Aberdeen

Aberdeen (/æbərˈdiːn/ (listen); Scots: Aiberdeen, listen ; Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [opəɾ ˈɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen[1] and 228,800 for the local council area.[4]

During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content.[5] Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe.[6] The area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago,[7] when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters.

Aberdeen received Royal burgh status from David I of Scotland (1124–1153),[8] transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east of Scotland. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world[9] and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.[10]

Aberdeen hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.[11] In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight 'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade.[12] In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense.[13]

Aberdeen

  • Aiberdeen
  • Obar Dheathain
Clockwise from top-left: Marischal College, West Tower of the new Town House on Union Street, River Dee view from Tollohill Woods, Old Aberdeen High Street, Aberdeen Beach
Clockwise from top-left: Marischal College, West Tower of the new Town House on Union Street, River Dee view from Tollohill Woods, Old Aberdeen High Street, Aberdeen Beach
Flag of Aberdeen
Flag
Coat of arms of Aberdeen
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
"Granite City", "Grey City", "Silver City", and "Silver City with the Golden Sands"
Location within Scotland
Location within Scotland
Aberdeen is located in the United Kingdom
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Location within Scotland
Aberdeen is located in Scotland
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aberdeen (Scotland)
Aberdeen is located in Europe
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aberdeen (Europe)
Coordinates: 57°09′N 2°07′W / 57.15°N 2.11°WCoordinates: 57°09′N 2°07′W / 57.15°N 2.11°W
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country Scotland
Council areaAberdeen City
Lieutenancy areaAberdeen
Earliest Charter1179
City status1891
Government
 • Governing bodyAberdeen City Council
 • Lord ProvostBarney Crockett
 • MSPs
 • MPs
Area
 • Land56.1 km2 (21.7 sq mi)
 • Urban
69.5 km2 (26.8 sq mi)
 • Metro
82.7 km2 (31.9 sq mi)
Population
(mid-2017 est.)
196,670[1]
 • Density3,505.7/km2 (9,080/sq mi)
 • Urban
214,610[2]
 • Metro
239,530[3]
 • Language(s)
Scots (Doric), English
Demonym(s)Aberdonians
Time zoneUTC±0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode areas
Area code(s)01224
ISO 3166-2GB-ABE
ONS codeS12000033
OS grid referenceNJ925065
NUTS 3UKM50
Primary AirportAberdeen Airport
Websiteaberdeencity.gov.uk

History

The Town House, Old Aberdeen - geograph.org.uk - 320069
The Town House, Old Aberdeen. Once a separate burgh, Old Aberdeen was incorporated into the city in 1891
Aberdeen1
The Castlegate and Union Street (c.1900)

The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years.[7] The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary. The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.[14][15] During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed by the massacring of the English garrison. The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770.

The Powis gate Old Aberdeen - geograph.org.uk - 421948
The Powis gate Old Aberdeen

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647 the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen[16] and two years later it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly.[17] In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century.

Union Terrace Aberdeen Scotland
Union Terrace, Aberdeen, circa 1900

The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars; but the city's prosperity later recovered. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, and the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.[15] The city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent. It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.

During the Second World War Aberdeen was bombed quite badly especially on the 21 April 1943 when around 20 Luftwaffe bombers circled around Aberdeen. Because there were no planes at RAF leuchars they were all fighting in the Battle of Britain this meant that the bombers would simply fly back and forth around Aberdeen. 98 people died on that night and approximately 20,000 homes were destroyed during the bombing which caused severe damage to many different homes around the city.

Toponymy

Aberdeen was in Pictish territory and became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon, the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means "the mouth of the Don". The Celtic word aber means "river mouth", as in modern Welsh (Aberystwyth, Aberdare, Aberbeeg etc).[18] The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain (variation: Obairreadhain; *obar presumably being a loan from the earlier Pictish; the Gaelic term is inbhir), and in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval (or Ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.

Governance

Marischal College A
Marischal College, home of Aberdeen City Council, Broad St.

Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-five councillors who represent the city's wards and is headed by the Lord Provost. The current Lord Provost is Barney Crockett.[19] From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat and Conservative Party coalition. Following the May 2007 local elections, the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party.[20][21] After a later SNP by-election gain from the Conservatives, this coalition held 28 of the 43 seats. Following the election of 4 May 2017, the council was controlled by a coalition of Scottish Labour, Scottish Conservatives and independent councillors; the Labour councillors were subsequently suspended by Scottish Labour Party leader, Kezia Dugdale.[22]

Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by three constituencies: Aberdeen North and Aberdeen South which are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area, and Gordon, which includes a large area of the Aberdeenshire Council area.

In the Scottish Parliament, the city is represented by three constituencies with different boundaries: Aberdeen Central and Aberdeen Donside are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area. Aberdeen South and North Kincardine includes the North Kincardine ward of Aberdeenshire Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland electoral region. In the European Parliament the city is represented by six MEPs as part of the all-inclusive Scotland constituency.

Heraldry

Bon Accord Square - geograph.org.uk - 742813
Bon Accord Square, designed by Archibald Simpson and dating from 1823
Bon Accord Lamppost - geograph.org.uk - 1063181
Lamp-post bearing the city coat of arms

The arms and banner of the city show three silver towers on red. This motif dates from at least the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of medieval Aberdeen: Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today's Castlegate); the city gate on Port Hill; and a church on St Catherine's Hill (now levelled).[23]

Bon Accord is the motto of the city and is French for "Good Agreement". Legend tells that its use dates from a password used by Robert the Bruce during the 14th century Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to the English-held Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308.[14] It is still widely present in the city, throughout street names, business names and the city's Bon Accord shopping mall.[24]

The shield in the coat of arms is supported by two leopards. A local magazine is called the "Leopard" and, when Union Bridge was widened in the 20th century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly's Cats). The city's toast is "Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again"; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.[25]

Geography

Aberdeen Coast light house
Aberdeen Coast
Aberdeen Beach 2006
Aberdeen Beach

Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary: despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlies the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian Group; to the south-west and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead. The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it is actually sited on an inlier of Devonian "Old Red" sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian period (approximately 480–600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous Diorite granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry which was used to build much of the Victorian parts of the city.[26]

On the coast, Aberdeen has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee and the Don, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing.

The city extends to 185.7 km2 (71.7 sq mi),[27] and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of River Dee. In 2017 this gave the city a population density of 1,231.[4] The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine's Hill and Windmill Hill.[28]

Climate

Aberdeen features an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Aberdeen has far milder winter temperatures than one might expect for its northern location, although statistically it is the coldest city in the UK. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 41 minutes between sunrise and sunset at winter solstice.[29] As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 55 minutes between sunrise and sunset.[29] During this time of the year marginal nautical twilight lasts the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) directly on the coast, and around 18.0 to 19.0 °C (64.4 to 66.2 °F) in the westernmost suburbs,[30] illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer. In addition, from June onward skies are more overcast than in April/May, as reflected in a lower percentage of possible sunshine (the percentage of daylight hours that are sunny). These factors render summer to be temperate and cool for the latitude, both by European standards and also compared to far inland climates on other continents, with those patterns being reversed during the mild and moderated winters.

Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen/Dyce Airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4 12 miles (7 km) to the north west of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, exhibit very similar climatic regimes. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperatures year round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though it is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was −16.8 °C (1.8 °F) during December 2010,[31] while the following winter, Dyce set a new February high temperature station record on 28 February 2012 of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).,[32] and a new March high temperature record of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F) on 25 March 2012.[33]

The average temperature of the sea ranges from 6.6 °C (43.9 °F) in March to 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) in August.[34]

