Abies procera

Abies procera, the noble fir,[3] also called red fir[3] and Christmastree,[3] is a western North American fir, native to the Cascade Range and Coast Range mountains of extreme northwest California and western Oregon and Washington in the United States. It is a high-altitude tree, typically occurring at 300–1,500 m (980–4,920 ft) altitude, only rarely reaching the tree line.

Abies procera
Abies procera1
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
A. procera
Binomial name
Abies procera
Abies procera range map 4
Natural range of Abies procera
  • Abies nobilis (Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl. nom. illeg.
  • Picea nobilis (Douglas ex D.Don) Loudon
  • Pseudotsuga nobilis (Douglas ex D.Don) W.R.McNab


A. procera is a large evergreen tree up to 70 m (130–230 ft) tall and 2 m (6.5 ft) in trunk diameter, rarely to 90 m (295 ft) tall and 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in diameter,[4] with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth and gray with resin blisters, becoming red-brown, rough and fissured on old trees. The leaves are needle-like, 1–3.5 cm long, glaucous blue-green above and below with strong stomal bands, and a blunt to notched tip. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but twisted slightly S-shaped to be upcurved above the shoot. The cones are erect, 11–22 cm (4.3–8.7 in) long, with the purple scales almost completely hidden by the long exserted yellow-green bract scales; ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in fall.

The specific epithet procera means "tall".[5]

A. procera is very closely related to red fir (A. magnifica), which replaces it farther southeast in southernmost Oregon and California, being best distinguished by the leaves having a groove along the midrib on the upper side; red fir does not show this. Red fir also tends to have the leaves less closely packed, with the shoot bark visible between the leaves, whereas the shoot is largely hidden in noble fir. Red fir cones also mostly have shorter bracts, except in A. magnifica var. shastensis; this variety is considered by some botanists to be a hybrid between noble fir and red fir.

Abies procera cone


Weibliche Zapfen der Edeltanne (Abies procera)02


Abies procera



Noble fir is a popular Christmas tree.

The wood is used for general structural purposes and paper manufacture.


  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Abies procera". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42296A2970458. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42296A2970458.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of all Plant Species".
  3. ^ a b c "Abies procera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Gymnosperm Database - Abies procera". Retrieved 2013-09-06.
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.

Further reading

External links

Abies magnifica

Abies magnifica, the red fir or silvertip fir, is a western North American fir, native to the mountains of southwest Oregon and California in the United States. It is a high elevation tree, typically occurring at 1,400–2,700 metres (4,600–8,900 ft) elevation, though only rarely reaching tree line. The name red fir derives from the bark color of old trees.

Arboretum d'Amance

The Arboretum d'Amance (9 hectares) is an arboretum located in Champenoux, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine, France. It is managed by the Centre INRA de Nancy, a branch of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), and open on the third Saturday of the warmer months; an admission fee is charged.

The arboretum was created in 1900 with two objectives: as a research facility for students at the forestry school, and to study acclimatization of exotic species in the Lorraine. It was known by a series of names - Arboretum de la Voivre, Arboretum du Fays, and Arboretum de L'École Nationale des Eaux et des Forêts - before receiving its current name in 1964 when it became attached to the INRA forestry school.

From 1900–1901 about 1200 plants were installed in 74 plots, organized geographically, which represented 230 species (98 conifers, 132 deciduous). The arboretum received substantial damage during World War I but was restored 1923–1925, only to receive further damage during World War II as the Germans camped on its boundary and stored ammunition within the arboretum itself, which was in consequence shelled by American forces. The arboretum was again restored from 1960–1967, and enlarged by a further 3 hectares. It received moderate damage in a heavy storm of December 1999 but has subsequently been restored.

Today the arboretum contains more than 405 varieties of trees representing 88 species; despite the arboretum's difficult history, many mature specimens remain from the arboretum's earliest planting. It is organized into four major sections:

Occidental Eurasia and North Africa - Abies alba, Abies bornmuelleriana, Abies nordmanniana, Alnus cordata, Alnus subcordata, Betula pendula, Cedrus atlantica, Larix decidua, Parrotia persica, Picea orientalis, Picea omorica, Pinus nigra, Prunus avium, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Quercus frainetto, Sorbus domestica, etc.

