Abdullah I of Jordan

Abdullah I bin Al-Hussein (Arabic: عبد الله الأول بن الحسين‎, Abd Allāh Al-Awal ibn Al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951) was the ruler of Jordan and its predecessor state, Transjordan, from 1921 until his assassination in 1951. He was Emir of Transjordan from 21 April 1921 to 25 May 1946 under a British mandate, and was king of an independent nation from 25 May 1946 until his assassination. According to Abdullah, he was a 38th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family.

Born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, Abdullah was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah. He was educated in Istanbul and Hejaz. From 1909 to 1914, Abdullah sat in the Ottoman legislature, as deputy for Mecca, but allied with Britain during World War I. Between 1916 and 1918, he played a key role as architect and planner of the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule that was led by his father Sharif Hussein. Abdullah personally lead guerrilla raids on garrisons.[3]

Abdullah became emir to the Emirate of Transjordan in April 1921, which he established by his own initiative, and became king to its successor state, Jordan, after it gained its independence in 1948. Abdullah ruled until 1951 when he was assassinated in Jerusalem while attending Friday prayers at the entrance of the Al-Aqsa mosque by a Palestinian who feared that the King was going to make peace with Israel.[4] He was succeeded by his eldest son Talal.

Abdullah I
Cecil Beaton Photographs- Political and Military Personalities; Abdullah, King of Jordan; Abdullah, King of Jordan CBM1666 (cropped)
King of Jordan
Reign25 May 1946 – 20 July 1951
PredecessorHimself as Emir of Transjordan
SuccessorTalal
Emir of Transjordan
Reign1 April 1921 – 25 May 1946
PredecessorOffice Established
SuccessorHimself as King
BornFebruary 1882
Mecca, Ottoman Empire
Died20 July 1951 (aged 69)[1][2]
Jerusalem, Jordan
Burial
Consort
Junior wives
Suzdil Khanum (m. 1913)

Nahda bint Uman (m. 1949)
IssuePrincess Haya
Talal I
Prince Naif
Princess Munira
Princess Maqbula
Princess Naifeh
HouseHashemite
FatherHussein bin Ali
MotherAbdiyya bint Abdullah
ReligionSunni Islam

Early political career

In 1910, Abdullah persuaded his father to stand, successfully, for Grand Sharif of Mecca, a post for which Hussein acquired British support. In the following year, he became deputy for Mecca in the parliament established by the Young Turks, acting as an intermediary between his father and the Ottoman government.[6] In 1914, Abdullah paid a clandestine visit to Cairo to meet Lord Kitchener to seek British support for his father's ambitions in Arabia.[7]

Abdullah maintained contact with the British throughout the First World War and in 1915 encouraged his father to enter into correspondence with Sir Henry McMahon, British high commissioner in Egypt, about Arab independence from Turkish rule. (see McMahon-Hussein Correspondence).[6] This correspondence in turn led to the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans.[1] During the Arab Revolt of 1916–18, Abdullah commanded the Arab Eastern Army.[7] Abdullah began his role in the Revolt by attacking the Ottoman garrison at Ta'if on 10 June 1916.[8] The garrison consisted of 3,000 men with ten 75-mm Krupp guns. Abdullah led a force of 5,000 tribesmen but they did not have the weapons or discipline for a full attack. Instead, he laid siege to town. In July, he received reinforcements from Egypt in the form of howitzer batteries manned by Egyptian personnel. He then joined the siege of Medina commanding a force of 4,000 men based to the east and north-east of the town.[9] In early 1917, Abdullah ambushed an Ottoman convoy in the desert, and captured £20,000 worth of gold coins that were intended to bribe the Bedouin into loyalty to the Sultan.[10] In August 1917, Abdullah worked closely with the French Captain Muhammand Ould Ali Raho in sabotaging the Hejaz Railway.[11] Abdullah's relations with the British Captain T. E. Lawrence were not good, and as a result, Lawrence spent most of his time in the Hejaz serving with Abdullah's brother, Faisal, who commanded the Arab Northern Army.[7]

Founding of the Emirate of Transjordan

Abdullah I of Jordan and Kemal Atatürk on 1937
Abdullah I of Transjordan during the visit to Turkey with Turkish President Mustafa Kemal

