Abdullah Gül

Abdullah Gül[1] (/ɡuːl/ (listen); Turkish: [abduɫˈɫah ˈɟyl]; born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014. He previously served for four months as Prime Minister from 2002 to 2003, and concurrently served as both Deputy Prime Minister and as Foreign Minister between 2003 and 2007. He is currently a member of the Advisory Panel for the President of the Islamic Development Bank.[2]

Advocating staunch Islamist political views during his university years, Gül became a Member of Parliament for Kayseri in 1991 and was re-elected in 1995, 1999, 2002 and 2007. Initially a member of the Islamist Welfare Party, Gül joined the Virtue Party in 1998 after the former was banned for anti-secular activities. When the party split into hardline Islamist and modernist factions in 2000, Gül joined fellow party member Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in advocating the need for reform and moderation. He ran against serving leader Recai Kutan for the Virtue Party leadership on behalf of Erdoğan, who was banned from holding political office at the time. As the candidate for the modernist camp, he came second with 521 votes while Kutan won 633. He co-founded the moderate Justice and Development Party (AKP) with Erdoğan in 2001 after the Virtue Party was shut down in the same year, while hardline conservative members founded the Felicity Party instead.

Gül became Prime Minister after the AKP won a landslide victory in the 2002 general election, since Erdoğan was still banned from office. His government had removed Erdoğan's political ban by March 2003, after which Erdoğan became an MP for Siirt in a by-election and took over as Prime Minister. Gül subsequently served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister until 2007. His subsequent bid for the Presidency drew strong and highly vocal opposition from ardent supporters of secularism in Turkey and was initially blocked by the Constitutional Court due to concerns over his Islamist political background.[3] He was eventually elected Turkey's first Islamist President after the 2007 snap general election.[4][5][6]

As President, Gül came under criticism for giving assent to controversial laws which have been regarded by the political opposition as unconstitutional.[7][8] In June 2013, he signed a bill restricting alcohol consumption into law despite initially indicating a possible veto, which was seen as a contributing factor to sparking the 2013–14 anti-government protests.[9] Other controversies included a law tightening internet regulation in 2013,[10] a law increasing political control over the judiciary in 2014[11] and a law giving the National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) controversial new powers also in 2014.[12] Gül took a mediating approach during anti-government protests and government corruption scandals.[13]


Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül (cropped version)
11th President of Turkey
In office
28 August 2007 – 28 August 2014
Prime MinisterRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
Preceded byAhmet Necdet Sezer
Succeeded byRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
24th Prime Minister of Turkey
In office
18 November 2002 – 14 March 2003
PresidentAhmet Necdet Sezer
DeputyAbdüllatif Şener
Mehmet Ali Şahin
Ertuğrul Yalçınbayır
Preceded byBülent Ecevit
Succeeded byRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
In office
28 March 2003 – 28 August 2007
Prime MinisterRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
Served withAbdüllatif Şener
Mehmet Ali Şahin
Preceded byErtuğrul Yalçınbayır
Succeeded byCemil Çiçek
40th Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
14 March 2003 – 28 August 2007
Prime MinisterRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
Preceded byYaşar Yakış
Succeeded byAli Babacan
Minister of State
In office
28 June 1996 – 30 June 1997
Prime MinisterNecmettin Erbakan
Member of the Grand National Assembly
In office
20 October 1991 – 28 October 2007
ConstituencyKayseri (1991, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2007)
Personal details
Born29 October 1950 (age 68)
Kayseri, Turkey
Political partyWelfare Party (Before 1997)
Virtue Party (1997–2001)
Justice and Development Party (2001–2007)
Independent (2007–present)
Spouse(s)
Children3
Alma materIstanbul University
University of Exeter
Signature
Abdullah Gül's signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Early life

Gül was born in Kayseri, central Anatolia on the 26th anniversary of the proclamation of Turkish independence. His father is Ahmet Hamdi Gül, a retired air force mechanic, and his mother is Adviye Satoğlu.[14][15] He married his wife Hayrünnisa when she was 15, and he 30 [16]