Oriental Eurasia (Siberia, Korea, China, Japan) - Abies koreana, Acer japonicum, Betula maximowicziana, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Cryptomeria japonica, Ginkgo biloba, Larix kaempferi, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Pinus griffithii, Sciadopitys verticillata, Thujopsis dolobrata, etc.

North America, Atlantic region - Acer saccharum, Betula lenta, Carya ovata, Cornus, Hamamelis, Juglans cinerea, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus strobus, Quercus palustris, Quercus phellos, Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Taxodium distichum, etc.

North America, Pacific region - Abies grandis, Abies procera, Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pinus ponderosa, Populus trichocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Thuja plicata, etc.


Bridgeoporus is a fungal genus in the family Polyporaceae. A monotypic genus, it contains the single polypore species Bridgeoporus nobilissimus, first described to science in 1949. Commonly known both as the noble polypore and the fuzzy Sandozi, this fungus produces large fruit bodies (or conks) that have been found to weigh up to 130 kilograms (290 lb). The upper surface of the fruit body has a fuzzy or fibrous texture that often supports the growth of algae, bryophytes, or vascular plants.

This species is found in the Pacific Northwest region of North America where it grows on large (at least 1 m diameter) specimens of noble fir (Abies procera), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), or western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Bridgeoporus nobilissimus causes a brown rot in its tree hosts. Genetic analysis shows that the fungus is more prevalent than fruit body distribution indicates.

Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as a spruce, pine or fir, or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas, originating in Northern Europe. The custom was developed in medieval Livonia (present-day Estonia and Latvia), and in early modern Germany where Protestant Germans brought decorated trees into their homes. It acquired popularity beyond the Lutheran areas of Germany and the Baltic countries during the second half of the 19th century, at first among the upper classes.The tree was traditionally decorated with "roses made of colored paper, apples, wafers, tinsel, [and] sweetmeats". In the 18th century, it began to be illuminated by candles, which were ultimately replaced by Christmas lights after the advent of electrification. Today, there is a wide variety of traditional ornaments, such as garlands, baubles, tinsel, and candy canes. An angel or star might be placed at the top of the tree to represent the Angel Gabriel or the Star of Bethlehem, respectively, from the Nativity. Edible items such as gingerbread, chocolate and other sweets are also popular and are tied to or hung from the tree's branches with ribbons.

In the Western Christian tradition, Christmas trees are variously erected on days such as the first day of Advent or even as late as Christmas Eve depending on the country; customs of the same faith hold that the two traditional days when Christmas decorations, such as the Christmas tree, are removed are Twelfth Night and, if they are not taken down on that day, Candlemas, the latter of which ends the Christmas-Epiphany season in some denominations.The Christmas tree is sometimes compared with the "Yule-tree", especially in discussions of its folkloric origins.

Cloaked pug

The cloaked pug (Eupithecia abietaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. The species can be found in Europe, east to Siberia.

The wingspan is 21–23 mm. The moths flies from June to July depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Picea abies, Picea sitchensis and Abies procera.


Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus Cedrus (cedar). Douglas firs are not true firs, being of the genus Pseudotsuga.

They are large trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m (33–262 ft) tall with trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m (1 ft 8 in–13 ft 1 in) when mature. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the way in which their needle-like leaves are attached singly to the branches with a base resembling a suction cup, and by their cones, which, like those of true cedars (Cedrus), stand upright on the branches like candles and disintegrate at maturity.

Identification of the different species is based on the size and arrangement of the leaves, the size and shape of the cones, and whether the bract scales of the cones are long and exserted, or short and hidden inside the cone.