Climate data for Aberdeen Dyce 65m asl, 1981–2010, extremes 1960–
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
17.2
(63.0)
21.6
(70.9)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.7
(85.5)
25.9
(78.6)
22.0
(71.6)
18.8
(65.8)
15.7
(60.3)
29.8
(85.6)
Average high °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.8
(44.2)
8.8
(47.8)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.1
(61.0)
18.5
(65.3)
18.3
(64.9)
15.8
(60.4)
12.4
(54.3)
8.9
(48.0)
6.6
(43.9)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
0.8
(33.4)
1.9
(35.4)
3.4
(38.1)
5.7
(42.3)
8.6
(47.5)
10.8
(51.4)
10.5
(50.9)
8.6
(47.5)
5.9
(42.6)
2.9
(37.2)
0.7
(33.3)
5.1
(41.2)
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
(−2.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−15.8
(3.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
0.1
(32.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−19.3
(−2.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.6
(2.66)
55.1
(2.17)
59.8
(2.35)
58.8
(2.31)
56.9
(2.24)
61.2
(2.41)
61.6
(2.43)
60.5
(2.38)
67.9
(2.67)
96.2
(3.79)
93.3
(3.67)
76.1
(3.00)
814.9
(32.08)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.3 81.3 121.8 149.4 199.4 166.4 165.3 157.8 123.7 99.8 66.2 46.1 1,435.7
Percent possible sunshine 25.1 30.7 33.2 34.8 38.9 31.2 31.0 33.5 32.2 31.1 27.2 21.8 30.9
Source #1: Met Office[35]
Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[36]
Climate data for Craibstone 102m asl, 1971–2000, extremes 1951–
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
26.1
(79.0)
28.8
(83.8)
28.6
(83.5)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
18.3
(64.9)
15.4
(59.7)
28.8
(83.8)
Average high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
6.1
(43.0)
8.0
(46.4)
9.9
(49.8)
12.7
(54.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.6
(63.7)
17.5
(63.5)
14.9
(58.8)
11.8
(53.2)
8.2
(46.8)
6.4
(43.5)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
0.6
(33.1)
1.5
(34.7)
2.7
(36.9)
5.0
(41.0)
7.8
(46.0)
9.9
(49.8)
9.8
(49.6)
8.0
(46.4)
5.6
(42.1)
2.6
(36.7)
1.1
(34.0)
4.6
(40.3)
Record low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−12.2
(10.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−3
(27)
0.3
(32.5)
1.7
(35.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4
(25)
−10.8
(12.6)
−12.6
(9.3)
−13.5
(7.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.1
(2.92)
53.7
(2.11)
59.8
(2.35)
61.2
(2.41)
56.7
(2.23)
59.5
(2.34)
60.3
(2.37)
65.7
(2.59)
76.7
(3.02)
87.7
(3.45)
84.2
(3.31)
76.9
(3.03)
816.3
(32.14)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.4 77.1 114.1 145.8 188.5 166.2 164.9 163.4 122.1 99.2 65.1 46.2 1,409
Source #1: Met Office[37]
Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[38]

Demography

AberdeenDemographic
Aberdeen's population since 1396[39]

The latest population estimate (mid 2012) for the urban area of Aberdeen is 196,670.[1] For the wider settlement of Aberdeen including Cove Bay and Dyce the latest population estimate (mid 2012) is 209,460.[1] For the local council area of Aberdeen City the latest estimate (mid 2017) is 228,800[4]

In 1396 the population was about 3,000. By 1801 it had become 26,992; (1901) 153,503; (1941) 182,467.[40]

The 2011 census showed that there are fewer young people in Aberdeen, with 16.4% under 16, opposed to the national average of 19.2%.[41] According to the 2011 census Aberdeen is 91.9% white, ethnically, 24.7% were born outside Scotland, higher than the national average of 16%. Of this population 7.6% were born in other parts of the UK.[42] 8.2% of Aberdonians stated to be from an ethnic minority (non-white) in the 2011 census, with 9,519 (4.3%) being Asian, with 3,385 (1.5%) coming from India and 2,187 (1.0%) being Chinese. The city has around 5,610 (2.6%) residents of African or Caribbean origin, which is a higher percentage than both Glasgow and Edinburgh.[42] The most multicultural part of the city is George Street, which has many ethnic restaurants, supermarkets and hairdressers.

Aberdeen compared[42]
UK Census 2011 Aberdeen Scotland
Total population 222,793 5,295,000
Population growth 2001–2011 5.0% 5.0%
White 91.9% 96.0%
Asian 4.3% 2.7%
Black 2.6% 0.8%
Christian 30.9% 54.0%
Muslim 1.9% 1.4%

In the household, there were 97,013 individual dwellings recorded in the city of which 61% were privately owned, 9% privately rented and 23% rented from the council. The most popular type of dwellings are apartments which comprise 49% of residences followed by semi-detached at just below 22%.[43] The median income of a household in the city is £16,813 (the mean income is £20,292)[44] (2005) which places approximately 18% households in the city below the poverty line (defined as 60% of the mean income). Conversely, an Aberdeen postcode has the second highest number of millionaires of any postcode in the UK.[45]

Religion

18th Jan 2014- South & St. Nicholas Kirk Spires
South and St. Nicholas Kirk Spires viewed from Union St

Christianity is the main religion practised in the city. Aberdeen's largest denominations are the Church of Scotland (through the Presbytery of Aberdeen) and the Roman Catholic Church, both with numerous churches across the city, with the Scottish Episcopal Church having the third-largest number. The most recent census in 2001 showed that Aberdeen has the highest proportion of non-religious residents of any city in Scotland, with nearly 43% of citizens claiming to have no religion[41] and several former churches in the city have been converted into bars and restaurants. In the Middle Ages, the Kirk of St Nicholas was the only burgh kirk and one of Scotland's largest parish churches. Like a number of other Scottish kirks, it was subdivided after the Reformation, in this case into the East and West churches. At this time, the city also was home to houses of the Carmelites (Whitefriars) and Franciscans (Greyfriars), the latter of which surviving in modified form as the chapel of Marischal College as late as the early 20th century.

Gilcomston Church, Union St, Aberdeen
Gilcomston Church, Union St, Aberdeen

St Machar's Cathedral was built twenty years after David I (1124–1153) transferred the pre-Reformation Diocese from Mortlach in Banffshire to Old Aberdeen in 1137. With the exception of the episcopate of William Elphinstone (1484–1511), building progressed slowly. Gavin Dunbar, who followed him in 1518, completed the structure by adding the two western spires and the southern transept. It is now a congregation of the Church of Scotland. Aberdeen has two other cathedrals: St. Mary's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gothic style, erected in 1859. In addition, St. Andrew's Cathedral serves the Scottish Episcopal Church. It was constructed in 1817 as Archibald Simpson's first commission and contains a memorial to the consecration of the first bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, which took place nearby. In 1804, St Peter's Church, the first permanent Roman Catholic church in the city after the Reformation was built.[46]

Numerous other Protestant denominations have a presence in Aberdeen. The Salvation Army citadel on the Castlegate dominates the view of east end of Union Street. In addition, there is a Unitarian church, established in 1833 and located in Skene Terrace. Christadelphians have been present in Aberdeen since at least 1844. Over the years, they have rented space to meet at a number of locations and currently meet in the Inchgarth Community Centre in Garthdee.[47] There is also a Quaker meetinghouse on Crown street, the only purpose built Quaker House in Scotland that is still in use today. In addition, there are a number of Baptist congregations in the city, and Evangelical congregations have been appearing in significant numbers since the late 2000s. The city also has two meetinghouses of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

There is also a mosque in Old Aberdeen which serves the Islamic community in the city, and an Orthodox Jewish Synagogue established in 1945. There is also a Thai Buddhist temple located in the Hazelhead area of the city.There are no formal Hindu buildings, although the University of Aberdeen has a small Bahá'í society and there is a fortnightly Hindu religious gathering in the 1st and 3rd Sunday afternoons at Queens Cross Parish church hall.[48]

Economy

Rubislaw Quarry
Rubislaw Quarry, opened in 1740, provided some six million tonnes of granite prior to its closure. Both the Houses of Parliament and the Forth Rail Bridge were constructed using its granite.
3rd Sep 2012-Pocra Quay 2
War Memorial at Pocra Quay with Marine Ops Centre in background. Situated at Aberdeen Harbour, next to Footdee an ancient fishing village dating as far back as 1398

Traditionally, Aberdeen was home to fishing, textile mills, shipbuilding and paper making. These industries have been largely replaced. High technology developments in the electronics design and development industry, research in agriculture and fishing and the oil industry, which has been largely responsible for Aberdeen's economic boom in the last three decades, are now major parts of Aberdeen's economy. Until the 1970s, most of Aberdeen's leading industries dated from the 18th century; mainly these were textiles, foundry work, shipbuilding and paper-making, the oldest industry in the city, with paper having been first made there in 1694. Paper-making has reduced in importance since the closures of Donside Paper Mill in 2001 and the Davidson Mill in 2005 leaving the Stoneywood Paper Mill with a workforce of approximately 500. Textile production ended in 2004 when Richards of Aberdeen closed.

