The Abenaki people are an indigenous peoples of the Americas located in the northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Religious ceremonies are led by medicine keepers, called Medeoulin or Mdawinno.
The history of the Abenaki people is divided into three time periods. In the first, the Ancient Age, humanity and animal-life are undifferentiated. In the second, the Golden Age, humans are still animals, but quantitatively different. In the third, the Present Age, animals and humanity are totally differentiated.
Tabaldak, the creator god, made humans and then Gluskab (several variants of whom were associated with different branches of the Abenaki, including Glooscap, Glooskap, Gluskabe Klooskomba) and Malsumis sprang from the dust on his hand. Gluskab and Malsumis both had the power to create a good world, but only Gluskab did so. Malsumis still seeks evil to this day.
Gluskab founded the Golden Age of the Earth by rendering the evil spirits of the Ancient Age smaller and safer, as well as teaching humanity how to hunt and fish, build shelter and all of the Abenaki's knowledge of art, invention and science. Gluskab's departure ended the Golden Age, though he is prophesied to return and renew it again.
Me-koom-wee-soo was Gluskab's assistant and wields an ivory bow. He has a fierce temper and gains weight as he gets more angry; eventually, it is said, he sinks into stone. Gluskab and Me-koom-wee-soo had an archery contest once; Me-koom-wee-soo fired an arrow into the top of Mt. Washington, creating a pond, while Gluskab's arrow created a hole in the sky that was then called msatawa (the Evening Star).
Gluskab realized the strain hunters can cause on an ecosystem. He asked a woodchuck spirit for help, and she gave him all the hairs off her belly, woven into a magical sac; which is why woodchucks have bald bellies. Gluskab then went to a mountain, where Tabaldak had placed a huge eagle (P-mol-a) that made bad weather by flapping its wings. After binding it, Gluskab realized some wind was necessary and loosened them slightly. Gluskab saved the world from a frog monster that swallowed all the planet's water. When Gluskab cut open the monster's belly, some animals jumped into the water and became fish. Some modern Wabanaki believe that Gluskab is angry at white people for not obeying his rules.
Anishinaabe traditional beliefs cover the traditional belief system of the Anishinaabeg peoples, consisting of the Algonquin/Nipissing, Ojibwa/Chippewa/Saulteaux/Mississaugas, Odawa, Potawatomi and Oji-Cree, located primarily in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada.Ask-wee-da-eed
Ask-wee-da-eed is a Native American mythological figure of the Algonquin Abenaki people. It is an embodiment of fire associated with comets and meteors. and brings bad luck and misfortune.Azeban
Azeban is a lower-level trickster spirit in Abenaki mythology. The traditional homeland of the Abenaki is Wobanakik (Place of the Dawn), what is now called northern New England and southern Quebec. Azeban (also spelled Azban, Asban or Azaban) is a raccoon, the Abenaki trickster figure. Pronounced ah-zuh-bahn. Azeban does many foolish and/or mischievous things in Abenaki folktales, but unlike animal tricksters in some other tribes, is not dangerous or malevolent.
Azeban deceives animals and other beings for food or other services.
There is an Abenaki story where a woman names her six dogs after their characteristics. She named one of the dogs Azeban. This woman Cedar Girl of the Abenaki [Dawn Land People] naming her dog "Azeban" has caused some confusion, causing people to assume the Abenaki trickster figure is a dog, not realizing she called the dog Azeban because he has the characteristics of the raccoon, the actual Abenaki Trickster figure.
In the story the dog Azeban is one of a litter of six dogs born to Awasosqua (Bear Woman). The others are Awasosis (Little Bear), Kwaniwibid (Long Tooth), Mikwe (Squirrel), Moosis (Little Moose) and Soksemo (Good Nose). All the spirits in Awasosqua's broods are dogs, and are named after their characteristics.
In Migian, Azeban is a trickster raccoon dog named Amarst.Big Dipper
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK, Ireland) is a large asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude. Four define a "bowl" or "body" and three define a "handle" or "head". It is recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures.