Forestry in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom, being in the British Isles, is ideal for tree growth, thanks to its mild winters, plentiful rainfall, fertile soil and hill-sheltered topography. Growth rates for broadleaved (hardwood) trees exceed those of mainland Europe, while conifer (softwood) growth rates are three times those of Sweden and five times those of Finland. In the absence of people, much of Great Britain would be covered with mature oaks, except for Scotland. Although conditions for forestry are good, trees do face damage threats arising from fungi, parasites and pests.Nowadays, about 12.9% of Britain's land surface is wooded. The country's supply of timber was severely depleted during the First and Second World Wars, when imports were difficult, and the forested area bottomed out at under 5% of Britain's land surface in 1919. That year, the Forestry Commission was established to produce a strategic reserve of timber. Other European countries average from 25% to 37% of their area as woodland.Of the 31,380 square kilometres (12,120 sq mi) of forest in Britain, around 30% is publicly owned and 70% is in the private sector. More than 40,000 people work on this land. Broadleaves account for 29% of Britain's woodlands, the rest being conifers, but considering only England, the figures are 55% broadleaf and 45% conifer. Britain's native tree flora comprises 32 species, of which 29 are broadleaves. Britain's industry and populace uses at least 50 million tonnes of timber a year. More than 75% of this is softwood, and Britain's forests cannot supply the demand; in fact, less than 10% of the timber used in Britain is home-grown. Paper and paper products make up more than half the wood consumed in Britain by volume.In October 2010, the new coalition government of the UK suggested it might sell off around half the Forestry Commission-owned woodland in the UK. A wide variety of groups were vocal about their disapproval, and by February 2011, the government abandoned the idea. Instead, it set up the Independent Panel on Forestry led by Rt Rev James Jones, then the Bishop of Liverpool. This body published its report in July 2012. Among other suggestions, it recommended that the forested portion of England should rise to 15% of the country's land area by 2060.

Form (botany)

In botanical nomenclature, a form (forma, plural formae) is one of the "secondary" taxonomic ranks, below that of variety, which in turn is below that of species; it is an infraspecific taxon. If more than three ranks are listed in describing a taxon, the "classification" is being specified, but only three parts make up the "name" of the taxon: a genus name, a specific epithet, and an infraspecific epithet.

The abbreviation "f." or the full "forma" should be put before the infraspecific epithet to indicate the rank. It is not italicised.

For example:

Acanthocalycium spiniflorum f. klimpelianum or

Acanthocalycium spiniflorum forma klimpelianum (Weidlich & Werderm.) Donald

Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. & A.Gray var. cerasoides Sarg. f. luculenta Sarg. is a classification of a plant whose name is:

Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. & A.Gray f. luculenta Sarg.A form usually designates a group with a noticeable morphological deviation. The usual taxonomic practice is that the individuals classified within the form are not necessarily known to be closely related (they may not form a clade). For instance, white-flowered plants of species that usually have coloured flowers can be grouped and named (e.g., as "f. alba"). Formae apomicticae are sometimes named among plants that reproduce asexually, by apomixis. There are theoretically countless numbers of forms based on minor genetic differences, and only a few that have particular significance are likely to be named.

Hélène Durand

Hélène Durand (9 August 1883 Watermael-Boitsfort - 4 August 1934 Ukkel) was a Belgian botanical illustrator.

She was the daughter of Theophile Durand, a Director of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium between 1901 and 1912, and Sofie Van Eelde. Her training included courses in both art and botany, and for a while she worked at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. In 1912 she was employed on a full-time basis at the Garden, which is located in the grounds of Bouchout Castle in the town of Meise, just north of Brussels. From here she produced illustrations showing great scientific accuracy - these included line drawings and illustrations for the wood museum.

Her unpublished images on the gymnosperms are particularly attractive, and effectively capture the subtle colours and textures of their cones. The time devoted to her drawing of a cone of Abies procera amounted to more than 105 hours. Several of her illustrations have been published in scientific journals.

Hélène Durand shared an apartment with her sister Louise. She suffered from a lung condition which did not respond to the treatments tried. A stay at Keerbergen in the countryside led only to temporary relief, and she died in the night of 4 August 1934.The standard author abbreviation H.Durand is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. She worked on Sylloge Florae Congolanae with her father.