Grey granite was quarried at Rubislaw quarry for more than 300 years, and used for paving setts, kerb and building stones, and monumental and other ornamental pieces. Aberdeen granite was used to build the terraces of the Houses of Parliament and Waterloo Bridge in London. Quarrying finally ceased in 1971. The current owners have begun pumping 40 years of rain water from the quarry with the aim of developing a heritage centre on the site.[49]

Fishing was once the predominant industry, but was surpassed by deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from improved technologies throughout the 20th century. Catches have fallen because of overfishing and the use of the harbour by oil support vessels,[50] and so although still an important fishing port it is now eclipsed by the more northerly ports of Peterhead and Fraserburgh. The Fisheries Research Services are headquartered in Aberdeen, and there is a marine research lab in Torry.

NDBQ 26 - 10th Jan 2015
Neptune Energy and Aker Solutions Buildings, North Dee Business Quarter. An example of modern offices becoming more prevalent in Aberdeen's City Centre

Aberdeen is well regarded for the agricultural and soil research carried out at The James Hutton Institute (formerly the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute), which has close links to the city's two universities. The Rowett Research Institute is a world-renowned research centre for studies into food and nutrition located in Aberdeen. It has produced three Nobel laureates and there is a high concentration of life scientists working in the city.[51][52]

As oil reserves in the North Sea decrease there is an effort to rebrand Aberdeen as "Energy Capital of Europe" rather than "Oil Capital of Europe", and there is interest in the development of new energy sources; and technology transfer from oil into renewable energy and other industries is under way. The "Energetica" initiative led by Scottish Enterprise has been designed to accelerate this process.[53] As of 2013, Aberdeen remained a major world centre for undersea petroleum technology.[54]

Aberdeen and the North Sea

Aberdeen had been a major maritime centre throughout the 19th century, when a group of local entrepreneurs launched the first steam-powered trawler. The steam trawling industry expanded and by 1933 Aberdeen was Scotland's top fishing port, employing nearly 3,000 men with 300 vessels sailing from its harbour. By the time oil was coming on stream, much of the trawling fleet had relocated to Peterhead. Although Aberdeen still brings in substantial catches, the tugs, safety vessels and supply ships which pack the harbour far outnumber the trawlers.

Aberdeen Harbour from Air
Aberdeen Harbour from the Air

Geologists had speculated about the existence of oil and gas in the North Sea since the middle of the 20th century, but tapping its deep and inhospitable waters was another story. With the Middle Eastern oil sheiks becoming more aware of the political and economic power of their oil reserves and government threats of rationing, the industry began to consider the North Sea as a viable source of oil. Exploration commenced in the 1960s and the first major find in the British sector was in November 1970 in the Forties field, 110 miles (180 km) east of Aberdeen.

By late 1975, after years of intense construction the necessary infrastructure was in place. In Aberdeen, at BP's (British Petroleum) headquarters, the Queen pressed the button that would set the whole thing moving. Oil flowed from the rig directly to the refinery at far-away Grangemouth. While many ports have suffered decline, Aberdeen remains busy because of the oil trade and the influx of people connected with the industry, a subsequent rise in property prices have brought prosperity to the area.

The industry supports about 47,000 jobs locally, and known reserves ensure that oil will continue to flow well into the 21st century.

As a major port in the UK, Aberdeen receives many ships calling at the port. Seafarers' welfare organisation, Apostleship of the Sea has a port chaplain in Aberdeen to offer practical and pastoral support to them.

Business

In 2011, the Centre for Cities named Aberdeen as the best placed city for growth in Britain, as the country looked to emerge from the recent economic downturn.[55] With energy still providing the backbone of the local economy, recent years have seen very large new investment in the North Sea owing to rising oil prices and favourable government tax incentives.[56] This has led to several oil majors and independents building new global offices in the city.[57]

Aberdeen City and Shire's Gross Domestic Product is estimated at over £11.4 billion, accounting for over 17% of the overall Scottish GDP. Five of Scotland's top ten businesses are based in Aberdeen with a collective turnover of £14 billion, yielding a profit in excess of £2.4 billion. Alongside this 29 of Scotland's top 100 businesses are located in Aberdeen with an employment rate of 77.9%, making it the 2nd highest UK city for employment.[58]

Figures released in 2016 ranked Aberdeen as having the second highest amount of patents processed per person in the UK.[59]

Shopping

The Academy, Belmont St and Schoolhill, Aberdeen
The Academy, Belmont St and Schoolhill, Aberdeen
28th Feb 2015 - Union St 2
Union St towards West End, Aberdeen

The traditional shopping streets are Union Street and George Street, now complemented by shopping centres, notably the Bon Accord & St Nicholas and the Trinity Shopping Centre. A £190 million[60] retail development, Union Square, reached completion in late September/early October 2009. Major retail parks away from the city centre include the Berryden Retail Park, the Kittybrewster Retail Park and the Beach Boulevard Retail Park.

In March 2004, Aberdeen was awarded Fairtrade City status by the Fairtrade Foundation.[61] Along with Dundee, it shares the distinction of being the first city in Scotland to receive this accolade.

Landmarks

16th Aug 2012- Rosemount 2
Aberdeen Central Library and St Marks Church, Rosemount, Aberdeen
18th Jan 2014 - Town House 1
Town House, Sheriff Court and North of Scotland Bank, Aberdeen
Granite Buildings on Union Street - geograph.org.uk - 94227
Granite Buildings on Union Street
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Aberdeen, Salvation Army Citadel
Crown St 6 - 26th Sep 2013
Head Post Office, Crown Street
Crown St 3 - 26th Sep 2013
Former Trinity United Free Church, Crown Street, Aberdeen

Aberdeen's architecture is known for its principal use during the Victorian era of granite, which has led to its local nickname of the Granite City or more romantically the less commonly used name the Silver City, since the Mica in the stone sparkles in the sun. The hard grey stone is one of the most durable materials available and helps to explain why the city's buildings look brand-new when they have been newly cleaned and the cement has been pointed. Unlike other Scottish cities where sandstone has been used, the buildings are not weathering and need very little structural maintenance on their masonry. The buildings can however become noticeably darker as a result of pollution and grime accumulated over the years. There has however been great success in cleaning the buildings which can result in their façade being restored back to much how they looked originally.

Amongst the notable buildings in the city's main street, Union Street, are the Town and County Bank, the Music Hall, the Trinity Hall of the incorporated trades (originating between 1398 and 1527, although completely rebuilt in the 1860s), now a shopping mall; the former office of the Northern Assurance Company, and the National Bank of Scotland. In Castle Street, a continuation eastwards of Union Street, is the new Town House, a very prominent landmark in Aberdeen, built between 1868 and 1873 to a design by Peddie and Kinnear.[62]

Alexander Marshall Mackenzie's extension to Marischal College on Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII in 1906, created the second largest granite building in the world (after the Escorial, Madrid).[63]

In addition to the many fine landmark buildings, Aberdeen has many prominent public statues, three of the most notable being William Wallace at the junction between Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct, Robert Burns on Union Terrace above Union Terrace Gardens, and Robert the Bruce holding aloft the charter he issued to the city in 1319 on Broad Street, outside Marischal College.

Parks, gardens and open spaces

Aberdeen has long been famous for its 45[64] parks and gardens, and citywide floral displays which include two million roses, eleven million daffodils and three million crocuses. The city has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Britain in Bloom 'Best City' award ten times,[64] the overall Scotland in Bloom competition twenty times[64] and the large city category every year since 1968.[64] However, despite recent spurious reports, Aberdeen has never been banned from the Britain in Bloom competition.[65] The city won the 2006 Scotland in Bloom "Best City" award along with the International Cities in Bloom award. The suburb of Dyce also won the Small Towns award.[66][67]

Union Terrace Gardens, Aberdeen
Union Terrace Gardens, Aberdeen

Duthie Park opened in 1899 on the north bank of the River Dee. It was named after and given to the city by Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston in 1881. It has extensive gardens, a rose hill, boating pond, bandstand, and play area as well as Europe's second largest enclosed gardens the David Welch Winter Gardens. Hazlehead Park, is large and forested, located on the outskirts of the city, it is popular with walkers in the forests, sports enthusiasts, naturalists and picnickers. There are football pitches, two golf courses, a pitch and putt course and a horse riding school.