When French forces captured Damascus at the Battle of Maysalun and expelled his brother Faisal, Abdullah moved his forces from Hejaz into Transjordan with a view to liberating Damascus, where his brother had been proclaimed King in 1918.[6] Having heard of Abdullah's plans, Winston Churchill invited Abdullah to a famous "tea party" where he convinced Abdullah to stay put and not attack Britain's allies, the French. Churchill told Abdullah that French forces were superior to his and that the British did not want any trouble with the French. On 8 March 1920, Abdullah was proclaimed King of Iraq by the Iraqi Congress but he refused the position. After his refusal, his brother who had just been defeated in Syria, accepted the position. Abdullah headed to north to Transjordan and established an emirate there after being welcomed into the country by its inhabitants.[1]

Although Abdullah established a legislative council in 1928, its role remained advisory, leaving him to rule as an autocrat.[6] Prime Ministers under Abdullah formed 18 governments during the 23 years of the Emirate.

Abdullah set about the task of building Transjordan with the help of a reserve force headed by Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Peake, who was seconded from the Palestine police in 1921.[6] The force, renamed the Arab Legion in 1923, was led by John Bagot Glubb between 1930 and 1956.[6] During World War II, Abdullah was a faithful British ally, maintaining strict order within Transjordan, and helping to suppress a pro-Axis uprising in Iraq.[6] The Arab Legion assisted in the occupation of Iraq and Syria.[1]

Abdullah negotiated with Britain to gain independence. On 25 May 1946, the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on 26 April 1949) was proclaimed independent and Abdullah crowned king in Amman.[1]

Expansionist aspirations

King Abdullah I of Jordan declaring independence, 25 May 1946
King Abdullah declaring the end of the British Mandate and the independence of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 25 May 1946.

Abdullah, alone among the Arab leaders of his generation, was considered a moderate by the West. It is possible that he might have been willing to sign a separate peace agreement with Israel, but for the Arab League's militant opposition. Because of his dream for a Greater Syria within the borders of what was then Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the British Mandate for Palestine under a Hashemite dynasty with "a throne in Damascus," many Arab countries distrusted Abdullah and saw him as both "a threat to the independence of their countries and they also suspected him of being in cahoots with the enemy" and in return, Abdullah distrusted the leaders of other Arab countries.[12][13][14]

Abdullah supported the Peel Commission in 1937, which proposed that Palestine be split up into a small Jewish state (20 percent of the British Mandate for Palestine) and the remaining land be annexed into Transjordan. The Arabs within Palestine and the surrounding Arab countries objected to the Peel Commission while the Jews accepted it reluctantly.[15] Ultimately, the Peel Commission was not adopted. In 1947, when the UN supported partition of Palestine into one Jewish and one Arab state, Abdullah was the only Arab leader supporting the decision.[1]

In 1946–48, Abdullah actually supported partition in order that the Arab allocated areas of the British Mandate for Palestine could be annexed into Transjordan. Abdullah went so far as to have secret meetings with the Jewish Agency (future Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir was among the delegates to these meetings) that came to a mutually agreed upon partition plan independently of the United Nations in November 1947.[16] On 17 November 1947, in a secret meeting with Meir, Abdullah stated that he wished to annex all of the Arab parts as a minimum, and would prefer to annex all of Palestine.[17][18] This partition plan was supported by British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin who preferred to see Abdullah's territory increased at the expense of the Palestinians rather than risk the creation of a Palestinian state headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem Mohammad Amin al-Husayni.[6][19]

The claim has, however, been strongly disputed by Israeli historian Efraim Karsh. In an article in Middle East Quarterly, he alleged that "extensive quotations from the reports of all three Jewish participants [at the meetings] do not support Shlaim's account...the report of Ezra Danin and Eliahu Sasson on the Golda Meir meeting (the most important Israeli participant and the person who allegedly clinched the deal with Abdullah) is conspicuously missing from Shlaim's book, despite his awareness of its existence".[21] According to Karsh, the meetings in question concerned "an agreement based on the imminent U.N. Partition Resolution, [in Meir's words] "to maintain law and order until the UN could establish a government in that area"; namely, a short-lived law enforcement operation to implement the UN Partition Resolution, not obstruct it".[21]