The North Star (Polaris), the current northern pole star and the tip of the handle of the Little Dipper (Little Bear), can be located by extending an imaginary line through the front two stars of the asterism, Merak (β) and Dubhe (α). This makes it useful in celestial navigation.Glooscap
Glooscap (variant forms and spellings Gluskabe, Glooskap, Gluskabi, Kluscap, Kloskomba, or Gluskab) is a legendary figure of the Wabanaki peoples, native peoples located in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine and Atlantic Canada. The stories were first record by Silas Tertius Rand and then by Charles Godfrey Leland in the 19th century.In his role as creator, Glooscap is similar to that of the Ojibwa Nanabozho and the Cree Wisakedjak. His name, Kloskabe, means "Man who came from nothing" or literally, "Man [created] from only speech". There are variations to the legend of Glooscap as each tribe of the Wabanaki adopted the legend to their own region. At the same time, there are consistencies in the legend with Glooscap always portrayed as "kind, benevolent, a warrior against evil and the possessor of magical powers".Jiibayaabooz
Known in the Ojibwe mythology as Jiibayaabooz (also recorded as Chipiapoos or Cheeby-aub-oozoo, meaning "Spirit Rabbit" or "Ghost of Rabbit") or in the Abenaki mythology as Mateguas (Rabbit), this figure is a trickster spirit, and figures prominently in their storytelling, including the story of the world's creation. Depending on the tradition, he was either the second or third son of Wiininwaa ("Nourishment"), a human mother, and E-bangishimog ("In the West"), a spirit father.
Stories regarding Jiibayaabooz/Mateguas are filled with all things mystical and spiritual. While alive, Jiibayaabooz/Mateguas was obsessed with manidoog's and humans' interaction with each other. Through his regular communication with the manidoog through dreams, he taught the humans the importance of dreams and the methods of communication with the manidoog. As with any little brother, he was subjected to Majiikiwis' taunts, but during a dare from his eldest brother, Jiibayaabooz/Mateguas lost his life.
Even in death, his "jiibay" or ghost continued with obsession with the manidoog, and taught the humans the rites and ceremonies of vision quests and purification ceremonies. Basil Johnston, in his book The Manitous: the spiritual world of the Ojibway also adds Jiibayaabooz became the "Chief of the Underworld" and "... he bequeathed the spirit of music, chants, and poetry to the Anishinaubae peoples."
Among the Abenakis, Mateguas from the dead taught his living brother Gluskab the rites and ceremonies of vision quests and purification ceremonies to comfort his grieving brother. This became the core of the Midewiwin rituals that Gluskab then passed onto the humans.List of avian humanoids
Avian humanoids (people with the characteristics of birds) are a common motif in folklore and popular fiction.List of culture heroes
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery. A typical culture hero might be credited as the discoverer of fire, or agriculture, songs, tradition, law or religion, and is usually the most important legendary figure of a people, sometimes as the founder of its ruling dynasty.List of legendary creatures (M)
Maa-alused (Estonian mythology) - Subterranean spirit
Machlyes (Medieval bestiaries) - Hermaphroditic humanoid
Macrocephali (Medieval bestiaries) - Giant-headed humanoid
Madremonte (Colombian folklore) - Nature guardian
Maero (Māori) - Savage, arboreal humanoids
Magog (English folklore) - Giant protector of London
Maha-pudma (Hindu mythology) - Giant elephant that holds up the world
Mairu (Basque mythology) - Megalith-building giant
Mājas gari (Latvian mythology) - Benevolent house spirit
Makara (Indian mythology) - Aquatic beings
Makura-gaeshi (Japanese mythology) - Pillow-moving spirit
Mallt-y-Nos (Welsh mythology) - Spirit of the hunt
Mami Wata (Africa and the African diaspora) - Supernaturally beautiful water spirits
Manananggal (Philippine mythology) - Vampires that sever their torsos from their legs to fly around
Mandi (Medieval bestiaries) - Humanoid with a forty-year lifespan
Mandrake (Medieval folklore) - Diminutive, animated construct
Manes (Roman mythology) - Ancestral spirits
Mannegishi (Cree) - Little people with six fingers and no noses
Manticore (Persian mythology) - Lion-human-scorpion hybrid
Mapinguari (Brazilian mythology) - Giant sloth
Mara (Scandinavian folklore) - Female night-demon
Marabbecca (Italian folklore) - Malevolent water spirit