Education

Gül studied economics at Istanbul University. During his graduate education, he spent two years in London and Exeter in the United Kingdom. He received his PhD from Istanbul University in 1983. Between 1983 and 1991, he worked at the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He was conferred an honorary PhD degree from Amity University, Noida on 8 February 2009, and a LL.D from the University of Dhaka on 13 February 2010.[17]

Entry into politics

Gül became acquainted with politics early during his high school years. During his university education, he became a member of the Islamist-nationalist Millî Türk Talebe Birliği (National Turkish Students' Union) in the line of Necip Fazıl's Büyük Doğu (Grand Orient) current.[18]

He was elected a member of the Turkish parliament for the Refah Partisi (RP, "the Welfare Party") from the Kayseri electoral district in 1991 and 1995. During these years, he made statements about the political system of Turkey that was designed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement, which included "This is the end of the republican period" and "The secular system has failed and we definitely want to change it".[19] These statements caused controversy when his candidacy for the 2007 presidential election was announced by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[20]

In 1999, he kept his seat as a member of the Fazilet Partisi (FP, "the Virtue Party") which was subsequently outlawed by the Constitutional Court for its violation of the Constitution. Its predecessor, the Refah Partisi, was also outlawed by the Constitutional Court for its violation of the Constitution, especially the principle of secularism. By this time, Gül had apparently moderated his views and was reportedly considered to be part of the Virtue Party's reformist faction. He was a co-founder of the Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party), a party which billed itself as a moderate conservative party in the European tradition. He was elected once again to represent Kayseri in 2002.[21]

An interview he gave in 2002 summarizes his criticisms of the Refah Partisi under the leadership of Necmettin Erbakan and his portrayal of the AKP as a moderate party:

In the Welfare Party, there were groups demanding sharia rule. Welfare did not represent the local values we are now cultivating. The ideology of the party was partially shaped by alien imports. [He was referring to the impact of the Islamist ideology of the Iranian Revolution and Arab states on Welfare's ideology.] Our vision was at odds with the rest of the party. The despotic rule of Erbakan Hoca made it impossible for us to realize our vision under the rubric of the National View. We believe that modernization and being Muslim complement each other. We accept the modern values of liberalism, human rights, and market economy.[22]

AKP career

Prime minister

Donald H. Rumsfeld & Abdullah Gül.jpeg
U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullah Gül in the Pentagon, Washington, D.C., 2003

After the Justice and Development Party (AKP) won the most votes in the November 2002 general election, Gül was appointed Prime Minister, as AKP leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was unable to assume the role due to a ban on his participation in politics. After Gül's government secured legislation allowing Erdoğan's return to politics, the latter took over as prime minister on 14 March 2003. He was appointed deputy prime minister and foreign minister.

Foreign minister

After becoming foreign minister in March 2003, Gül became the key player in Turkey's attempts to receive an accession date for the European Union and in its attempts to improve relations with Syria and maintaining its relationship with the Turkic-speaking countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. On 8 January 2008, Gül flew to the United States to meet with U.S. President George W. Bush and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.[23]

Presidency: 2007–14

Chatham House Prize 2010 President Gül (6024767021)
Abdullah Gül in 2010.
Gul and Obama
Gül with U.S. President Barack Obama on Obama's first visit to Ankara, 6 April 2009.

Prime Minister Erdoğan announced on 24 April 2007 that Gül would be the Justice and Development Party candidate in the 2007 presidential election. Previously, there had been speculation that Erdoğan himself would be the party's candidate, which had provoked substantial opposition from secularists.[24][25] When a boycott of opposition parties in Parliament deadlocked the election process, Gül formally withdrew his candidacy on 6 May 2007. If elected he would be the first president to have been involved with Islamist parties. But a few days later, on 11 May 2007 when he inquired after the alterations to the Turkish constitution which now allowed the people to elect the president directly rather than a parliamentary vote, Gül announced that he was still intending to run.[26][27]

Following the July 2007 parliamentary election, the AKP renominated Gül as its presidential candidate on 13 August; the election was again held as a vote of parliament.[28] On 14 August, Gül submitted his candidacy application to parliament and expressed his commitment to secularism at a news conference.[29]