Duthie Park, Aberdeen
Duthie Park, Aberdeen, Scotland

Aberdeen's success in the Britain in Bloom competitions is often attributed to Johnston Gardens, a small park of one hectare in the west end of the city containing many different flowers and plants which have been renowned for their beauty. In 2002, the garden was named the best garden in the British Islands.[64] Seaton Park, formerly the grounds of a private house, is on the edge of the grounds of St Machar's Cathedral. The Cathedral Walk is maintained in a formal style with a great variety of plants providing a popular display. The park includes several other areas with contrasting styles to this. Union Terrace Gardens opened in 1879 and is situated in the centre of the city. It covers 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) in the centre of Aberdeen bordered on three sides by Union Street, Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct. The park forms a natural amphitheatre located in the Denburn Valley and is an oasis of peace and calm in the city centre. A recent proposal to build a three-storey concrete and steel superstructure in place of the gardens, part of which will provide a commercial concourse, has proved highly controversial.

Situated next to each other, Victoria Park and Westburn Park cover 26 acres (11 ha) between them. Victoria Park opened in 1871. There is a conservatory used as a seating area and a fountain made of fourteen different granites, presented to the people by the granite polishers and master builders of Aberdeen. Opposite to the north is Westburn Park opened in 1901. With large grass pitches it is widely used for field sports. There is large tennis centre with indoor and outdoor courts, a children's cycle track, play area and a grass boules lawn.

Theatres and concert halls

The Tivoli Theatre on Guild Street, Aberdeen
The Tivoli Theatre, Guild Street, Aberdeen
His Majesty's Theatre, Rosemount, Aberdeen
His Majesty's Theatre, Rosemount, Aberdeen

Aberdeen has hosted several theatres throughout its history, some of which have subsequently been converted or destroyed. The most famous include:

The main concert hall is the Music Hall on Union Street, built in 1822.

Transport

Aberdeen Station Plaza
Plaza outside railway station at Aberdeen in early morning, with Union Square to left
Scot-Aberdeen-rail
Aberdeen railway station, main concourse

Aberdeen Airport (ABZ), at Dyce in the north of the city, serves domestic and international destinations including France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and Scandinavian countries. The heliport which serves the oil industry and rescue services is one of the world's busiest commercial heliports.[9]

Aberdeen railway station is on the main UK rail network and Abellio ScotRail has frequent direct trains to major cities Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness. London North Eastern Railway and the Caledonian Sleeper operate direct trains to London. The station is being updated to bring it into the modern age. In 2007 additions were made and a new ticket office was built in the building. The UK's longest direct rail journey runs from Aberdeen to Penzance. It is operated by CrossCountry, leaving Aberdeen at 08:20 and taking 13 hours and 23 minutes. Today, all railway services to the south run via Dundee. The faster main line from Aberdeen to Perth via Forfar and Strathmore closed in 1967 as a result of the Beeching cuts, and the faster main line from Perth to Edinburgh via Glenfarg also subsequently closed in 1970.

Until 2007, a 1950s-style concrete bus station at Guild Street served out-of-the-city locations; it has since transferred to a new and well-presented bus station just 100 metres to the east off Market Street as part of the Union Square development.

There are six major roads in and out of the city. The A90 is the main arterial route into the city from the north and south, linking Aberdeen to Edinburgh, Dundee, Brechin and Perth in the south and Ellon, Peterhead and Fraserburgh in the north. The A96 links Elgin and Inverness and the north west. The A93 is the main route to the west, heading towards Royal Deeside and the Cairngorms. After Braemar, it turns south, providing an alternative tourist route to Perth. The A944 also heads west, through Westhill and on to Alford. The A92 was the original southerly road to Aberdeen prior to the building of the A90, and is now used as a tourist route, connecting the towns of Montrose and Arbroath and on the east coast. The A947 exits the city at Dyce and goes on to Newmachar, Oldmeldrum and Turriff finally ending at Banff and Macduff.

River Dee Railway Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 1445234
River Dee Railway Bridge, Aberdeen

After first being mooted some 60 years ago and being held up for the past five years by a number of legal challenges, Aberdeen's long-awaited Western Peripheral Route was given the go-ahead after campaigners lost their appeal to the UK Supreme Court in October 2012. The 30-mile (50 km) route was earmarked to be completed in 2018 and was hoped to significantly reduce traffic congestion in and around the city.[71] Aberdeen Harbour is important as the largest in the north of Scotland and serves the ferry route to Orkney and Shetland. Established in 1136, the harbour has been referred to as the oldest business in Britain.[72]

FirstGroup operates the city buses under the name First Aberdeen, as the successor of Grampian Regional Transport (GRT) and Aberdeen Corporation Tramways. Aberdeen is the global headquarters of FirstGroup plc, having grown from the GRT Group. First is still based at the former Aberdeen Tramways depot on King Street,[73] which has now been redeveloped into a new Global Headquarters and Aberdeen bus depot. Stagecoach East Scotland also run buses in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire, under the Stagecoach Bluebird brand. Megabus run buses from the bus station to places north and south of the city.

National Express operate express coach services to London twice daily. The 590 service, operated by Bruce's Coaches of Salsburgh operates in the morning and runs through the day, calling at Dundee, Perth, Glasgow, Hamilton, Carlisle, Milton Keynes, Golders Green and Victoria Coach Station, whilst the 592 (operated by Parks of Hamilton) leaves in the evening and travels overnight, calling at Dundee, Glasgow, Hamilton, Carlisle, Heathrow Airport and Victoria Coach Station. In addition, there are Megabus services to London and Edinburgh and Scottish Citylink services to Glasgow, operated by Stagecoach East Scotland and Parks of Hamilton using the Citylink gold and blue livery.

Aberdeen is connected to the UK National Cycle Network, and has a track to the south connecting to cities such as Dundee and Edinburgh and one to the north that forks about 10 miles (15 km) from the city into two different tracks heading to Inverness and Fraserburgh respectively. Two popular footpaths along old railway tracks are the Deeside Way to Banchory (which will eventually connect to Ballater) and the Formartine and Buchan Way to Ellon, both used by a mixture of cyclists, walkers and occasionally horses. Four park-and-ride sites serve the city: Stonehaven and Ellon (approx 12 to 17 miles (19 to 27 km) out from the city centre) and Kingswells and Bridge of Don (approx 3 to 4 miles (5 to 6 km) out).

The Dee Estuary, Aberdeen's harbour, has continually been improved. Starting out as a fishing port, moving onto steam trawlers, the oil industry, it is now a major port of departure for the Baltic and Scandinavia.[74] Major exports include fertiliser, granite, and chemicals.

Education

2nd Sep 2012- Elphinstone Hall 2
Elphinstone Hall, Old Aberdeen
8th Dec 2012-Abdn Uni Library 9
Sir Duncan Rice Library, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen
King's College, Old Aberdeen - geograph.org.uk - 118509
King's College, Old Aberdeen

Universities and colleges

Aberdeen has two universities, the ancient University of Aberdeen, and Robert Gordon University, a modern university often referred to as RGU. Aberdeen's student rate of 11.5% is higher than the national average of 7%.[75]

10th Aug 2012- Abdn Business Skool
Aberdeen Business School at the Robert Gordon University

The University of Aberdeen began as King's College, Aberdeen, which was founded in 1495[74] by William Elphinstone (1431–1514), Bishop of Aberdeen and Chancellor of Scotland. Marischal College, a separate institution, was founded in "New" Aberdeen by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal of Scotland in 1593.[74] These institutions were merged by order of Parliament in 1860 to form the University of Aberdeen.[74] The university is the fifth oldest in the English-speaking world[76] and offers degrees in a full range of disciplines. Its main campus is in Old Aberdeen in the north of the city and it currently has approximately 14,000 students. The university's debating society is the oldest in Scotland, founded in 1848 as the King's College Debating Society.[77] Today, Aberdeen is consistently ranked among the top 200 universities in the world[78] and is ranked within the top 30 universities in the United Kingdom.[79][80] Aberdeen was also named the 2019 Scottish University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide.[81]

Robert Gordon's College (originally Robert Gordon's Hospital) was founded in 1750 by the merchant Robert Gordon,[74] grandson of the map maker Robert Gordon of Straloch, and was further endowed in 1816 by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill. Originally devoted to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganised in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical education. In 1903, the vocational education component of the college was designated a Central Institution and was renamed as the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology in 1965. In 1992, university status was awarded and it became Robert Gordon University. The university has expanded and developed significantly in recent years, and was named Best Modern University in the UK for 2012 by The Sunday Times. It was previously The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year for 2011, primarily because of its record on graduate employment. The citation for the 2011 award read: "With a graduate unemployment rate that is lower than the most famous universities, including Oxford and Cambridge, plus a flourishing reputation for research, high student satisfaction rates and ambitious plans for its picturesque campus, the Robert Gordon University is The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year".[82]

RGU had two campuses: one in the city centre at Schoolhill/St. Andrew Street and a larger suburban campus at Garthdee and currently has approximately 15,500 students. As of 2013, the Garthdee campus was expanded to include all schools, with the Schoolhill/St. Andrew Street campus being sold to Robert Gordon's College, and the building now functions as the school's Science and Technology Centre. The closure of the Schoolhill site includes the removal of the Student Union building, giving Aberdeen the dubious distinction of having two universities but no student bar.