Historian Graham Jevon discusses the Shlaim and Karsh interpretations of the critical meeting and accepts that there may not have been a "firm agreement" as posited by Shlaim while claiming it is clear that the parties openly discussed the possibility of a Hashemite-Zionist accommodation and further says it is "indisputable" that the Zionists confirmed that they were willing to accept Abdullah's intention.[22]

On 4 May 1948, Abdullah, as a part of the effort to seize as much of Palestine as possible, sent in the Arab Legion to attack the Israeli settlements in the Etzion Bloc.[17] Less than a week before the outbreak of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Abdullah met with Meir for one last time on 11 May 1948.[17] Abdullah told Meir, "Why are you in such a hurry to proclaim your state? Why don't you wait a few years? I will take over the whole country and you will be represented in my parliament. I will treat you very well and there will be no war".[17] Abdullah proposed to Meir the creation "of an autonomous Jewish canton within a Hashemite kingdom," but "Meir countered back that in November, they had agreed on a partition with Jewish statehood."[23] Depressed by the unavoidable war that would come between Jordan and the Yishuv, one Jewish Agency representative wrote, "[Abdullah] will not remain faithful to the 29 November [UN Partition] borders, but [he] will not attempt to conquer all of our state [either]."[24] Abdullah too found the coming war to be unfortunate, in part because he "preferred a Jewish state [as Transjordan's neighbour] to a Palestinian Arab state run by the mufti."[23]

King Abdullah, Jerusalem, 29 May 1948
King Abdullah welcomed by Palestinian Christians in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1948, the day after his forces took control over the city.

The Palestinian Arabs, the neighbouring Arab states, and the promise of the expansion of territory and the goal to conquer Jerusalem finally pressured Abdullah into joining them in an "all-Arab military intervention" on 15 May 1948, which he used to restore his prestige in the Arab world, which had grown suspicious of his relatively good relationship with Western and Jewish leaders.[23][25] Abdullah was especially anxious to take Jerusalem as compensation for the loss of the guardianship of Mecca, which had traditionally been held by the Hashemites until Ibn Saud seized the Hejaz in 1925.[26] Abdullah's role in this war became substantial. He distrusted the leaders of the other Arab nations and thought they had weak military forces; the other Arabs distrusted Abdullah in return.[27][28] He saw himself as the "supreme commander of the Arab forces" and "persuaded the Arab League to appoint him" to this position.[29] His forces under their British commander Glubb Pasha did not approach the area set aside for the Jewish state, though they clashed with the Yishuv forces around Jerusalem, intended to be an international zone. According to Abdullah el-Tell it was the King's personal intervention that led to the Arab Legion entering the Old City against Glubb's wishes.

After conquering the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, at the end of the war, King Abdullah tried to suppress any trace of a Palestinian Arab national identity. Abdullah annexed the conquered Palestinian territory and granted the Palestinian Arab residents in Jordan Jordanian citizenship.[1][30] In 1949, Abdullah entered secret peace talks with Israel, including at least five with Moshe Dayan, the Military Governor of West Jerusalem and other senior Israelis.[31] News of the negotiations provoked a strong reaction from other Arab States and Abdullah agreed to discontinue the meetings in return for Arab acceptance of the West Bank's annexation into Jordan.[32]

Assassination

Abdulla the day before his death
King Abdullah with Glubb Pasha, the day before his assassination, 19 July 1951.

On 16 July 1951, Riad Bey Al Solh, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, had been assassinated in Amman, where rumours were circulating that Lebanon and Jordan were discussing a joint separate peace with Israel.

96 hours later, on 20 July 1951, while visiting Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, Abdullah was shot dead by a Palestinian from the Husseini clan,[25] who had passed through apparently heavy security. Contemporary media reports attributed the assassination to a secret order based in Jerusalem known only as "the Jihad".[33] Abdullah was in Jerusalem to give a eulogy at the funeral and for a prearranged meeting with Reuven Shiloah and Moshe Sasson.[34] He was shot while attending Friday prayers at Al-Aqsa Mosque in the company of his grandson, Prince Hussein. The Palestinian gunman fired three fatal bullets into the King's head and chest. Abdullah's grandson, Prince Hussein, was at his side and was hit too. A medal that had been pinned to Hussein's chest at his grandfather's insistence deflected the bullet and saved his life.[35] Once Hussein became king, the assassination of Abdullah was said to have influenced Hussein not to enter peace talks with Israel in the aftermath of the Six-Day War in order to avoid a similar fate.[36]