On 28 August 2007, he was elected president in the third round of voting; in the first two rounds, a two-thirds majority of MPs had been required, but in the third round he needed only a simple majority. Gül was sworn in immediately thereafter.[30] The process was a very low-key affair.[31]

Gül's swearing-in was not attended by the Chief of the Turkish General Staff and was boycotted by the opposition Republican People's Party; then the hand-over of power at the presidential palace was held behind closed doors. Gül's wife was not present. The traditional evening reception hosted by the new president at the presidential palace for the country's highest authorities was announced for 11:30 in the morning and wives were not invited.[32]

His presidency was described as a "new era in Turkish politics", for being the first president of Turkey with an Islamist background.[33]

Chatham House Prize 2010 (5163375167)
Gül awarded "Statesman of the Year" by Queen Elizabeth II, 2010.

Gül received messages of congratulation from the US, EU and German authorities while Turkey's prime minister Tayyip Erdoğan made a statement saying "a structure doomed to uncertainty has been overcome".[34]

In September 2008 Gül became the first Turkish leader to visit Armenia, sparking a major debate in Turkey.[35] In November 2011, President Gül led a state visit to the United Kingdom as a guest of Queen Elizabeth II.[36] The President met political and business leaders, visited the Olympic Park and was guest of honour at a state banquet at Buckingham Palace.

In November 2013, Gül called on Muslim countries to fight against what he called Islamophobia during his address at the 29th session of the COMCEC in Istanbul. he said:

Islamophobia remains a critical problem, which instigates unsubstantial prejudices against our region and Muslims. Terror plays a role in the persistence of such problems. We have to combat any form of deviation playing into the hands of people who equate terrorism with Islam, the religion of love, tolerance and conciliation.[37]

Statements on the Middle East

Abdullah Gül cropped
Abdullah Gül speaking on the Middle East at the Halifax International Security Forum 2014

Gül has been a critic of Israel and Western countries which established relations with Israel at the expense of Palestine.[38] After the Israeli raid on the MV Mavi Marmara in 2010, he advocated the complete ending of diplomatic relations with Israel, stating that "Israel will turn into a complete apartheid regime in the next 50 years if it does not allow for the establishment of an independent and proud Palestinian state with its capital in east Jerusalem. That is why we are exerting efforts to achieve a fair peace with a strategic point of view, which is to Israel's own interests."[39]

On 31 December 2012, he stated with respect to the Arab spring and democratization of the Arab world: "But democracy is not only about elections. The task of creating essential democratic institutions – the rule of law, habits of accountability, gender equality, and freedom of expression and faith – still awaits these countries".[40][41]

History of titles

Honours and medals

National honours

Ribbon bar Award or decoration Country Date Place Note Ref.
Medal of Honor of the Republic of Turkey  Turkey 28 August 2014 Ankara [43][44]

