Abdullah ibn Umar (Arabic: عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was a prominent authority in hadith and law, and was known for his neutrality toward factions engaged in the first civil war within the Muslim community (656–661).
Abdullah ibn Umar
693 (aged 82–83)
|Era||Islamic golden age|
|Main interest(s)||Hadith and Fiqh|
Abdullah ibn Umar was born c.610 in Mecca,:207 the son of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Madhun.:203–204 His full siblings were Hafsa and Abdulrahman. His paternal brothers, born to his stepmother Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, were Zayd and Ubaydullah. He had another stepmother, Qurayba bint Abi Umayya, but she had no children of her own.:204
The young Abdullah had vivid memories of his father's conversion to Islam. He remembered following him around the town as Umar declared his conversion to the neighbours and on the steps of the Kaaba. Ibn Umar asserted, "Although I was very young at the time, I understood everything I saw.":138 His mother Zaynab also became a Muslim, but his two stepmothers did not.:510
The family emigrated to Medina in 622.:218 A few months later, when Muhammad sentenced a pair of adulterers to lapidation, Ibn Umar was one of the people who threw the stones.:267 Just before the Battle of Uhud in March 625, Muhammad called Ibn Umar, who was then fourteen years old, to present himself. But when Ibn Umar appeared, Muhammad would not allow him to fight in the battle. Two years later, as the Battle of the Trench approached, Muhammad again called Ibn Umar, and this time he decreed that the youth was old enough because he was mature and reached puberty. He was also present at the Battle of Al-Muraysi in 628.
Ibn Umar's sister Hafsa married Muhammad in 625.:152 Muhammad once told her: "Abdullah is a good man. I wish he prayed the night prayers." After that, every night Abdullah would pray much and sleep but a little.
As a young man, Ibn Umar married a woman whom he loved, but his father disliked her and demanded that they divorce. When Ibn Umar refused, his father complained to Muhammad. Ibn Umar also mentioned the matter to Muhammad, who said: "O Abdullah ibn Umar! Divorce your wife!" So Ibn Umar complied.
After his father became Caliph in 634, Ibn Umar married Safiya bint Abi Ubayd, and they had six children: Abu Bakr, Abu Ubayda, Waqid, Umar, Hafsa and Sawda.:305 He had a number of other sons from Ummul Walad, including Abdulrahman, Salim and Hamza.
Umar once complained about a concubine of Ibn Umar's, whom he had seen "walking around town dressed in silk and causing trouble".
Ibn Umar participated in Battles in Iraq, Persia and Egypt, but he remained neutral throughout the first civil war.:30 In 656, he prevented his sister Hafsa from following Aisha to the Battle of the Camel. Following the peace-treaty that ensued between Hasan ibn Ali and Mu'awiyah, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, along with the rest of the Muslims agreed to pledge his allegiance to Muawiyah I so that he may accede to the Caliphate in 661/41 AH.
While in Medina during the Second Fitna of the 680s, Ibn Umar, together with Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn Abbas, advised Husayn ibn Ali to make Mecca his base and fight against Yazid I from Mecca. Husayn did not take this advice but chose Kufa.
Abdullah ibn Umar died in Mecca in 693 (74 AH).:30
Abdullah ibn Umar was the second most prolific narrator of ahadith, with a total of 2,630 narrations.:27 It was said that he was extremely careful about what he narrated, and that he narrated with his eyes full of tears.:30–31
He has a positive reputation among Sunni Muslims. "In spite of the great esteem and honour in which he was held by all the Muslims and notwithstanding the suggestion repeatedly made to him to stand up for the caliphate (which he obstinately refused), he kept himself entirely aloof from party strife, and throughout these years led an unselfish, pious life. He set an example of an ideal citizen.":30
Sheikh Abdullah Ibn Umar Badheeb Al Yamani was an eminent Islamic scholar and Sufi from Hadramout, Yemen. He arrived in Sri Lanka in 1858, and until his death he did many works for Sri Lankan Muslims. Sheikh Umar Badheeb was one of the significant figures among Sri Lankan Muslim leaders and reformers in the 19th century. He contributed significantly to Sri Lankan Muslim education along with M.C. Siddi Lebbe and Orabi Pasha. Sheikh Umar Badheeb also provided spiritual guidance, was the Sufi sheikh and founder of Qadiriyatul Badheebiyya Sufi Order.Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (died 674) — born Khalid bin Zayd bin Kulayb in Yathrib — hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion (Arabic: الصحابه, sahaba) of Muhammad. He was named after the biblical Job. Abu Ayyub was one among the Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, helpers or patrons) of early Muslim history or those who supported Muhammad after the hijra (migration) to Medina in 622. The patronym Abu Ayyub, means father (abu) of Ayyub. Abu Ayyub died of dysentery during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople.