RGU Riverside East building 1
Robert Gordon University – Sir Ian Wood building
Aberdeen College - geograph.org.uk - 852689
North East Scotland College

Aberdeen is also home to two artistic schools: Gray's School of Art, founded in 1886, which is one of the oldest established colleges of art in the UK. The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and the Built Environment, was one of the first architectural schools to have its training courses recognised by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Both are now part of Robert Gordon University and are based at its Garthdee campus. North East Scotland College has several campuses in the city and offers a wide variety of part-time and full-time courses leading to several different qualifications in science. The Scottish Agricultural College is based just outside Aberdeen, on the Craibstone Estate. This is situated beside the roundabout for Aberdeen Airport on the A96. The college provides three services—Learning, Research and Consultancy. The college features many land based courses such as Agriculture, Countryside Management, Sustainable Environmental Management and Rural Business Management. There are a variety of courses from diplomas through to master's degrees. The Marine Laboratory Aberdeen, which specialises in fisheries, Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (soil science), and the Rowett Research Institute (animal nutrition) are some other higher education institutions.[74]

Schools

Aberdeen Grammar School - geograph.org.uk - 118948
Aberdeen Grammar School
SchoolBuilding
Woodside School, dating from 1890

There are currently 12 secondary schools and 54 primary schools which are run by the city council. The most notable are Aberdeen Grammar School (founded in 1257), Harlaw Academy, Cults Academy, and Oldmachar Academy which were all rated in the top 50 Scottish secondary schools league tables published by The Times in 2005. Harlaw Academy was taken down from the list after a short time but is still a popular school.[83] There are a number of private schools in Aberdeen: Robert Gordon's College, Albyn School for Girls (co-educational as of 2005), St Margaret's School for Girls, the Hamilton School (closed by the Child Care Inspectorate in early 2014), the Total French School (for French oil industry families), the International School of Aberdeen and a Waldorf/Steiner School.

Primary schools in Aberdeen include Airyhall Primary School, Albyn School, Ashley Road Primary School, Balgownie Primary School, Broomhill Primary School, Cornhill Primary School (the city's largest), Culter Primary School, Cults Primary School, Danestone Primary School, Fernielea Primary school, Ferryhill Primary School, Gilcomstoun Primary School, Glashieburn Primary School, Greenbrae School, Hamilton School, Kaimhill Primary School, Kingsford Primary School, Kittybrewster Primary School, Middleton Park Primary School, Mile-End School, Muirfield Primary School, Robert Gordon's College, Skene Square Primary School, St. Joseph's Primary School and St Margaret's School for Girls.

Culture

Aberdeen Art Gallery
Aberdeen Art Gallery
8th Dec 2012-Martime Museum, Shiprow
Maritime Museum, Shiprow

.[84]

The city has a wide range of cultural activities, amenities and museums.[85] The city is regularly visited by Scotland's National Arts Companies. The Aberdeen Art Gallery houses a collection of Impressionist, Victorian, Scottish and 20th-century British paintings as well as collections of silver and glass. It also includes The Alexander Macdonald Bequest, a collection of late 19th century works donated by the museum's first benefactor and a constantly changing collection of contemporary work and regular visiting exhibitions.[86]

Museums and galleries

The Aberdeen Maritime Museum, located in Shiprow, tells the story of Aberdeen's links with the sea from the days of sail and clipper ships to the latest oil and gas exploration technology. It includes an 8.5-metre-high (28 ft) model of the Murchison oil production platform and a 19th-century assembly taken from Rattray Head lighthouse Provost Ross' House is the second oldest dwelling house in the city. It was built in 1593 and became the residence of Provost John Ross of Arnage in 1702. The house retains some original medieval features, including a kitchen, fireplaces and beam-and-board ceilings.[87] The Gordon Highlanders Museum tells the story of one of Scotland's best known regiments.[88]

Provost Skene's House, Aberdeen - geograph.org.uk - 1548669
Provost Skene's House Museum, dating from 1545
18th Jan 2014 - Tolbooth Museum
The Tolbooth Museum, a 17th-century jail

Marischal Museum holds the principal collections of the University of Aberdeen, comprising some 80,000 items in the areas of fine art, Scottish history and archaeology, and European, Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology. The permanent displays and reference collections are augmented by regular temporary exhibitions.[89] It closed to the public in 2008 for renovations; its reopening date has yet to be confirmed.[90] The King's Museum acts as the main museum of the university in the meantime.

Festivals and performing arts

Aberdeen is home to a number of events and festivals including the Aberdeen International Youth Festival (the world's largest arts festival for young performers), Aberdeen Jazz Festival, Aberdeen Alternative Festival, Rootin' Aboot (a folk and roots music event), Triptych, the University of Aberdeen's literature festival Word and DanceLive, Scotland's only Festival of contemporary dance, which is produced by the city's Citymoves dance organisation.

Aberdeen, Exhibition and Conference Centre - geograph.org.uk - 596975
Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre

The Aberdeen Student Show, performed annually without interruption since 1921, under the auspices of the Aberdeen Students' Charities Campaign, is the longest-running of its kind in the United Kingdom. It is written, produced and performed by students and graduates of Aberdeen's universities and higher education institutions. Since 1929—other than on a handful of occasions—it has been staged at His Majesty's Theatre. The Student Show traditionally combines comedy and music, inspired by the North-East's Doric dialect and humour.

GordonHighlanders-18288-Lizzie
Gordon Highlanders Museum, Aberdeen

National festivals which visited Aberdeen in 2012 included the British Science Festival in September, hosted by the University of Aberdeen but with events also taking place at Robert Gordon University and at other venues across the city. In February 2012 the University of Aberdeen also hosted the Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival, the longest running folk festival in the United Kingdom.

Music and film

Aberdeen Arts Centre - geograph.org.uk - 851159
Aberdeen Arts Centre

Aberdeen's music scene includes a variety of live music venues including pubs, clubs, and church choirs. The bars of Belmont Street are particularly known for featuring live music. Ceilidhs are also common in the city's halls. Popular music venues include the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre (AECC), Aberdeen Music Hall, along with smaller venues such as The Tunnels, The Moorings, Drummonds, Downstairs, The Lemon Tree and The Garage. Notable Aberdonian musicians include Annie Lennox, Emeli Sandé, cult band Pallas and contemporary composer John McLeod. There are many local bands including Grader, Sleepless, Hayworth, Deceptions, Without Reason, Monroe and Deadfire A large proportion of Aberdeen's classical music scene is based around the ensembles of Aberdeen University's music department, notably the Symphony Orchestra, Marischal Chamber Orchestra, and the Concert Band.

The Music Hall, Union Street, Aberdeen
The Music Hall, Union Street, Aberdeen

Cultural cinema, educational work and local film events are provided by The Belmont Picturehouse on Belmont Street, Peacock Visual Arts and The Foyer. The only Doric speaking feature film was released in 2008 by Stirton Productions and Canny Films. One Day Removals is a black comedy/adult drama starring Patrick Wight and Scott Ironside and tells the tale of two unlucky removal men whose day goes from bad to worse. It was filmed on location in Aberdeenshire for a budget of £60,000.

The Cowdray Hall, Aberdeen
The Cowdray Hall, Aberdeen

Dialect

Satrosphere, Links Road - geograph.org.uk - 401659
Satrosphere, Science Centre Links Road

The local dialect of Lowland Scots is often known as Doric, and is spoken not just in the city, but across the north-east of Scotland. It differs somewhat from other Scots dialects most noticeable are the pronunciation f for what is normally written wh and ee for what in standard English would usually be written oo (Scots ui). Every year the annual Doric Festival[91] takes place in Aberdeenshire to celebrate the history of the north-east's language. As with all Scots dialects in urban areas, it is not spoken as widely as it used to be in Aberdeen.