Foreign honours

Ribbon bar Award or decoration Country Date Place Note Ref.
Noribbon Pro Merito medal by European Council  European Union 2002 Brussels [45]
Spange des König-Abdulaziz-Ordens First Class Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud  Saudi Arabia 9 November 2007 Ankara The order was named after Abdulaziz Al Saud. [46]
Order of the Bath UK ribbon Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath  United Kingdom 13 May 2008 Ankara British order of chivalry. [47]
Medal10Astana Medal of the tenth anniversary of the capital city of Astana  Kazakhstan 4 July 2008 Astana [48]
Order of Independence (Qatar) - ribbon bar Grand cordon of the Order of Independence  Qatar 17 August 2009 Istanbul [45][49]
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry  Portugal 12 May 2009 Ankara Portuguese National Order of Knighthood. [50]
ITA OMRI 2001 GC-GCord BAR Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic  Italy 17 November 2009 Ankara The highest ranking honour of the Italian Republic [51]
Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait) - ribbon bar Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great  Kuwait 21 December 2009 Kuwait City [52]
Noribbon 2010 Chatham House Prize  United Kingdom 20 March 2010 London Gul awarded "Statesman of the Year" by Queen Elizabeth II. [53]
Order of Valour First class of the Order of Valour  Cameroon 16 March 2010 Yaoundé Second highest order in Cameroon. [54]
Ord.Nishan-i-Pakistan.ribbon Grand cordon of Nishan-e-Pakistan  Pakistan 31 March 2010 Islamabad Pakistan's highest civil order. [55][56]
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep 1class Collar BAR Grand Cross with Chain Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary  Hungary 15 November 2011 Ankara The highest state order and second class of Hungary. [57]
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion  The Netherlands 16 April 2012 Amsterdam Netherlands' Lion, established in 1815. [58]
Ord.GoldenEagle-ribbon Order of the Golden Eagle  Kazakhstan 11 October 2012 Ankara The highest decoration of Kazakhstan. [59]
Order of the Seraphim - Ribbon bar Knight of the Order of the Seraphim  Sweden 11 March 2013 Stockholm The highest order awarded by Swedish Royalty [60][61]
GEO St-George Victory Order BAR St. George's Order of Victory  Georgia 19 April 2013 Ankara Second highest state decoration awarded by President of Georgia. [62]
Star of President Order (Turkmenistan) - ribbon bar Star of President Order  Turkmenistan 29 May 2013 Ashgabat The first order given to foreign president in Turkmenistan. [63][64]
St Olavs Orden storkors stripe Grand Cross with Collar of Order of St. Olav  Norway 5 November 2013 Ankara The highest ranking honour of the Kingdom of Norway. [65]
AZ Heydar Aliyev Order ribbon Heydar Aliyev Order  Azerbaijan 12 November 2013 Ankara The highest national order of Azerbaijan. [66][67]
Ord.Lion.Nassau Knights of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau  Luxembourg 18 November 2013 Ankara The highest national order in Luxembourg. [68][69]
Magtymguly International Prize  Turkmenistan 3 June 2014 Ankara [70][71]
Ribbon bar of Order of the State of Northern Cyprus Order of the State of Northern Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 19 July 2014 Northern Nicosia The highest national order in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. [72][73]
KRG Order Danaker Danaker Order  Kyrgyzstan 8 September 2014 Istanbul The highest national order in Kyrgyzstan. [74][75]