Mareikura (Tuamotu) - Attendant of Kiho-tumu, the supreme god
Mares of Diomedes (Greek mythology) - Man-eating horses
Marid (Arabian mythology) - Jinn associated fortune tellers
Marmennill (Norse mythology) - mermen with prophetic abilities
Maro deivės (Lithuanian mythology) - Disease spirits
Maski-mon-gwe-zo-os (Abenaki mythology) - Shapeshifting toad spirit
Matagot (French mythology) - Spirit that takes animal form; usually that of a black cat
Matsya (Hindu mythology) - First Avatar of Vishnu in the form of a half-fish and half-man
Mayura (Hindu mythology) - Peacock spirit
Mazzikin (Jewish mythology) - Invisible, malevolent spirit
Mbói Tu'ĩ (Guaraní mythology) - Snake-parrot hybrid
Mbwiri (Central Africa) - Possessing demon
Medusa (Greek mythology) - Serpent-female hybrid (Gorgon) with numerous snake heads
Meliae (Greek mythology) - Ash tree nymph
Melusine (Medieval folklore) - Female water spirit, with the form of a winged mermaid or serpent
Menehune (Hawaiian mythology) - Little people and craftsmen
Menninkäinen (Finnish mythology) - Little people and nature spirits
Merlion (Singapore) - Combination of a lion and a fish, the symbol of Singapore
Mermaid/Merman (multiple cultures) - Human-fish hybrid
Merrow (Irish mythology and Scottish) - Human-fish hybrid
Metee-kolen-ol (Abenaki mythology) - Ice-hearted wizards
Mimi (Australian Aboriginal mythology) - Extremely elongated humanoid that has to live in rock crevasses to avoid blowing away
Minka Bird (Australian Aboriginal mythology) - Death spirit
Minokawa (Philippine) - Giant swallow
Minotaur (Greek mythology) - Human-bull hybrid
Mishibizhiw (Ojibwa) - Feline water spirit
Misi-ginebig (Ojibwa) - Serpentine rain spirit
Misi-kinepikw (Cree) - Serpentine rain spirit
Mizuchi (Japanese mythology) - Water dragon
Mogwai (Chinese mythology) - Vengeful ghost or demon
Mohan (Latin American folklore) - Nature spirit
Mokèlé-mbèmbé (Congo) - Water-dwelling creature
Mokoi (Australian Aboriginal mythology) - Malevolent spirit that kills sorcerers
Moñái (Guaraní mythology) - Giant snake with antennae
Monocerus (Medieval bestiaries) - One-horned stag-horse-elephant-boar hybrid, sometimes treated as distinct from the unicorn
Mono Grande (South America) - Giant monkey
Monopod (Medieval bestiaries) - Dwarf with one giant foot
Mooinjer veggey (Manx folklore) - Nature spirit
Mora (Slavic mythology) - Disembodied spirit
Morgens (Breton and Welsh mythology) - Water spirits
Morinji-no-okama (Japanese mythology) - Animated tea kettle
Mormolykeia (Greek) - Underworld spirit
Moroi (Romanian) - Vampiric ghost
Moss people (Continental Germanic mythology) - Little people and tree spirits
Mujina (Japanese mythology) - Shapeshifting badger spirit
Muldjewangk (Australian Aboriginal mythology) - Water monster
Multo (Philippine mythology) - Spirit of a deceased person seeking justice or has unfinished business
Muma Pădurii (Romanian folklore) - Forest-dwelling hag
Muscaliet (Medieval bestiaries) - Hare-squirrel-boar hybrid that has an intense body heat
Muse (Greek mythology) - Spirits that inspire artists
Musimon (Heraldic) - Sheep-goat hybrid
Myling (Scandinavian folklore) - Ghosts of unbaptized children
Myrmecoleon (Medieval bestiaries) - Ant-lion hybridList of legendary creatures by type
This is a list of legendary creatures from mythology, folklore and fairy tales, sorted by their classification or affiliation. Creatures from modern fantasy fiction and role-playing games are not included.Malsumis
Malsumis is the highly malevolent spirit or god of chaos and thorns in Abenaki mythology, an Algonquian people of northeastern North America.Midewiwin
The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of some of the indigenous peoples of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. Its practitioners are called Midew, and the practices of Midewiwin are referred to as Mide. Occasionally, male Midew are called Midewinini, which is sometimes translated into English as "medicine man".Netawansum
Netawansum is a mythological figure in Mi'kmaq tradition who is the nephew/niece and travel companion of Klu'skap. Netawansum was created by Kisúlk using ocean foam that had been blown onto sweetgrass by the shore. Netawansum possessed knowledge about the life and strength of the maritime world.During the sixth stage of creation, Netawansum met their uncle Klu'skap and granted him improved vision, including the ability to see great distances; spirit; and body. To celebrate their meeting, Netawansum brought gifts from the ocean to Klu'skap, who in return summoned fish from the ocean and cooked them to make a meal alongside nuts from the trees. Together with Klu'skap and Klu'skap's grandmother Nukumi, they found Klu'skap's mother, Níkanaptekewísqw. This group of four lived together for a long time before Klu'skap decided to leave his mother and nephew/niece and travel north with his grandmother.A Mi'kmaq ceremony held during council gatherings burns sweetgrass to honour the arrival of Netawansum.Odziozo