When Muhammad arrived in Medina, all of the inhabitants of the city offered to accommodate him. It is said that he decided instead to allow his camel to walk where it chose and to stay at whomsoever's house it stopped. The camel stopped at the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a member of the Bani An-Najjar, who were regarded as the best of the tribes of Medina. Though Abu Ayub Al Ansari had prepared meals for only Muhammad and Abubakr, Muhammad directed that everyone in the neighborhood be invited to partake in the meal. To everyone's surprised delight, all of the approximately 180 people who came, were able to eat to their satisfaction. This was deemed to be a miracle.Waqif of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi:
The land of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi belonged to two young orphans, Sahal and Suhayl, and when they came to know that Muhammad was keen to acquire their land for the purposes of erecting a mosque; they went to the Prophet and offered the land to him as gift, but the Prophet insisted on fixing and paying a price for the land precisely because they were orphaned children. The ultimately agreed purchase price was paid by Abu Ayyub al-Ansari who thus became the واقِف (waqif, or creator of an endowment or mortmain; donor) of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi on behalf of, or in favor of Muhammad.
Following the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Abu Ayyub moved to, and lived in a house in Fustat, adjacent to the mosque of Amr bin Al'aas that been completed in 642. Several other notable companions were his neighbors, including Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Ubaida, Abu Dhar, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Amr bin Al'aas.He also led a distinguished military career, of whom it was said, "He did not stay away from any battle in which the Muslims engaged from the time of Muhammad to the time of Muawiyah, unless he was at the same time, engaged in another battle being fought elsewhere."Abu Dawood
Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani Arabic: أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi
Abū 'Ubayd ibn Mas'ūd ibn 'Amr ibn 'Umayd ibn 'Awf al-Thaqafī (also al-Thaqīfī) (Arabic: أبو عبيد بن مسعود بن عمرو بن عمير بن عوف الثقفی), or simply Abu Ubayd (أبو عبيد), was a commander in the army of the Rashidun Caliphate. He was from Ta'if in western Arabia, and belonged to the tribe Banu Thaqif.
Al-Muthanna, commander of the Muslim Arabs in al-Hira, had asked Abu Bakr and later Caliph Umar for reinforcements against Sasanians in Mesopotamia, who were fighting him back. Umar chose Abu Ubayd who volunteered first, although he was not among the Muhajirun or Ansar (the Companions of Muhammad), and dispatched him. Abu Ubayd arranged a force of 1,000 from his Thaqif tribe and increased his numbers in the way north. He took over command from al-Muthanna for the second time, becoming commander of the forces in al-Hira region. The combined Arab forces conducted raiding in the plains between al-Hira and Ctesiphon (the Sawad). The commander of the Sasanian army Rustam Farrukhzad dispatched an army under Bahman Jadhuyih to attack them. In the upcoming battle at the bank of the Euphrates river near Babylon, known as the Battle of the Bridge, a white war elephant tore Abu Ubaid from his horse with its trunk, and trampled him under its foot. The Arab forces panicked and were defeated. His brother al-Hakam and his son Jabr were also killed after him.Abu Ubayd was also the father of the Shia leader al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, who rebelled against the Umayyads to revenge the Karbala event during the Second Fitna. Safiyah, wife of Abdullah ibn Umar, was also his daughter. Jariah, another of his daughters, was married to Umar ibn Sa'ad.Al-Baydawi
Nasir al-Din Abu al-Khair 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-Baydawi (Arabic: ناصر الدين أبو الخير عبد الله بن عمر بن محمد البيضاوي), also known as Baidawi, was an Islam scholar, born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu Bakr ibn Sa'd (1226–60). He himself became judge in Shiraz, and died in Tabriz about 1286. Many commentaries have been written on Baidawi's work. He was also the author of several theological treatises.His major work is the commentary on the Qur'an entitled The Lights of Revelation and the Secrets of Interpretation (Anwar al-Tanzil wa-Asrar al-Ta'wil)'. This work is largely a condensed and amended edition of al-Zamakhshari's (al-Kashshaf). That work, which displays great learning, suffers from Mu'tazilite views which al-Baydawi has tried to amend, sometimes by refuting them and sometimes by omitting them. It has been edited by Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer (2 vols., Leipzig, 1846-1848; indices ed. W. Fell, Leipzig, 1878). There are many editions published in the East. A selection with numerous notes was edited by D. S. Margoliouth as Chrestomathia Beidawiana (London, 1894).Banu 'Adiy
Banu 'Adiy was a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from 'Adiy ibn Ka'b. Banu 'Adiy were with the Meccans as part of the escort that preceded the Battle of Badr; they did not join Quraysh tribe further.Family tree of Umar
'Umar ibn al-Khattāb (c. 576 – 644), sometimes referred by Sunni Muslims as 'Umar al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes between right and wrong") was from the Banu Adi clan of the Quraysh tribe. He was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and became the second Sunni Caliph (634 – 644) following the death of Abu Bakr, the first Caliph.