See also

References

  1. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey : Abdullah GÜL Archived 6 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Islamic Development Bank". Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  3. ^ Ercan Yavuz (31 July 2008) "Evidence indicates Ergenekon tried to block presidential election" Archived 14 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, todayszaman.com; retrieved 9 February 2009.
  4. ^ "Gül'ün adaylığını doğru bulmuyoruz". CNN Türk (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  5. ^ Turks elect ex-Islamist president, bbc.co.uk; retrieved 9 February 2009.
  6. ^ Gul sworn in as Turkey's first former Islamist president, dailymail.co.uk; retrieved 9 February 2009.
  7. ^ President Gül bids farewell to rule of law Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, todayszaman.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  8. ^ Turkish main opposition takes judicial bill to constitutional court, hurriyetdailynews.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  9. ^ 2013–14 anti-government protests in Turkey over restrictions on alcohol, eurasianet.org; accessed 15 February 2015.
  10. ^ Turkey passes law tightening internet regulation, reuters.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  11. ^ Gül signs judicial law increasing political control over the judiciary, hurriyetdailynews.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  12. ^ Gül signs law giving MİT new powers Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, todayszaman.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  13. ^ Rifts emerge between Erdoğan and Gül, voanews.com; accessed 15 February 2015.
  14. ^ Kurt, Süleyman. "'Cumhur' İkinci Kez Köşk Yolunda". Zaman (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  15. ^ "'Ergenekon davasında mahkemeler görevini yapacak'". Milliyet (in Turkish). 27 July 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  16. ^ "Hayrünnisa marriage". 22 November 2002. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Doctor of Laws degree conferred on Abdullah Gül". The Daily Star. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  18. ^ "Abdullah Gul's Unknown Sides/Exclusive". World Bulletin (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  19. ^ "Cumhuriyet bitmiş". Milliyet. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  20. ^ "Abdullah Gül: The Man Who Would be Turkey's President". Deutsche Welle (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  21. ^ Abdullah Gül's historic profile Archived 29 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (24 March 2014); retrieved 25 March 2014.
  22. ^ Güneş Murat Tezcür, Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010, p. 157.
  23. ^ President Bush Meets with President Gul of Turkey, The White House Archives, 8 January 2008.
  24. ^ "Turkey's ruling party announces FM Gül as presidential candidate", Xinhua (People's Daily Online), 24 April 2007.
  25. ^ "Turkey 'must have secular leader'", BBC News, 24 April 2007.
  26. ^ "Gül: Adaylığımız devam ediyor". Hurriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  27. ^ "Gül adaylıktan çekildi". Hurriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  28. ^ "Turkey's ruling party renominates Gül as presidential candidate", Xinhua (People's Daily Online), 13 August 2007.
  29. ^ "Turkey's Gül vows secular agenda", BBC News, 14 August 2007.
  30. ^ "Turkish foreign minister wins presidency, in victory for Islamic-rooted government", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune, 28 August 2007.
  31. ^ "Generals Protest Against Gül's Presidency". Turkish Daily News. Hürriyet. 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  32. ^ Koylu, Hilal. "Köşk'e ilk davet eşsiz". Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  33. ^ Amberin Zaman (29 August 2007). "Turkey elects Islamist president Abdullah Gül", Telegraph.co.uk; retrieved 10 February 2009.
  34. ^ "Türkiye'nin 11. Cumhurbaşkanı Abdullah Gül". Radikal (in Turkish). 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  35. ^ "Gül in landmark visit to Armenia". BBC News. 6 September 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  36. ^ British Monarchy website "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ Speech by Gül against Islamophobia, worldbulletin.net; accessed 15 February 2015.
  38. ^ Abdullah, Gul to discuss Palestine, bilateral relations, Turkish News, 3 February 2009.
  39. ^ "Turkish president warns Israel". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  40. ^ "Europe and the Middle East in 2013", project-syndicate.org; accessed 15 February 2015.
  41. ^ Profile Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, tccb.gov.tr; accessed 15 February 2015.(in Turkish)
  42. ^ "T.C. CUMHURBAŞKANLIĞI : Abdullah Gül". Tccb.gov.tr. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  43. ^ "Türkiye'nin İlk Seçilmiş Cumhurbaşkanı" (in Turkish). Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  44. ^ Photo
  45. ^ a b "Biography of Abdullah Gül". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  46. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
  47. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
  48. ^ "Foreign visits:Kazakhstan". www.abdullahgul.gen.tr. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  49. ^ "Türkiye-Katar: Her Konuda Tam Mutabakat". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 17 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  50. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Photo (President Napolitano present Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.) Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
  52. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo)
  53. ^ "Gül winner of prestigious Chatham House award". Today's Zaman. 20 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  54. ^ Photo (President Paul Biya present th award.) Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
  55. ^ "Turkish President awarded Nishan-i-Pakistan". Associated Press of Pakistan. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  56. ^ Photo of Nishan-e-Pakistan
  57. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo)
  58. ^ Photo of President receiving the Order. His wife has received The Order of the Crown
  59. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo)
  60. ^ Noblesse et Royautes Archived 15 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine (French), State visit of Turkey in Sweden, Gala dinner, March 2013
  61. ^ Photo
  62. ^ "Biography of Abdullah Gül (Turkish)". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  63. ^ "Туркменистан: золотой век". Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  64. ^ Photo
  65. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo) Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ "Çankaya köşkündə Azərbaycan və Türkiyə prezidentlərinin təltif edilməsi mərasimi olmuşdur. president.az" (in Azerbaijani).
  67. ^ Photo
  68. ^ "Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg at the Çankaya Presidential Palace". Presidency of the Republic of Turkey. 19 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  69. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo) Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ "President Gül Hosts Official Dinner in Honor of President Berdimuhamedov". Presidency of the Republic of Turkey. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  71. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (Photo)
  72. ^ "President Gül Decorated with KKTC's Order of State". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  73. ^ "Eroğlu'ndan Gül'e "KKTC Devlet Nişanı"" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  74. ^ "Kırgızistan'dan 11. Cumhurbaşkanı Gül'e devlet nişanı" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  75. ^ "Түркиянын экс-Президенти Абдуллах Гүл "Данакер" ордени менен сыйланды" (in Kyrgyz). www.president.kg. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.