Media

Aberdeen is home to Scotland's oldest newspaper the Press and Journal, a local and regional newspaper first published in 1747. The Press and Journal and its sister paper the tabloid Evening Express are printed six days a week by Aberdeen Journals. There is one free newspaper, the Aberdeen Citizen. BBC Scotland has a network studio production base in the city's Beechgrove area, and BBC Aberdeen produces The Beechgrove Potting Shed for radio while Tern Television produces The Beechgrove Garden television programme.[92] The city is also home to STV North (formerly Grampian Television), which produces the regional news programmes such as STV News at Six, as well as local commercials. The station, based at Craigshaw Business Park in Tullos, was based at larger studios in Queens Cross from September 1961 until June 2003.

There are three commercial radio stations operating in the city: Northsound Radio, which runs Northsound 1 and Northsound 2, and independent station Original 106. Other radio stations include NECR FM (North-East Community Radio FM) DAB station,[93] and shmu FM[94] managed by Station House Media Unit[95] which supports community members to run Aberdeen's first (and only) full-time community radio station, broadcasting on 99.8 MHz FM.

Food

Aberdeen Buttery
Aberdeen butteries, also known as rowies, served with jam

The Aberdeen region has given its name to a number of dishes, including the Aberdeen buttery (also known as "rowie")[96] and Aberdeen Sausage.[97] The Aberdeen buttery is more frequently seen and is sold at bakeries and supermarkets throughout the city. It is comparable to a croissant that is flat and round with a buttery, savoury taste and flaky texture. It is often toasted and served plain or with butter or jam.

In 2015, a study was published in The Scotsman which analysed the presence of branded fast food outlets in Scotland. Of the ten towns and cities analysed, Aberdeen was found to have the lowest per capita concentration, with just 0.12 stores per 1,000 inhabitants.[98]

Sport

Football

Pittodrie Stadium viewed from Broad Hill - geograph.org.uk - 1573187
Pittodrie Stadium viewed from Broad Hill

SPFL football club, Aberdeen F.C. play at Pittodrie Stadium. The club won the European Cup Winners Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983, the Scottish Premier League Championship four times (1955, 1980, 1984 and 1985), and the Scottish Cup seven times (1947, 1970, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1990). Under the management of Alex Ferguson, Aberdeen was a major force in British football during the 1980s. As of the 2016–17 season, the club is managed by Derek McInnes. There are plans to build a new Aberdeen Stadium in the future. Under the management of McInnes the team won the 2014 Scottish League Cup and followed it up with a second place league finish for the first time for more than 20 years in the following season.

The other senior team is Cove Rangers F.C. of the Highland Football League (HFL), who play at Allan Park in the suburb of Cove Bay, although they will be moving to Calder Park once it is built to boost their chances of getting into the Scottish Football League.[99] Cove won the HFL championship in 2001, 2008, 2009 and 2013.

There was also a historic senior team Bon Accord F.C. who no longer play. Local junior teams include Banks O' Dee F.C., Culter F.C., F.C. Stoneywood, Glentanar F.C., Sunnybank and Hermes F.C..

Rugby Union

Aberdeen hosted Caledonia Reds a Scottish rugby team, before they merged with the Glasgow Warriors in 1998. The city is also home to the Scottish Premiership Division One rugby club Aberdeen GSFP RFC who play at Rubislaw Playing Fields, and Aberdeenshire RFC which was founded in 1875 and runs Junior, Senior Men's, Senior Ladies and Touch sections from the Woodside Sports Complex[100] and also Aberdeen Wanderers RFC. Former Wanderers' player Jason White was captain of the Scotland national rugby union team.

Aberdeenshire Rugby Football Club is based in the North of the city at Woodside Sports Complex[101] near the Great North Road on the banks of the river Don. They currently play in the Scottish League Championship B (East), the 3rd tier of club rugby.

In 2005 the President of the SRU said it was hoped eventually to establish a professional team in Aberdeen.[102] In November 2008 the city hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland and Canada, with Scotland winning 41–0.[103] In November 2010 the city once again hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland and Samoa, with Scotland winning 19–16.

Rugby League

Aberdeen Warriors rugby league team play in the Scotland Rugby League Conference Division One. The Warriors also run Under 15's and 17's teams. Aberdeen Grammar School won the Saltire Schools Cup in 2011.[104]

Golf

HazleheadGolfCourse
Hazlehead Golf Course, Aberdeen

The Royal Aberdeen Golf Club, founded in 1780 and the oldest golf club in Aberdeen, hosted the Senior British Open in 2005, and the amateur team event the Walker Cup in 2011.[105] Royal Aberdeen also hosted the Scottish Open in 2014, won by Justin Rose.[106] The club has a second course, and there are public golf courses at Auchmill, Balnagask, Hazlehead and King's Links.[107] The 1999 winner of The Open Championship, Paul Lawrie, hails from the city.

There are new courses planned for the area, including world class facilities with major financial backing, the city and shire are set to become a hotbed for golf tourism. In Summer 2012, Donald Trump opened a new state of the art golf course at Menie, just north of the city, as the Trump International Golf Links, Scotland.

Aberdeen Aquatics Centre - Aberdeen Sports Village
Aberdeen Aquatics Centre – Aberdeen Sports Village

Swimming

The City of Aberdeen Swim Team (COAST) was based in Northfield swimming pool, but since the opening of the Aberdeen Aquatics Centre in 2014, it is now based there, as it has a 50 m pool as opposed to the 25 m pool at Northfield. It has been in operation since 1996. The team comprises several smaller swimming clubs, and has enjoyed success throughout Scotland and in international competitions. Three of the team's swimmers qualified for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.[108]

Rowing

Wellington Suspension Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 1445265
Rowers under Wellington Suspension Bridge on the River Dee, Aberdeen

There are four boat clubs that row on the River Dee: Aberdeen Boat Club (ABC), Aberdeen Schools Rowing Association (ASRA), Aberdeen University Boat Club (AUBC) and Robert Gordon University Boat Club (RGUBC). There are regattas and head races annually, managed by the Committee of the Dee. There is also a boat race held every year between AUBC and RGUBC. The race is in mixed eights, and usually held in late February / early March.

Cricket

Aberdeen boasts a large cricket community with 4 local leagues operating that comprise a total of 25 clubs fielding 36 teams. The city has two national league sides, Aberdeenshire and Stoneywood-Dyce. Local 'Grades'[109] cricket has been played in Aberdeen since 1884. Aberdeenshire were the 2009 & 2014 Scottish National Premier League and Scottish Cup Champions[110]

Ice hockey

Aberdeen Lynx are an amateur ice hockey team who play in the Scottish National League and are based at the Linx Ice Arena. The arena has a seating capacity of 1,100. The club also field teams at the Under 20, Under 16, Under 14 and Under 12 age groups.

Other sports

The city council operates public tennis courts in various parks including an indoor tennis centre at Westburn Park. The Beach Leisure Centre is home to a climbing wall, gymnasium and a swimming pool. There are numerous swimming pools dotted around the city notably the largest, the Bon-Accord Baths which closed down in 2006.[111]

Aberdeen City council also have an outdoor education service which is now known as adventure aberdeen, that provides abseiling, surfing, white water rafting, gorge walking, kayaking and open canoeing, mountaineering, sailing, mountain biking and rock climbing. They say they aim to "Inspire learning through adventure", and have many programs for children and adults.[112]

In common with many other major towns and cities in the UK, Aberdeen has an active roller derby league, Granite City Roller Girls.[113] The Aberdeen Roughnecks American football club are a new team which started in 2012. They are an adult contact team who currently train at Seaton Park. This is the first team which Aberdeen has enjoyed since the Granite City Oilers were wound up in the late 1990s. Aberdeen Oilers Floorball Club was founded in 2007. The club initially attracted a range of experienced Scandinavian and other European players who were studying in Aberdeen. Since their formation, Aberdeen Oilers have played in the British Floorball Northern League and went on to win the league in the 2008/09 season. The club played a major role in setting up a ladies league in Scotland. The Oilers' ladies team ended up second in the first ladies league season (2008/09).[114]

Public services

15th Sep 2012-Abdn Children's Hosp & Emergency Care Centre 10
New Royal Aberdeen's Children Hospital and New Emergency Care Centre in background, Foresterhill, Aberdeen
8th Dec 2012-Grampian Police HQ
Police Scotland's Aberdeen HQ, Queen Street

The public health service in Scotland, NHS Scotland provides for the people of Aberdeen through the NHS Grampian health board. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary is the largest hospital in the city and one of the largest in Europe[115][116] (the location of the city's A&E department), Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, a paediatric hospital, Royal Cornhill Hospital for mental health, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, an antenatal hospital, Woodend Hospital, which specialises in rehabilitation and long term illnesses and conditions, and City Hospital and Woolmanhill Hospital, which host several out-patient clinics and offices.