Many of Umar's relatives of the same generation were also Sahaba and his daughter Hafsa bint Umar was a Mother of the Believers. His sons were also important Sahaba.Fatwa Sahabah
Fatwa, Sahabah, and Iftaa are the responses in the form of answers, opinions or laws that are delivered and or given by Sahabah. In addition to explaining the meaning of a verse in the Al Quran and Hadith, fatwa deal with issues resulting from conditions different from those in the time of Muhammad. Fatwa are not based on reason alone, but primarily on the Al-Quran and Hadith. Therefore, Ijma or scholars of Islamic law have agreed that the opinions of the Sahabah, based on their arguments, can be used to resolve problems of Islamic law. Among Sahabah, those friends who gave fatwas include Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Abbas, and others.Hisham ibn Urwah
Hishām ibn ʿUrwah (Arabic: هشام بن عروة, c. 680 – c. 763) was a prominent narrator of hadith, son of Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, grandson of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abu Bakr. In Medinah, his pupils included people as well known as Malik ibn Anas.He was born in the year 61 A.H. (After Hijrah, c. 680) and died in the year 146 A.H. (c. 763)Kahatowita
Kahatowita (sinhala:කහටෝවිට Tamil:கஹடோவிட) is one of a village in Attanagalla electorate, Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka.Mughirah ibn Abd Allah
Mughirah, Mughira or Muggeera (Arabic: المغيرة بن عبد الله) (full name: al-Mughira ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar ibnn Makhzum ibn Yaqaza ibn Murrah) was one of the Leaders of Quraish from Banu Makhzum tribe.Qadariyah
Qadariyah (or Qadariya) is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Some of their doctrines were later adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris.Qadariya was one of the first philosophical schools in Islam. The earliest document associated with the movement is the Risala by Hasan al-Basri, which was composed between 75/694 and 80/699, though debates about free will in Islam probably predate this text.According to Sunni sources, the Qadariyah were censured by Muhammad himself by being compared to Zoroastrians, who likewise deny predestination. It is reported in Sunan Abu Dawood:
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet said, "The Qadariyyah are the Magians of this community. If they are ill, do not pay a sick visit to them, and if they die, do not attend their funerals."Salim ibn Abd-Allah
Salim ibn Abd-Allah was a well known narrator of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), many of which he related first hand from either his father, Abd-Allah ibn Umar (died 693), or his grandfather, the caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644). He the grandson of Umar ibn al-Khattab and the nephew of Hafsa bint Umar, one of Muhammad's wives.