External links

Party political offices
New office Deputy Leader of the Justice and Development Party
2001–2007
Succeeded by
Cemil Çiçek
Political offices
Preceded by
Bülent Ecevit
Prime Minister of Turkey
2002–2003
Succeeded by
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Preceded by
Mehmet Ali Şahin
First Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Cemil Çiçek
Preceded by
Yaşar Yakış
Minister of Foreign Affairs
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Ali Babacan
Preceded by
Ahmet Necdet Sezer
President of Turkey
2007–2014
Succeeded by
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
2002 Turkish general election

The 15th Turkish general election was held on 3 November 2002 following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit. It was the 15th general election to be held in Turkey. All 550 members of the Grand National Assembly were up for election.

The election was held during an ongoing economic crisis which followed the 2001 financial crash, which resulted in a deep resentment of coalition governments which had governed the country since the 1980 military coup. The Justice and Development Party (AKP) and Republican People's Party (CHP) had massive gains, transitioning from the multi-party parliament under a DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition government elected in 1999 to a two-party system ruled by the AKP and CHP, with no other parties winning any seats in parliament, only nine independents being elected, and the AKP and CHP combined winning 98.36% of parliament. The Justice and Development Party (AKP), which had only been formed in August 2001 by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, won the election with nearly two-thirds of the seats. The protest vote was such that every sitting party previously represented in parliament was ejected, with the AKP winning 363 seats with just 34.3% of the vote. The only other party which passed the 10% threshold to gain representation was the Republican People's Party, which came second with 19.38% of the vote and 178 seats. The election produced Turkey's first single party government since 1987 and the country's first two-party parliament since 1961.

The moderate Islamism advocated by the AKP was at odds with the secular establishment of the Republic of Turkey. While serving as the Mayor of Istanbul, Erdoğan was sentenced to a 10 month prison term in 1998 for reciting a poem in Siirt which incited racial intolerance. This barred him from initially seeking a seat in parliament, meaning that the AKP's co-founder Abdullah Gül became Prime Minister following their election victory. With the help of the CHP, the government overturned Erdoğan's political ban in 2003, after which he was able to seek a seat in a controversial by-election in the Province of Siirt. Erdoğan became Prime Minister in March 2003, with Abdullah Gül concurrently assuming the role of Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister.

2007 Turkish presidential election

The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the country's 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. The most likely candidate for president was Abdullah Gül. Turkey's presidential office is regarded as the guardian of the country's secular system; the fact that Gül's wife wears the Islamic headscarf, as well as his own history in political Islam, turned the elections into a political crisis.

The first attempt consisted of the first rounds on 27 April and its repeat on 6 May after Turkey's constitutional court annulled the first round on 27 April. The constitutional court decided that a quorum of two-thirds was necessary, which was impossible without opposition support. Both first rounds were almost entirely boycotted by opposition MPs to disable the voting to start. Therefore, the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) was unsuccessful in electing its candidate, foreign minister Abdullah Gül. AKP then called a snap election which was held on 22 July 2007. The general elections saw it returned to government with a larger proportion of the vote. Subsequently, Gül was renominated and was finally elected in the third round of the second attempt of presidential election. The first round of this voting was on 20 August, while a second was on 24 August and a third was on 28 August. There was a quorum this time, since some opposition parties, most importantly the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), did not boycott the election.

2014–15 Turkish Women's Basketball League

The 2014-15 Turkish Women's Basketball League was the 35th edition of the top-flight professional women's basketball league in Turkey.

Galatasaray OdeaBank were the champions of the season after beating Abdullah Gül Üniversitesi in the playoffs final by 3-1.

Abdullah Gul Interchange

The Abdullah Gul Interchange, named after Turkish President Abdullah Gül, is an interchange of the Lahore Ring Road, giving access to the Allama Iqbal International Airport. The interchange was opened on April 1, 2010. It was completed at a cost of Rs. 2,275 million, in a record period of 7 months.

The opening ceremony was attended by Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani, Prime Minister of Pakistan and Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif, the Punjab Chief Minister. The dignitaries appreciated the excellent quality of work executed by the contractors. Earlier, on March 16, 2010, the Punjab Chief Minister performed the soft opening of the interchange.

