Abies amabilis

Abies amabilis, commonly known as the Pacific silver fir, is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from the extreme southeast of Alaska, through western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, to the extreme northwest of California. It is also commonly referred to as the white fir, red fir, lovely fir, Amabilis fir, Cascades fir, or silver fir.[2] It grows at altitudes of sea level to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) in the north of the range, and 1,000–2,300 m (3,300–7,500 ft) in the south of the range, always in temperate rain forest with relatively high precipitation and cool, humid summers. Common associate trees are Douglas fir and in the extreme southern area of its range, California buckeye.[3]

Pacific silver fir
Pacific silver fir foliage from above
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
A. amabilis
Binomial name
Abies amabilis
Abies amabilis range map 4


PacificSilverFir 7645
Pacific silver fir bark
Close-up of shoot from below, showing shoot pubescence and white stomatal bands

It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 30–45 m (98–148 ft), exceptionally 72 m (236 ft) tall,[4] and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in), exceptionally 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in). The bark on younger trees is light grey, thin and covered with resin blisters. On older trees, it darkens and develops scales and furrows. The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 2–4.5 cm (0.79–1.77 in) long and 2 mm (0.079 in) wide by 0.5 mm (0.02 in) thick, matte dark green above, and with two white bands of stomata below, and slightly notched at the tip.[5] The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they lie flat to either side of and above the shoot, with none below the shoot. The shoots are orange-red with dense velvety pubescence. The cones are 9–17 cm (3.5–6.7 in) long and 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) broad, dark purple before maturity; the scale bracts are short, and hidden in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6–7 months after pollination.

Pacific silver fir is very closely related to Maries' fir A. mariesii from Japan, which is distinguished by its slightly shorter leaves—1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in)—and smaller cones, which are 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long.


The wood is soft and not very strong; it is used for paper making, packing crates and other cheap construction work. The foliage has an attractive scent and is sometimes used for Christmas decoration, including Christmas trees.

It is also planted as an ornamental tree in large parks, though its requirement for cool, humid summers limits the areas where it grows well; successful growth away from its native range is restricted to areas like western Scotland and southern New Zealand.

PacificSilverFir 7644

Foliage bottom

PacificSilverFir 7785

Foliage top

Abies amabilis 26395

Cone growth


  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Abies amabilis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42271A2968657. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42271A2968657.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ Abies amabilis, The Gymnosperm Database. Accessed 31 July 2012.
  3. ^ C.M. Hogan, 2008
  4. ^ Gymnosperm database, 2008
  5. ^ Flora of North America, 2008



Bridgeoporus is a fungal genus in the family Polyporaceae. A monotypic genus, it contains the single polypore species Bridgeoporus nobilissimus, first described to science in 1949. Commonly known both as the noble polypore and the fuzzy Sandozi, this fungus produces large fruit bodies (or conks) that have been found to weigh up to 130 kilograms (290 lb). The upper surface of the fruit body has a fuzzy or fibrous texture that often supports the growth of algae, bryophytes, or vascular plants.

This species is found in the Pacific Northwest region of North America where it grows on large (at least 1 m diameter) specimens of noble fir (Abies procera), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), or western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Bridgeoporus nobilissimus causes a brown rot in its tree hosts. Genetic analysis shows that the fungus is more prevalent than fruit body distribution indicates.

British Columbia Mainland Coastal Forests (WWF ecoregion)

British Columbia mainland coastal forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion the Pacific coast of North America, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system.