The assassin, who was shot dead by the king's bodyguards, was a 21-year-old tailor's apprentice named Mustafa Shukri Ashu.[37][38] According to Alec Kirkbride, the British Resident in Amman, Ashu was a "former terrorist", recruited for the assassination by Zakariyya Ukah, a livestock dealer and butcher.[39]

Ashu was killed; the revolver used to kill the king was found on his body, as well as a talisman with "Kill, thou shalt be safe" written on it in Arabic. The son of a local coffee shop owner named Abdul Qadir Farhat identified the revolver as belonging to his father. On 11 August, the Prime Minister of Jordan announced that ten men would be tried in connection with the assassination. These suspects included Colonel Abdullah at-Tell, who has been Governor of Jerusalem, and several others including Musa Ahmad al-Ayubbi, a Jerusalem vegetable merchant who had fled to Egypt in the days following the assassination. General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi of the Arab Legion was to preside over the trial, which began on 18 August. Ayubbi and at-Tell, who had fled to Egypt, were tried and sentenced in absentia. Three of the suspects, including Musa Abdullah Husseini, were from the prominent Palestinian Husseini family, leading to speculation that the assassins were part of a mandate era opposition group.[40]

The Jordanian prosecutor asserted that Colonel el-Tell, who had been living in Cairo since January 1950, had given instructions that the killer, made to act alone, be slain at once thereafter, to shield the instigators of the crime. Jerusalem sources added that Col. el-Tell had been in close contact with the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni, and his adherents in the Kingdom of Egypt and in the All-Palestine protectorate in Gaza. El-Tell and Husseini, and three co-conspirators from Jerusalem, were sentenced to death. On 6 September 1951, Musa Ali Husseini, 'Abid and Zakariyya Ukah, and Abd-el-Qadir Farhat were executed by hanging.[41]

Abdullah is buried at the Royal Court in Amman.[42] He was succeeded by his son Talal; however, since Talal was mentally ill, Talal's son Prince Hussein became the effective ruler as King Hussein at the age of seventeen. In 1967, el-Tell received a full pardon from King Hussein.

Marriages and children

Abdullah married three times.[43]

In 1904, Abdullah married his first wife, Musbah bint Nasser (1884 – 15 March 1961), at Stinia Palace, İstinye, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. She was a daughter of Emir Nasser Pasha and his wife, Dilber Khanum. They had three children:

  • Princess Haya (1907–1990). Married Abdul-Karim Ja'afar Zeid Dhaoui.
  • King Talal I (26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972).
  • Princess Munira (1915–1987). Never married.

In 1913, Abdullah married his second wife, Suzdil Khanum (d. 16 August 1968), at Istanbul, Turkey. They had two children:

In 1949, Abdullah married his third wife, Nahda bint Uman, a lady from Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in Amman. They had one child:

  • Princess Naifeh (1950– ) married Sameer Hilal Ashour.

Titles and honours

Styles of
King Abdullah I of Jordan
formerly Emir of Transjordan
Coat of arms of Jordan
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleSir
Transjordan-Stamp-1930-KingAbdullah
Postage stamp, Transjordan, 1930.
UK OBE 1917 civil BAR
Ord.2River-ribbon
Order of the Hashemites (Iraq) - ribbon bar
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR
Jordan004
Order of Independence Jordan
Order of Faisal I (Iraq) - ribbon bar
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon
GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon
GeorgeVICoronationRibbon
Order of Muhammad Ali (Egipt) - ribbon bar
Order of Pahlavi (Iran)
ESP Gran Cruz Merito Militar (Distintivo Blanco) pasador
Order Of Ummayad (Syria) - ribbon bar

Gallery

Emir Abdullah & Admiral de Robeck on HMS Iron Duke 1921 LOC matpc.08387

The Emir with Admiral de Robeck on board H.M.S. Iron Duke, 1921

T. E. Lawrence, Herbert Samuel, Emir Abdullah - Amman 1921

The Emir with Sir Herbet Samuel (centre) and T. E. Lawrence (left), Amman Airfield, 1921