List of flora of Washington (state)

This is a list of species that are native to the U.S. state of Washington. Note that this is an incomplete list and a much better list (with multiple photographs as well) can be found on the University of Washington's WTU Image Collection: Plants of Washington State http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php If you would like to help make this Wiki page better that is a fantastic reference to start with.

List of the vascular plants of Britain and Ireland 2

This page covers the conifers (class Pinopsida). For the background to this list see parent article List of the vascular plants of Britain and Ireland.All are part of the order Pinales.

Status key: * indicates an introduced species and e indicates an extinct species.

List of tree species by shade tolerance

A list of tree species, grouped generally by biogeographic realm and specifically by bioregions, and shade tolerance. Shade-tolerant species are species that are able to thrive in the shade, and in the presence of natural competition by other plants. Shade-intolerant species require full sunlight and little or no competition. Intermediate shade-tolerant trees fall somewhere in between the two.

List of trees of Canada

This list compiles many of the common large shrubs and trees found in Canada. The Canadian flora is depauperate because of the near total glaciation event in the Pleistocene. Due to the vast area of Canada, a tree that is common in one area may be completely absent in another. In particular, many warm-temperate trees can only be grown on the mild Pacific coast (where gardens may contain additional species not listed here).

See also Provincial tree emblems of Canada for the official trees of the Provinces and Territories of Canada.

List of woods

This is a list of woods, in particular those most commonly used in the timber and lumber trade.

Pauesia grossa

Pauesia grossa is a species of parasitoid wasp in the subfamily Aphidiinae. It is specific to a particular host, the black stem aphid (Cinara confinis), which feeds on the sap of coniferous trees, particularly firs (Abies).

Pauesia grossa was first described by the Austrian entomologist Josef Fahringer in 1937. It is known from Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Switzerland and France. In 2014 it was first observed in the United Kingdom, being tentatively identified at the Bedgebury National Pinetum in Kent. With the increasing acreage of noble fir (Abies procera) being grown in Britain for use as Christmas trees, Cinara confinis is likely to become a more widespread pest, and the introduction of Pauesia grossa may prove important in controlling the aphid.

Peavy Arboretum

Peavy Arboretum (40 acres) is an arboretum operated by Oregon State University and located on Arboretum Road, Corvallis, Oregon. It is open to the public daily without charge.

The arboretum was dedicated by the university in 1926, operated as a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp from 1933–1942, and reverted to College of Forestry management in 1964. While the CCC was active, they planted trees, expanded the nursery, constructed Cronemiller Lake, and built roads, trails, and firebreaks.

Phytophthora cambivora

Phytophthora cambivora is a plant pathogen that causes ink disease in European chestnut trees (Castanea sativa). Ink disease, also caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is thought to have been present in Europe since the 18th century, and causes chestnut trees to wilt and die; major epidemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries. P. cinnamomi and P. cambivora are now present throughout Europe since the 1990s. Ink disease has resurged, often causing high mortality of trees, particularly in Portugal, Italy, and France. It has also been isolated from a number of different species since the 1990s, including:

Golden chinquapin trees, (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) in Oregon, United States

Rhododendron and Pieris species in North Carolina

Noble fir trees (Abies procera) in Norway

Beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) in Italy and Germany.Some species of mycorrhiza (including Amanita muscaria, Suillellus luridus, and Hebeloma radicosum) may provide protection from P. cambivora in European chestnuts.


Pseudotsuga is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Common names include Douglas fir, Douglas-fir, Douglas tree, and Oregon pine. Pseudotsuga menziesii is widespread in western North America and is an important source of timber. The number of species has long been debated, but two in western North America and two to four in eastern Asia are commonly acknowledged. Nineteenth-century botanists had problems in classifying Douglas-firs, due to the species' similarity to various other conifers better known at the time; they have at times been classified in Pinus, Picea, Abies, Tsuga, and even Sequoia. Because of their distinctive cones, Douglas-firs were finally placed in the new genus Pseudotsuga (meaning "false hemlock") by the French botanist Carrière in 1867. The genus name has also been hyphenated as Pseudo-tsuga.

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