Dodecatheon austrofrigidum

Dodecatheon austrofrigidum (syn. Primula austrofrigida) is a species of flowering plant in the primrose family known by the common names frigid shooting star and tundra shooting star. It is native to Washington and Oregon in the United States, where it grows in the coastal mountain ranges, including those on the Olympic Peninsula.This plant has a basal clump of leaves up to 30 centimeters long by 7 wide and have smooth to wavy or somewhat toothed edges. The inflorescence is borne on a flowering stalk up to 45 centimeters tall. It has one to seven flowers with magenta corolla lobes up to 2 centimeters long or more which are reflexed away from the flower center. The stamens are maroon or purple and forms a protruding tube.This plant grows on rocky slopes on river banks and other seasonally moist, rocky areas. It may grow with various mosses that form a substrate that it can root in. Associated plants include Alnus rubra, Filipendula occidentalis, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus spectabilis, Saxifraga occidentalis, Saxifraga nuttallii, Saxifraga mertensiana, and Mimulus guttatus, though it often grows on slopes with few other plants around. At higher elevations the plant occupies grassy turf. The soil is thin. The plant has also been found growing in substrates of decomposing wood. Associated species at higher elevations include Abies amabilis, Tsuga heterophylla, Cladothamnus sp., and Synthyris schizantha.This plant is known to occur at only about eight locations. Populations are small and scattered. Threats include increased flooding caused by grazing and logging upstream. The status of the rivers next to populations affects population size; the plant numbers may decrease during flood conditions and then increase the following year.

Erythronium elegans

Erythronium elegans is a rare species of flowering plant in the lily family known by the common names Coast Range fawnlily and elegant fawnlily. It is endemic to Oregon in the United States, where it is known from about 12 occurrences in the northern Coast Range.This plant grows from a slender bulb 3 to 5 centimeters long. It produces two leaves up to 20 centimeters long which are green, sometimes with brownish or white mottling. The scape grows up to 30 centimeters tall and bears one to four flowers. The flower has six tepals, the inner three white and the outer three white tinged with pink. The tepals have yellow bands near the bases. They are 2 to 4 centimeters long. The protruding stamens are tipped with yellow anthers each 1 to 2 centimeters long. Blooming occurs in May and June.This plant is very restricted in distribution but it grows in a range of habitat conditions, with varying light and moisture levels. It can be found in open and deep forests, the edges of bogs, cliffs, and meadows. The local forests are dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and other plants in the habitat may include Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), spruce (Picea sp.), false lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum dilatatum), California glacier lily (Erythronium grandiflorum var. pallidum), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), snowberry (Gaultheria sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), and lupine (Lupinus spp.).In the wild this plant appears to be a poor competitor, persisting in areas with low soil nutrients where competition with other plants is low. However, it has been shown to grow well in cultivation.

Eupithecia annulata

Eupithecia annulata, the larch pug moth, is a moth in the family Geometridae. It is found from British Columbia north to the Yukon, east to Newfoundland and Labrador and south to California and Colorado.

The wingspan is about 19 mm. Adults are on wing from April to June.

The larvae feed on Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea mariana, Picea engelmannii, Picea glauca, Picea engelmannii, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, Tsuga mertensiana, Tsuga heterophylla, Abies amabilis, Abies grandis, Abies lasiocarpa, Abies lasiocarpa, Quercus garryana, Pinus monticola, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, Larix occidentalis and Thuja plicata. Full-grown larvae reach a length of about 22 mm. There are two morphs. The common morph has a green and brown variant. The second morph has a greenish brown, reddish brown or yellowish brown body and head. Larvae can be found from May to August and pupation occurs from July to August. The species overwinters in the pupal stage.

Eupithecia longipalpata

Eupithecia longipalpata is a moth in the family Geometridae. It is found from coastal British Columbia south to California.

The wingspan is about 21 mm. Adults are light brownish with an ochreous tinge. Adults are on wing from late June to July.

The larvae feed on the needles of Abies grandis, Abies amabilis, Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, Tsuga heterophylla, Tsuga mertensiana, Thuja plicata, Picea sitchensis and Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Full-grown larvae reach a length of 20 mm. There are two colour morphs. The common morph is green with a yellowish green head. The second morph is brown. Larvae can be found from April to early June and again from mid August to October. Pupation takes place in early June.

Eupithecia olivacea

Eupithecia olivacea is a moth in the family Geometridae. It is found from British Columbia south through Washington and Oregon to California.