Samuelarrival

The Emir at the Cairo Conference with T. E. Lawrence, Sir Herbert Samuel, H.B.M. high commissioner, Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey Salmond and Sir Wyndham Deedes, March 1921

Winston Churchill and Abdullah I of Jordan 1921 (restored)

The Emir with Sir Herbert Samuel and Mr. and Mrs. Winston Churchill at Government House reception in Jerusalem, 28 March 1921

Abdullah leaving Al Aqsa

King Abdullah, in white, leaving the Al-Aqsa Mosque a few weeks before his assassination, July 1951

Kingabdullahbinhussein

King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdullah". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. ^ Some sources state that his birth date was on 22 September.
  3. ^ Avi Shlaim (2007) Lion of Jordan; The life of King Hussein in War and Peace Allen Lane ISBN 978-0-7139-9777-4 p 3
  4. ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 3
  5. ^ "Abdullah I quotes". Arabrevolt.jo. 1 January 2016. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Michael T. Thornhill, ‘Abdullah ibn Hussein (1882–1951)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 10 March 2009
  7. ^ a b c Murphy, David The Arab Revolt 1916–18, Osprey, London 2008, page 13
  8. ^ Murphy, David The Arab Revolt 1916–18, Osprey, London 2008, page 34
  9. ^ MacMunn. Page 228.
  10. ^ Murphy, David The Arab Revolt 1916–18, Osprey, London 2008, page 38
  11. ^ Murphy, David The Arab Revolt 1916–18, Osprey, London 2008, page 45
  12. ^ Shlaim, 2001, p. 82.
  13. ^ Tripp, 2001, p. 136.
  14. ^ Landis, 2001, pp. 179–184.
  15. ^ Morris, 190
  16. ^ Rogan, Eugene; Shaim, Avi (2007). The War for Palestine. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–110.
  17. ^ a b c d Karsh, Efraim The Arab-Israeli Conflict, London: Osprey, 2002 p. 51.
  18. ^ Avi., Shlaim, (1 January 1988). Collusion across the Jordan : King Abdullah, the Zionist movement, and the partition of Palestine. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231068383. OCLC 876002691.
  19. ^ "al-Husseini, Hajj (Muhammad) Amin." Sela. The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. pp. 360–362. See p. 361.
  20. ^ ""As the Arabs see the Jews"". Kinghussein.gov. 1 January 1999. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  21. ^ a b Karsh, Efraim (September 1996). "Historical Fictions". Middle East Quarterly. 3 (3): 55–60. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  22. ^ Graham Jevon (27 April 2017). Glubb Pasha and the Arab Legion: Britain, Jordan and the End of Empire in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-1-316-83396-4.
  23. ^ a b c Morris, 193–194
  24. ^ "Meeting of the Arab Section of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency," qtd. in Morris, 194
  25. ^ a b Sela, 2002, 14.
  26. ^ Karsh, Efraim The Arab-Israeli Conflict, London: Osprey, 2002 page 50.
  27. ^ Morris, 189
  28. ^ Bickerton, 103
  29. ^ Tripp, 2001, 137.
  30. ^ Karsh, Arafat's War, 43.
  31. ^ Dayan, Moshe (1976) Moshe Dayan. Story of my Life, William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-03076-9. 16 and 30 January 1949 – page 135; 19 and 23 March – page 142; 17 December – page 144.
  32. ^ Hiro, 4
  33. ^ Ghali, Paul (4 August 1951). "Constant Threats on Lives Tie Hands of Arab Leaders". Corpus Christi Times. Retrieved 1 July 2018 – via NewspaperARCHIVE.
  34. ^ Avi Shlaim (2007) p. 46
  35. ^ Lunt, James. "Hussein of Jordan". First published Macmillan London Ltd, 1989. Fontana/Collins paperback edition 1990. pp. 7,8.
  36. ^ Bickerton, 161
  37. ^ Rogan, Eugene (10 April 2012). The Arabs: A History. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465032488.
  38. ^ Michael T. Thornhill, ‘Abdullah bin Hussein (1882–1951)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 24 November 2006.
  39. ^ Wilson, 1990, p. 211.
  40. ^ S. G. T. (1951). "King Abdullah's Assassins". The World Today. 7 (10): 411–419. JSTOR 40392364.
  41. ^ Lunt, p. 9. 'Abid Ukah a cattle broker, his brother Zakariyya a butcher, Farhat a cafe owner. Husseini "pleaded his innocence throughout."
  42. ^ The Hashemite Royal Family. The Hashemite Royal Family Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  43. ^ "Christopher Buyers, "Al-Hashimi Dynasty Genealogy"". Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  44. ^ Kamal Salibi (15 December 1998). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  45. ^ "Family tree". alhussein.gov. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  46. ^ "Boletín Oficial del Estado" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.

