss Salem (Anglicisation: School of Salem Castle, Salem Castle School) is a boarding school with campuses in Salem and Überlingen in Baden-Württemberg, Southern Germany. It is considered one of the most elite schools in Europe.

It offers the German Abitur, as well as the International Baccalaureate (IB). With a scholarship program and its "Dienste" (Services) such as the Firebrigade, the "Technisches Hilfswerk" short: THW (Technical Support Organisation), the First Aid or the Nautical Service. The Schule Schloss Salem, also commonly referred to as Salem College, hence offers an education for its students at the academic as well as social levels.

The school was established by the educator Kurt Hahn with support of Prince Maximilian of Baden in 1920 and from the beginning accepted girls and boys. Under the Nazi regime Hahn (who was Jewish) was forced to emigrate to Scotland where he founded the British Salem School of Gordonstoun as well as later Outward Bound and the United World Colleges.

Tobias Hauke

Tobias Constantin Hauke (born 11 September 1987) is a German field hockey player. He was a member of the national team that won gold medals at the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Olympics.

In 2007, he completed his abitur at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums-As of 2008 Hauke played for Hamburg's Harvestehuder Tennis und Hockey Club (HTHC).

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