Salim is mentioned in Imam Malik's Muwatta regarding the Islamic practice of rada'a, where a woman becomes unmarriageable kin (mahram) by means of suckling:
"Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Salim ibn Abdullah ibn Umar informed him that A'isha umm al-muminin sent him away while he was being nursed to her sister Umm Kulthum bint Abu Bakr and said, "Suckle him ten times so that he can come in to see me." Salim said, "Umm Kulthum nursed me three times and then fell ill, so that she only nursed me three times. I could not go in to see A'isha because Umm Kulthum did not finish for me the ten times."He, in Sahih al-Bukhari alone, relates three Ahadith.The Seven Fuqaha of Medina
The Seven Fuqaha of Medina is the title of seven Muslim scholars who were the largest contributors as to the transmission of hadith and making of fatwas in Medina during the 2nd century AH.They are :
Sa'id ibn al-Musayyib
'Urwah Ibn Az-Zubayr Ibn Al 'Awwam
Sâlim Ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar
Al Qâsim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr
Abû Salama Ibn 'Abdur Rahman Ibn 'Awf
Sulaymân Ibn Yasâr
Khârijah Ibn Zayd Ibn Thabit.Some scholars include Abû Bakr Ibn 'Abd Ir Rahmân Ibn Al Hârith and 'Ubaydu Llâh Ibn 'Abdi Llâh Ibn 'Utbah Ibn Mas'ûd instead of some scholars in this list, as did Imâm Abû Zahra in his biography of Imâm Mâlik (Mâlik, Hayâtuhu wa 'Asruhu, Arâ°uhu wa Fiqhuhu).Umar II
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز, translit. ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a matrilineal great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.Witr
Witr (Arabic: وتر) is an Islamic prayer (salat) that is performed at night after isha'a (night-time prayer) or before fajr (dawn prayer). According to the Hanafi Fiqh witr prayer is wajib. The status of wajib is very close to that of fard. There are a few distinguishing factors of the witr prayer that sets it apart from the fard (mandatory) and sunnah (recommended) prayers. Witr has an odd number of rakat prayed in pairs, with the final raka'ah prayed separately. Therefore, as little as one rakat can be prayed, and eleven at most. This differs from the usual trend of two, three and four rakat of the fard and sunnah prayers.
According to Abdullah ibn Umar, Muhammad said, "The night prayer is offered as two rakat followed by two rakat and so on and if anyone is afraid of the approaching dawn (fajr prayer) he should pray one raka'ah and this will be a witr for all the rakat which he has prayed before."In a hadith transmitted by Abu Darda, he states that Muhammad enjoined to him three things: to fast three days every month, to offer the Witr salat before sleep, and to offer two rakat sunnah of fajr.But there are many aḥādīth that show the best time for the witr salat to be at night. If someone fears that he would not be able to awake, or may die in their sleep, then the prayer should be performed before sleeping.Therefore, he who performs tahajjud (night prayer) regularly should perform witr after tahajjud.
It is recorded that Ali bin Abu Talib said, "The Witr prayer is not required like your obligatory prayers but the Prophet would perform the Witr prayer and say, 'O you people of the Quran, perform the Witr prayer, for Allah is One and He Loves the Witr.'"The literal meaning of Witr is "chord of a circle". Considering the whole day as circle along which all the prayers are located, the Maghrib salat is offered at the sunset (beginning of night). It has an un-paired (odd) rakat. By offering Witr odd rakat as the last prayer of night, a chord is created by pairing these two un-paired rakats.Yazid I
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان; 647 – 11 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683. His appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history and his caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna.
In 676 (56 AH), Muawiya made him his heir apparent; this was regarded as a violation of Hasan–Muawiya treaty. A few prominent Muslims from Hejaz, including Husayn, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar, refused to accept his nomination. Following his accession after Muawiya's death in 680, Yazid demanded allegiance from these three, but only ibn Umar recognized him, while the other two refused and escaped to sanctuary of Mecca. When Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by forces of Yazid in the Battle of Karbala. Killing of Husayn led to widespread resentment in Hejaz, where Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to rule of Yazid, and was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina. After failed attempts to regain confidence of ibn al-Zubayr and people of Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given to three days of pillage. Later on siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba was damaged by fire. The siege ended with death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war.
Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, death of Husayn and attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a mild view him, and consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father.Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan
Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن أبي سفيان, translit. Yazīd bin Abī Sufyān) was one of the companions (ṣaḥābah) of Muhammad.Zayd ibn Umar
Zayd ibn Umar (Arabic: زيد بن عمر) was a son of the second Sunni Caliph, Umar; a grandson of the fourth Caliph and first Shia Imam, Ali; and a great-grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad as well as the half-brother of Abdullah Ibn Umar and Mother of Believers Hafsa Bint Umar.
Early Islamic scholars