References

  • Alon, Yoav. The Shaykh of Shayks: Mithqal al-Fayiz and Tribal Leadership in Modern Jordan, Stanford Univ. Press, 2016.
  • Bickerton, Ian J., and Carla L. Klausner. A Concise History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002.
  • Hiro, Dilip. "Abdullah ibn Hussein al Hashem." Dictionary of the Middle East. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. pp. 3–4.
  • Karsh, Efraim. Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest. New York: Grove Press, 2003.
  • Landis, Joshua. "Syria and the Palestine War: fighting King 'Abdullah's 'Greater Syria plan.'" Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 178–205.
  • Morris, Benny. 1948: The History of the First Arab-Israeli War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008
  • Michael Oren. Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. New York: Ballantine, 2003. ISBN 0-345-46192-4 pp. 5, 7.
  • Rogan, Eugene L., ed., and Avi Shlaim, ed. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Rogan, Eugene L. "Jordan and 1948: the persistence of an official history." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 104–124.
  • Sela, Avraham, ed. The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. New York: Continuum, 2002.
  • Sela, Avraham. "Abdallah Ibn Hussein." Sela. The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. 13–14.
  • Shlaim, Avi (1990). The Politics of Partition; King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine 1921–1951 . Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07365-8.
  • Shlaim, Avi. "Israel and the Arab coalition in 1948." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 79–103.
  • Shlaim, Avi (2007) Lion of Jordan; The life of King Hussein in War and Peace Allen Lane ISBN 978-0-7139-9777-4
  • Tripp, Charles. "Iraq and the 1948 War: mirror of Iraq's disorder." Rogan and Shlaim. The War for Palestine. 125–150.
  • Wilson, Mary Christina (1990). King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39987-4.

External links

Preceded by
Office established
Emir of Transjordan under the British Mandate
1921–46
Succeeded by
Himself as King of Transjordan
Preceded by
Himself as Emir of Transjordan
King of Jordan
1946–51 (titled as King of Transjordan 1946–49)
Succeeded by
Talal
Abu Kishk

Abu Kishk (Arabic: أبو كشك) was a Palestinian village in the Jaffa Subdistrict located 12 km northeast of Jaffa, situated 2 km northwest of the Yarkon River. The village was depopulated during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on 30 March 1948 by the Irgun.

In 1945 the population of the village was about 1,900, about 300 of them lived in the area of the future Herzliya.

Capture of Yanbu

The battle of Yanbu was an Ottoman attempt to recapture the city of Yanbu.

El Shahbaa

El Shahbaa was one of the foundation mares at the Inshass Stud of King Fuad I of Egypt. He purchased the mare in 1931 by Mohammed Ibrahim Al Hag, a native of Jordan. The mare was grey and she was foaled in 1925 at the Royal Stud in Jordan, owned by King Abdullah I of Jordan. Her sire was El Hamdani El Nasiri, a Hamdani Stallion of the City Nasiriyah and her dam was Abaya Umm Ejeres (the Egyptian spelling is: El Obeya Om Grees). She is the ancestress of the well-known Bint Magidaa and Hanan dam lines.

Hussam ad-Din Jarallah

Hussam al-Din Jarallah (Arabic: حسام الدين جار الله; 1884 – 6 March 1954) was a Sunni Muslim leader of the Palestinian people during the British Mandate of Palestine and was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from 1948 until his death.

Jarallah was born in Jerusalem and was educated at the al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt. He was a leading member of the Supreme Muslim Council during the British Mandate of Palestine. Politically, he was an ally of the Nashashibis and a rival of the al-Husaynis. When Kamil al-Husayni died in 1921, Jarallah had significant support from the ulema in Jerusalem to succeed al-Husayni as Grand Mufti. Indeed, he won the most votes in the election for the post. However, the British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel convinced Jarallah to withdraw, thus allowing al-Husayni's brother Amin to qualify as a candidate, whom Samuel then appointed Grand Mufti of Jerusalem As a consolation, the British appointed Jarallah as the chief qadi and inspector of the Muslim religious courts in Palestine.