Albyn Hospital is a private hospital located in the west end of the city.

Aberdeen City Council is responsible for city owned infrastructure which is paid for by a mixture of council tax and income from HM Treasury. Infrastructure and services run by the council include: clearing snow in winter, city wardens, maintaining parks, refuse collection, sewage, street cleaning and street lighting. Infrastructure in private hands includes electricity, gas and telecoms. Water supplies are provided by Scottish Water.

Twin cities

Aberdeen is twinned with Regensburg, Germany (1955),[119] Clermont-Ferrand, France (1983),[119] Bulawayo, Zimbabwe (1986),[119] Stavanger, Norway (1990),[119] Gomel, Belarus (1990) and Barranquilla, Colombia (2016).[119]

Houston, Texas, is twinned with the former region of Grampian, of which Aberdeen is the largest settlement.

Notable people

Byron 1813 by Phillips
George Gordon Byron

Aberdeen in popular culture

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

Aberdeen, Maryland

Aberdeen is a city located in Harford County, Maryland, 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Baltimore. The population was 14,959 at the 2010 United States Census. Aberdeen is the largest municipality in Harford County.

Aberdeen is part of the Baltimore-Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which is the 20th-largest United States metropolitan area. The nearest city to Aberdeen is Havre de Grace, Maryland, 4.8 miles (7.7 km) to the northeast.

Aberdeen, South Dakota

Aberdeen (Lakota: Ablíla) is a city in and the county seat of Brown County, South Dakota, United States, about 125 miles (201 km) northeast of Pierre. The city population was 26,091 at the 2010 census, making it the third most populous city in the state after Sioux Falls and Rapid City. Aberdeen is the principal city of the Aberdeen Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Brown and Edmunds counties and has a population of 40,602 in 2010. Aberdeen is considered a college town, being the home of both Northern State University and Presentation College.

Aberdeen, Washington

Aberdeen is a city in Grays Harbor County, Washington, United States. The population was 16,896 at the 2010 census. The city is the economic center of Grays Harbor County, bordering the cities of Hoquiam and Cosmopolis. Aberdeen is often referred to as the "Gateway to the Olympic Peninsula" and the "Home of Kurt Cobain".

Aberdeen Airport

Aberdeen International Airport (Scottish Gaelic: Port-adhair Eadar-nàiseanta Obar Dheathain) (IATA: ABZ, ICAO: EGPD) is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland, approximately 5 nautical miles (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) northwest of Aberdeen city centre. A total of just under 3.1 million passengers used the airport in 2017, an increase of 4.6% compared with 2016.

The airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which also owns and operates Glasgow and Southampton airports. It was previously owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings (formerly known as BAA). Aberdeen Airport is a base for Eastern Airways, Flybe and Loganair. The airport also serves as the main heliport for the Scottish offshore oil industry. With the utilisation of newer aircraft, helicopters can reach northernmost platforms on both the east and west of Shetland areas. However, helicopters also sometimes use Wick, Kirkwall, Scatsta and Sumburgh for refuelling stops.

The airport has one main passenger terminal, serving all scheduled and charter holiday flights. In addition, there are four terminals dedicated to North Sea helicopter operations, used by Bristow Helicopters, CHC Helicopter, NHV and Babcock Mission Critical Services Offshore. Bristow Helicopters also have a small terminal adjacent to the main passenger terminal, used primarily for oil company charter flights to Scatsta and Sumburgh in Shetland, operated by Eastern Airways.

Aberdeen F.C.

Aberdeen Football Club (also known as The Dons) is a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. They compete in the Scottish Premiership and have never been relegated from the top division of the Scottish football league system since they were promoted in 1905, despite twice finishing within the relegation zone. Aberdeen have won four Scottish league titles, seven Scottish Cups and six Scottish League Cups. They are also the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, having won the European Cup Winners' Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983.

Formed in 1903 as a result of the amalgamation of three clubs from Aberdeen, they rarely challenged for honours until the post war decade, when they won each of the major Scottish trophies under manager Dave Halliday. This level of success was surpassed in the 1980s, when, under the management of Alex Ferguson, they won three league titles, four Scottish Cups and a Scottish League Cup, alongside the two European trophies. Aberdeen were the last club outside the Old Firm to win a league title, in 1984–85, and also the last Scottish team to win a European trophy. The team has enjoyed less success since this golden era, though a 19-year wait for a major trophy was ended by winning the 2013–14 Scottish League Cup, followed up by multiple second-place finishes behind Celtic in the league during the 2010s.

Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception. The ground currently has a capacity of 20,866 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was also the first football stadium to feature a dug-out, an invention of player and coach Donald Colman.

The club's colours have been primarily red and white since 1939; before this, they played in black and gold vertical stripes. In modern times, Aberdeen have almost exclusively played with all-red strips with white detailing. Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the only senior team in the North East area and have no geographically close rivals; their nearest neighbours at the same level are in the city of Dundee.

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving Grounds) is a United States Army facility located adjacent to Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford County). Part of the facility is a census-designated place (CDP), which had a population of 3,116 at the 2000 census, and 2,093 at the 2010 census.

Aberdeenshire

Aberdeenshire (Scots: Aiberdeenshire; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland.

It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has substantially different boundaries. The Aberdeenshire council area includes all of the area of the historic counties of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire (except the area making up the City of Aberdeen), as well as part of Banffshire. The county boundaries are officially used for a few purposes, namely land registration and lieutenancy.Aberdeenshire Council is headquartered at Woodhill House, in Aberdeen, making it the only Scottish council whose headquarters are located outside its jurisdiction. Aberdeen itself forms a different council area (Aberdeen City). Aberdeenshire borders onto Angus and Perth and Kinross to the south, Highland and Moray to the west and Aberdeen City to the east.

Traditionally, it has been economically dependent upon the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and forestry) and related processing industries. Over the last 40 years, the development of the oil and gas industry and associated service sector has broadened Aberdeenshire's economic base, and contributed to a rapid population growth of some 50% since 1975. Its land represents 8% of Scotland's overall territory. It covers an area of 6,313 square kilometres (2,437 sq mi).

Adam Rooney

Adam Christopher Rooney (born 21 April 1988) is an Irish professional footballer who plays as a striker for National League club Salford City. He previously played for Stoke City, spent spells on loan at Yeovil Town, Chesterfield and Bury, was a regular first-team member for Inverness Caledonian Thistle, and played for Birmingham City and had a loan spell at Swindon Town. He played for Oldham Athletic before spending four-and-a-half seasons with Aberdeen.

Angus cattle

The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes simply Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle. It derives from cattle native to the counties of Aberdeenshire and Angus in north-eastern Scotland.The Angus is naturally polled and solid black or red, though the udder may be white. The native colour is black, but more recently red colours have emerged. The UK registers both in the same herd book, but in the United States they are regarded as two separate breeds – Red Angus and Black Angus. Black Angus is the most common breed of beef cattle in the United States, with 332,421 animals registered in 2017. In 2014, the British Cattle Movement Service named Angus the UK's most popular native beef breed, and the second most popular beef breed overall.

Flybmi

Flybmi, styled as flybmi, legally British Midland Regional Limited and formerly branded as BMI Regional, was a British regional airline that operated scheduled passenger services across the UK and Europe. The head office of the airline was at East Midlands Airport in North West Leicestershire, and it had operating bases at Aberdeen, Brussels, Bristol, East Midlands, Newcastle and Munich.

Flybmi was a former subsidiary of British Midland International (BMI), which was purchased from Lufthansa by International Airlines Group (IAG) on 20 April 2012. Regional was sold to Sector Aviation Holdings in May 2012 and operated as an independent airline from October 2012. In August 2015, the airline became part of a new regional airline group, Airline Investments Limited (AIL), along with Loganair.Flybmi ceased operations and filed for administration on 16 February 2019.

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, (28 January 1784 – 14 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British statesman, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite politician, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics.

Aberdeen's career was dominated by foreign policy, but his experience did not prevent the slide towards the Crimean War. His personal life was marked by the loss of both parents by the time he was eleven, and of his first wife after only seven years of a happy marriage. His daughters died young, and his relations with his sons were difficult. Before his marriage he travelled extensively in Europe, including Greece, and he had a serious interest in the classical civilisations and their archaeology. On his return to Britain in 1805 he devoted much time and energy to improving conditions on his Scottish estates.