Odziozo, also called Oodzee-hozo, is a giant in Algonquin (specifically Abenaki) legend. His name means "He who Created Himself," or "Transformer." He is attributed with the creation of Lake Champlain, Tuxis Island and Pond, Rock Dunder, and Samson Rock, among other landforms, including mountains and rivers. The legend states that he grew his arms and head from his body, but his legs grew slowly. He passed the time by forming valleys, meadows, and hills. After carving out and flooding Champlain, then known as Bitawbágw, Petoubouque or Petonbowk, meaning 'lake in between,' he followed a flock of migrating geese south along a glacier. He arrived in Madison, Connecticut, where he took a handful of earth and flung it to sea. The piece that landed in Long Island Sound became Tuxis Island, and another piece that fell out of his hand became Samson Rock. The hole, Tuxis Pond, was filled in the resulting splash. Odziozo then turned, stepping on the rock (It is assumed his legs were grown in by then), and went back to Vermont to get to his home, Rock Dunder, where, exhausted, he turned himself into a stone, so as to be permanently with his favorite creation.Odziozo is often said to have lived before animals evolved legs, and, as such, many of the landforms he created were caused by the dragging of his body by his long arms. Rock Dunder, in Shelburne, Vermont, is supposedly where his spirit and body are kept. The Madison section of the story is most likely a more recent legend.
Odziozo has a boat race named after him in Lake Champlain.At least one expert thinks that the glacier mentioned in the legend was added in the 17th century.Pamola
Pamola (also known as Pamolai, P-mol-a, Pomola, and Bmola) is a legendary bird spirit that appears in Abenaki mythology. This spirit causes cold weather.
Specifically, according to the Penobscot tribal nation, Pamola inhabited Katahdin, the tallest mountain in Maine. Pamola is said to be the god of Thunder and protector of the mountain. The Penobscot people describe him as having the head of a moose, the body of a man and the wings and feet of an eagle. Pamola was both feared and respected by the Penobscot nation, and his presence was one of the main reasons that climbing the mountain was considered taboo.
The spirit resented mortals intruding from down below. Because of this, the mountain was off limits to all below. Henry David Thoreau, of his August, 1846 exploration of the Penobscot River and Katahdin wrote, "Pomola is always angry with those who climb to the summit of Ktaadn."It was also believed that Pamola took prisoners to Alomkik, located near Katahdin.The name is now preserved on Pamola Peak, a summit on Katahdin at the eastern edge of the Knife Edge ridge. The Pamola Lodge of the Order of the Arrow is an honor camping society of the Boy Scouts of America; Pamola's image is commonly used on several of the society's insignia.
Roy Dudley, probably the most notable of the early guides on Katahdin, was known for his campfire yarns about Pamola.Tabaldak
Tabaldak is the creator among the Abenaki and Algonquian people of northeastern North America. His name means "The Owner" who "created all living things but one". Tabaldak created people out of stones, but thought these people's hearts were too cold. He broke up these stones and left them scattered over the Abenaki land. Next he tried wood, and out of these came the Abenaki people. The only creature Tabaldak did not create was Odzihodo, whose name means "He Makes Himself from Something." Initially Odzihodo only had his hand, and as he was not a creator of things, required help from Tabaldak. By the time he was fully formed, Odzihodo had already transformed the world to his vision. To do this, he piled dirt to make mountains, and dug lines for rivers. He took great care in forming Lake Champlain, and happy with his work, turned into a stone.Theriocephaly
Theriocephaly (from Greek θηρίον therion 'beast' and κεφαλή kefalí 'head') is the anthropomorphic condition or quality of having the head of an animal – commonly used to refer the depiction in art of humans (or deities) with animal heads.