After Jordan occupied Jerusalem in 1948, Abdullah I of Jordan appointed Jarallah in his place on 20 December 1948. Jarallah was the Grand Mufti until his death. No Grand Mufti was appointed to replace Jarallah until Yasser Arafat appointed Sulaiman Ja'abari in 1993.

Ibrahim Hashem

Ibrahim Hashem (Arabic: إبراهيم هاشم‎, 1886 – 14 June 1958) was a Jordanian lawyer and politician of Palestinian descent who served in several high offices under Faisal I of Iraq, Abdullah I of Jordan and Hussein of Jordan.

King Abdullah

King Abdullah may refer to:

Abdullah II of Jordan (born 1962), king of Jordan since 1999

Abdullah I of Jordan (1882–1951), king of Transjordan

Abdullah Khan II (1533/4–1598), ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara

Abdullah of Saudi Arabia (1924–2015), king of Saudi Arabia

King Abdullah Canal

The King Abdullah Canal is the largest irrigation canal system in Jordan and runs parallel to the east bank of the Jordan River. It was previously known as the East Ghor Main Canal and renamed in 1987 after Abdullah I of Jordan.

Line of succession to the former Iraqi throne

The Iraqi monarchy was abolished by the then-ruling Republican regime on 14 July 1958 by Abd al-Karim Qasim in a coup d'état.

The current pretender to the defunct throne of Iraq and Syria is Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid.

List of ambassadors of Jordan to France

The Jordanian Ambassador in Paris is the representative of the government in Amman (Jordan) to the government of France and is concurrently accredited to UNESCO, the Holy See and the government in Lisbon.

List of people on the postage stamps of Jordan

This is list of people on postage stamps of Jordan.

The list is complete through 1977.

Abdullah I of Jordan (1927)

Abdullah II of Jordan (1964)

Alhazen, scientist (1971)

Alia al-Hussein, queen (1977)

Neil Armstrong, US astronaut (1966)

Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople (1964)

Averroes, scholar (1971)

Avicenna, scientist (1971)

Frank Borman, US astronaut (1966)

Valeri Bykovski, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Scott Carpenter, US astronaut (1964)

Yuri Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Charles de Gaulle, French president (1965)

John Glenn, US astronaut (1964)

Gus Grissom, US astronaut (1964)

Dina bint 'Abdu'l-Hamid (1955)

Dag Hammarskjöld, UN secretary-general (1961, 1963, 1967)

Prince Hassan bin Talal (1969)

Princess Sarvath El Hassan (1969)

Hussein of Jordan (1953)

Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca (1963)

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistani statesman (1977)

Pope John XXIII (1967)

Lyndon B. Johnson, US president (1965, 1967)

John F. Kennedy, US president (1964, 1967)

Ibn Khaldun, scholar (1971)

James A. Lovell, US astronaut (1966)

Andrian Nikloayev, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Jawaharlal Nehru, Indian statesman (1967)

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran (1960)

Pope Paul VI (1964, 1967)

Pavel Popovitch, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Ramses II, Egyptian pharaoh (1964)

Walter Schirra, US astronaut (1964)

David R. Scott, US astronaut (1966)

Alan Shepard, US astronaut (1964)

Thomas P. Stafford, US astronaut (1966)

Valentina Tereshkova, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Gherman Titov, Russian cosmonaut (1965)

Ibn Tufail, scholar (1971)

Wasfi al-Tal, prime minister (1972)

Musbah bint Nasser

Musbah bint Nasser (1884 – 15 March 1961) was the first queen consort of Jordan.

She was born in 1884 in Mecca, Ottoman Empire. She was the elder twin daughter of Amir Nasser Pasha and his wife Dilber Khanum, the younger being Huzaima.

In 1904, Musbah married Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn later King Abdullah I of Jordan at Stinia Palace, İstinye, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. She bore him a son and two daughters:

Princess Haya (1907 – 1990). Married Abdul-Karim Ja'afar Zeid Dhaoui.

King Talal I (26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972).