The forewings are uniform olive-brown. Adults are on wing from early March to April.

The larvae feed on Abies grandis, Abies amabilis, Abies lasiocarpa, Crataegus douglasii, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, Picea sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla. They have a brown body and head and reach a length of about 20 mm when full-grown. There are two morphs. Larvae can be found from April to June and pupation occurs from late June to July. The species overwinters in the pupal stage.


Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus Cedrus (cedar). Douglas firs are not true firs, being of the genus Pseudotsuga.

They are large trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m (33–262 ft) tall with trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m (1 ft 8 in–13 ft 1 in) when mature. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the way in which their needle-like leaves are attached singly to the branches with a base resembling a suction cup, and by their cones, which, like those of true cedars (Cedrus), stand upright on the branches like candles and disintegrate at maturity.

Identification of the different species is based on the size and arrangement of the leaves, the size and shape of the cones, and whether the bract scales of the cones are long and exserted, or short and hidden inside the cone.

Gabriola dyari

Gabriola dyari is a moth of the Geometridae family. It is found from the Alaskan panhandle and British Columbia to California. The habitat consists of coniferous forests.

The wingspan is 25–30 mm. The forewings are brownish-gray with black speckling and lines. The hindwings are uniformly brownish-gray except for a dark thin terminal line. There is one generation per year with adults on wing from June to October in California.

The larvae feed on the foliage of various coniferous trees, including Tsuga heterophylla, Tsuga mertensiana, Pseudotsuga, Thuja plicata, Abies amabilis, Abies grandis, Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii. They have a rusty brown to gray body with white dorsal patches and a light tan head with reddish-brown mottling. They reach a length of up to 20 mm. When at rest, the larva resembles a bird dropping. Larvae can be found from May to July. The species overwinters as an egg. Pupation takes place in a cocoon on a twig in August.

List of flora of Washington (state)

This is a list of species that are native to the U.S. state of Washington. Note that this is an incomplete list and a much better list (with multiple photographs as well) can be found on the University of Washington's WTU Image Collection: Plants of Washington State http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php If you would like to help make this Wiki page better that is a fantastic reference to start with.

List of the conifers of Canada

This is a listing of the conifers of Canada, and includes the cypresses, junipers, firs, pines, spruces, larches, hemlocks and yews.

EX - Exotic (introduced)

List of woods

This is a list of woods, in particular those most commonly used in the timber and lumber trade.

Nepytia umbrosaria

Nepytia umbrosaria is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in North America, including Arizona, British Columbia, California, Oklahoma, Oregon and Washington.

The wingspan is about 33 mm. Adults are on wing from late July to early August.

The larvae feed on the foliage of Abies amabilis, Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca and Tsuga heterophylla. Mature larvae reach a length of about 35 mm. They have a creamy yellow body, marked with orange middorsal patches and with a light tan head with dark spots. The species overwinters as a mid-instar larva. Larvae feed from April to June. Pupation takes place in June.

Protoboarmia porcelaria

Protoboarmia porcelaria, the porcelain gray or dash-lined looper, is a Geometrid species of moth found throughout North America, except in the far north. The species was first described by Achille Guenée in 1857.

Silver fir

Silver fir is a common name for several trees and may refer to:

Abies alba, native to Europe

Abies amabilis, native to western North America

Abies pindrow, native to Asia

Trinity Alps

The Trinity Alps are a mountain range in Siskiyou County and Trinity County, in Northern California. They are a subrange of the Klamath Mountains and located to the north of Weaverville.

Zeiraphera unfortunana

Zeiraphera unfortunana, the purplestriped shootworm, is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found in North America in Nova Scotia, from Ontario to British Columbia, Yukon, Alaska, Michigan and Minnesota.

The larvae feed on Picea glauca, Picea engelmanni, Picea sitchensis, Abies balsamea, Abies lasiocarpa and Abies amabilis.

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