After the death of his wife in 1812 he became a diplomat, almost immediately being given the important embassy to Vienna while still in his twenties. His rise in politics was equally rapid and lucky, and "two accidents—Canning's death and Wellington's impulsive acceptance of the Canningite resignations" led to his becoming Foreign Secretary to the Duke of Wellington in 1828 despite "an almost ludicrous lack of official experience"; he had been a minister for less than six months. After holding the position for two years, followed by another cabinet role, by 1841 his experience led to his appointment as Foreign Secretary again under Robert Peel for a longer term. This was despite his being a "notoriously bad speaker", which mattered far less in the House of Lords, and having a "dour, awkward, occasionally sarcastic exterior". Nonetheless his Peelite colleague, later himself Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, said of him that he was "the man in public life of all others whom I have loved. I say emphatically loved. I have loved others, but never like him".

Grays Harbor County, Washington

Grays Harbor County is a county in the U.S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 72,797. The county seat is Montesano, and its largest city is Aberdeen.

Grays Harbor County comprises the Aberdeen, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Kurt Cobain

Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – April 5, 1994) was an American singer, songwriter, and musician, best known as the guitarist and frontman of the rock band Nirvana. Cobain is remembered as one of the most iconic and influential rock musicians in the history of alternative music.

Born in Aberdeen, Washington, Cobain formed the band Nirvana with Krist Novoselic and Aaron Burckhard in 1987 and established it as part of the Seattle music scene which later became known as grunge. After signing with major label DGC Records, Nirvana found success with "Smells Like Teen Spirit" from their second album Nevermind (1991). Following the success of Nevermind, Nirvana was labelled "the flagship band" of Generation X, and Cobain was hailed as "the spokesman of a generation"; however, Cobain resented this, believing his message and artistic vision had been misinterpreted by the public, with his personal problems often subject to media attention.During the last years of his life, Cobain struggled with heroin addiction and chronic health problems such as depression. He also struggled with the personal and professional pressures of fame, and his marriage to musician Courtney Love. On April 8, 1994, Cobain was found dead at his home in Seattle by an electrician who had come to install a home security system; it was concluded Cobain died on April 5 at the age of 27 from a self-inflicted shotgun wound to his head.Cobain has been described as a "Generation X icon". He was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, along with Nirvana bandmates Dave Grohl and Novoselic, in their first year of eligibility in 2014. In 2003, David Fricke of Rolling Stone ranked him the 12th greatest guitarist of all time. He was ranked 7th by MTV in the "22 Greatest Voices in Music". In 2006, he was placed 20th by Hit Parader on their list of the "100 Greatest Metal Singers of All Time".

List of Scottish football champions

The Scottish football champions are the winners of the highest league in Scottish football, namely the Scottish Football League (SFL) from 1890 until 1998, the Scottish Premier League (SPL) from 1998 until 2013 and the Scottish Premiership thereafter.

The SFL was established in 1890, initially as an amateur league until professionalism in Scottish football was legalised in 1893. At the end of the first season Dumbarton and Rangers finished level on points at the top of the table. The rules in force at the time required that the teams contest a play-off match for the championship, which finished in a 2–2 draw, and the first ever championship was thus shared between two clubs, the only occasion on which this has happened. In 1893 a Second Division was formed, with the existing single division renamed the First Division. The league continued during the First World War but was suspended during the Second World War.Although there were several short spells when a third division was created, the two-division structure remained largely in place until 1975, when a major re-organisation of the league led to a new three-tier set-up and the creation of a new Premier Division at the highest level. In 1998, the teams then in the Premier Division broke away to form the SPL, which supplanted the Premier Division as the highest level of football in Scotland. The SPL and SFL merged in 2013 to form the Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL), which branded its top division as the Scottish Premiership.Throughout its existence the championship of Scottish football has been dominated by two Glasgow clubs, Celtic and Rangers. The two rivals, who are collectively known as the "Old Firm", have claimed the majority of league titles. As of 2018, Rangers have won 54 and Celtic 49, while no other club has won the title on more than four occasions. No club outside the Old Firm has won the title since the 1984–85 season, when the Aberdeen side managed by Alex Ferguson won the Premier Division. The current period of dominance by the Old Firm is a record; the previous longest streak was 27 years, between 1904 and 1931.

Each of the Old Firm clubs has at one time managed a run of nine consecutive championships, Celtic from 1966 to 1974 and Rangers from 1989 to 1997. Each of the two clubs has also claimed the Double on many occasions, by winning the league and the Scottish Cup in the same season. As of the start of the 2017–18 season Rangers have won the most Doubles with 18, more than any other club in the world apart from Northern Ireland's Linfield. Each club has also won a Double and added the Scottish League Cup to make it a Treble. In the 1966–67 season Celtic took all three domestic trophies and also won the European Cup to complete the only Quadruple to date.

Pittodrie Stadium

Pittodrie Stadium, commonly referred to as Pittodrie, is an all-seater stadium in Aberdeen, Scotland. Used primarily for football, it has been the home ground of Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL) club Aberdeen F.C. since they were formed in 1903. Prior to then, the ground hosted the original Aberdeen F.C. from 1899 until the merger that created the present club.

With a seating capacity of 20,866; Pittodrie is the fourth largest stadium in the SPFL and the largest stadium in Scotland outside the Central Belt. Pittodrie has been the location of a number of firsts in the field of stadium design, including the invention of the dugout, and in 1978 became one of the first all-seater stadia in the United Kingdom.As of November 2017, Pittodrie has hosted fifteen matches involving the Scotland national team. The ground has also staged rugby union, with four Scotland international fixtures being held there including a match against the Barbarians. In club football, Inverness Caledonian Thistle temporarily shared Pittodrie during part of the 2004–05 season.

Scottish Premier League

The Scottish Premier League (SPL) was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland. The league was founded in 1998, when it broke away from the Scottish Football League (SFL). It was abolished in 2013, when the SPL and SFL merged to form the new Scottish Professional Football League, with its top division being known as the Scottish Premiership. A total of 19 clubs competed in the SPL, but only the Old Firm clubs, Celtic and Rangers won the league championship.

Scottish Premiership

The Scottish Premiership, known for sponsorship reasons as the Ladbrokes Premiership, is the top division of the Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL), the league competition for men's professional football clubs in Scotland. The Scottish Premiership was established in July 2013, after the SPFL was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League. Sixteen clubs have played in the Scottish Premiership since its creation in the 2013–14 season. Celtic are the current league champions, being the only league champion to date since its establishment.

Standard Life Aberdeen

Standard Life Aberdeen plc is an investment company with headquarters in Edinburgh and operations around the globe. In March 2017, Standard Life reached an agreement to merge with the investment company Aberdeen Asset Management. Standard Life was renamed Standard Life Aberdeen on 14 August 2017. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

University of Aberdeen

The University of Aberdeen (abbreviated as Aberd. in post-nominals) is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is an ancient university founded in 1495 when William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen and Chancellor of Scotland, petitioned Pope Alexander VI on behalf of James IV, King of Scots to establish King's College, making it Scotland's third-oldest university and the fifth-oldest in the English-speaking world. Today, Aberdeen is consistently ranked among the top 200 universities in the world and is ranked within the top 30 universities in the United Kingdom. Aberdeen was also named the 2019 Scottish University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide.The university as it is currently comprised was formed in 1860 by a merger between King's College and Marischal College, a second university founded in 1593 as a Protestant alternative to the former. The university's iconic buildings act as symbols of wider Aberdeen, particularly Marischal College in the city centre and the crown steeple of King's College in Old Aberdeen. There are two campuses; the predominantly utilised King's College campus dominates the section of the city known as Old Aberdeen, which is approximately two miles north of the city centre. Although the original site of the university's foundation, most academic buildings were constructed in the 20th century during a period of significant expansion. The university's Foresterhill campus is next to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary and houses the School of Medicine and Dentistry as well as the School of Medical Sciences. Together these buildings comprise one of Europe's largest health campuses. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £219.5 million of which £56.1 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £226.8 million.Aberdeen has approximately 13,500 students from undergraduate to doctoral level, including many international students. An abundant range of disciplines are taught at the university, with 650 undergraduate degree programmes offered in the 2012-13 academic year. Many important figures in the field of theology were educated at the university, particularly in its earlier history, giving rise to the Aberdeen doctors in the 17th century and prolific enlightenment philosopher Thomas Reid in the 18th. Five Nobel laureates have since been associated with Aberdeen.

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