Princess Munira (1915 – 1987). Never married.Abdullah went on to take two more wives. He married Princess Suzdil Khanum in 1913 and Nahda bint Uman in 1949, making Musbah his senior wife. On 25 May 1946, Abdullah was proclaimed King of Jordan and Musbah, as his first wife, became Queen of Jordan.

Queen Musbah died on 15 March 1961 in Irbid, Jordan.

Order of Al-Hussein bin Ali

The Order of al-Hussein bin Ali is the highest order of the Kingdom of Jordan. It was founded on 22 June 1949 wit one class (i.e. Collar) by King Abdullah I of Jordan with the scope of rewarding benevolence and foreign Heads of State. The class of Grand Cordon was introduced by King Hussein on 23 September 1967.

Order of Pahlavi

The Order of Pahlavi of the Empire of Iran, in Persian: "Neshan-e Pahlavi" was the highest order of the former Imperial State of Iran.

Prince Asem bin Nayef

Prince Asem "Abu Bakr" bin Nayef (Arabic: الأمير عاصم بن نايف‎) was born in Alexandria, Egypt on 27 April 1948. He is the son of Prince Nayef bin Abdullah (a younger son of Abdullah I of Jordan) and Princess Mihrimah Sultana Osmanoğlu (granddaughter of Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire). It is claimed he is the 42nd generation direct descendant of Muhammad.

Prince Nayef bin Abdullah

Prince Nayef bin Abdullah (14 November 1914 – 12 October 1983) was the youngest son of King Abdullah I of Jordan and his second wife, Suzdil Khanum.

Nayef attended Victoria College in Cairo. He became regent of Jordan on 20 July 1951, following the assassination of Abdullah, because his brother, King Talal, was reportedly suffering from poor health. Nayef ruled in his older brother's stead until 6 September 1951, when Talal was judged fit to assume his royal duties. Nayef died in Jordan on 12 October 1983.

Princess Noor bint Asem

Princess Noor bint Asem (Arabic: نور بنت عاصم‎; born 6 October 1982) is a member of the Jordanian Royal Family.

Siege of Medina

Medina, an Islamic holy city in Arabia, underwent a long siege during World War I. Medina was at the time part of the Ottoman Empire. In the war, the Ottoman Empire sided with the Central Powers. Sharif Hussain of Mecca revolted against the caliph and the Ottoman Empire which, under the leadership of the nationalistic Young Turks, had ignored the wishes of the Caliph and sided with the Central Powers. Hussain instead sided with the British Empire. T. E. Lawrence was instrumental in this revolt. Hussain occupied Mecca and besieged Medina. It was one of the longest sieges in history that lasted till even after the end of war. Fahreddin Pasha was the defender of Medina. Some celebrated him as "the Lion of the Desert" despite the suffering of those who remained in Medina. The siege lasted two years and seven months.

Wadi Hunayn

Wadi Hunayn (Arabic: وادي حنين‎) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Ramle Subdistrict, located 9 km west of Ramla. According to a local tradition, it was named after the Yemeni home of the Qada'a tribe who settled here in the early Islamic period.

Hashemites[44][45]
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Hashim
(eponymous ancestor)
Abd al-Muttalib
Abu TalibAbdallah
Muhammad
(Islamic prophet)
Ali
(fourth caliph)
Fatimah
Hasan
(fifth caliph)
Hasan Al-Mu'thanna
Abdullah
Musa Al-Djawn
Abdullah
Musa
Muhammad
Abdullah
Ali
Suleiman
Hussein
Issa
Abd Al-Karim
Muta'in
Idris
Qatada
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Rumaythah
(Sharif of Mecca)
'Ajlan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abdullah
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hussein
Abdullah
Muhsin
Auon, Ra'i Al-Hadala
Abdul Mu'een
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Monarch Hussein
(Sharif of Mecca King of Hejaz)
Monarch Ali
(King of Hejaz)
Monarch Abdullah I
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal I
(King of Syria King of Iraq)
Zeid
(pretender to Iraq)
'Abd Al-Ilah
(Regent of Iraq)
Monarch Talal
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Ghazi
(King of Iraq)
Ra'ad
(pretender to Iraq)
Monarch Hussein
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal II
(King of Iraq)
Zeid
Monarch Abdullah II
(King of Jordan)
Hussein
(Crown Prince of Jordan)

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