Abdullah Gül University

Abdullah Gül University (AGU) is a state university, supported by a philanthropic foundation (AGUV), located in Kayseri, Turkey.

The university, which was inaugurated in 2010, has 5 schools offering 14 graduate and undergraduate programs. All courses at AGU are taught in English.

AGU first opened its gates to students for the 2013-2014 academic year.

Currently the university's main location is Sümer Campus, which covers 280.000 m², but the university has also started the development of a second campus, Mimar Sinan Campus, which will be outside the city center and with a planned total area of 360.000m².

Ahmet Necdet Sezer

Ahmet Necdet Sezer (pronounced [ahmet nedʒdet ˈsezæɾ]; born September 13, 1941) is a Turkish politician who was the tenth President of Turkey, serving from 2000 to 2007. Previously he was President of the Constitutional Court of Turkey from 1998 to 2000. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elected Sezer as President in 2000 after Süleyman Demirel's seven-year term expired. He was succeeded by Abdullah Gül in 2007.

Following his legal career, Sezer became a candidate for the Presidency jointly supported by many political parties in Parliament. Following the 2000 presidential election, he took an ardent secularist approach on issues such as the headscarf and held the view that secularism in Turkey was under threat. A quarrel between Sezer and the Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit in 2001 led to a financial meltdown, attributed to the weakness of the coalition government as well as the existence of a large amount of debt to the International Monetary Fund.

The landslide victory of the conservative Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) in the 2002 general election resulted in strong opposition from President Sezer, who vetoed several laws and referred some to the Constitutional Court. These included laws on banking reform and the lifting of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's political ban. During receptions at the presidential palace, Sezer refused to allow women wearing the headscarf to attend per the laws on separation of mosque and state at the time, resulting in the wives of Abdullah Gül and Erdoğan, Hayrünnisa Gül and Emine Erdoğan respectively, not attending the events. Erdoğan later publicly stated that he had 'suffered a lot' from Sezer.During the 2014 presidential election, Sezer openly refused to vote, citing the lack of a secularist candidate as his reason.

Alkumru Dam

The Alkumru Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam on the Botan River, located 14 km (9 mi) east of Siirt in Siirt Province, Turkey. The dam was constructed between 2008 and 2011. It was inaugurated by President Abdullah Gül and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on 19 May 2011. Its primary purpose is hydroelectric power generation and it supports a 265.5 MW power station. The first two generators were commissioned in March 2011 with the third and final in April 2011.

Anna DeForge

Anna Louise DeForge (born April 14, 1976) is an American professional female basketball player who most recently played for the Detroit Shock in the WNBA. She is the first player from the University of Nebraska to ever play in the WNBA. After finding little success and playing time for several WNBA teams, she finally earned a spot on a WNBA All-Star team in 2004. She was one of the players selected to play in the historic WNBA vs. USA Basketball Game.

On February 3, 2006, she was traded to the Indiana Fever from the Phoenix Mercury in exchange for Kelly Miller.

On February 19, 2008 DeForge signed on with the Minnesota Lynx.On February 27, 2009 DeForge signed on with the Beşiktaş Istanbul.

Cabinet Gül

The cabinet of Abdullah Gül took office on November 19, 2002. He succeeded to the fifth government of Bülent Ecevit.

After the Justice and Development Party (AKP) became the biggest party in the general elections of 2002, its leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan could not be Prime Minister because of a previous conviction and bar from politics. So the second person in the party, Abdullah Gül, formed the 58th government of Turkey. After the legal and political problems for Erdoğan had been eliminated, Abdullah Gül stepped aside and became the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the next government while Erdoğan became Prime Minister.

Esra Ural

Esra Ural (born 18 August 1991) is a Turkish female professional basketball player for Fenerbahçe. She represented Turkey in the Basketball competition at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Kayseri Basketbol

Kayseri Basketbol S.K. is a Turkish women's basketball club based in Kayseri, Turkey. The club was founded in 1986.

LaToya Sanders

LaToya Antoinette Pringle (born September 11, 1986), a.k.a. LaToya Antoinette Sanders or Lara Sanders, is an American–Turkish professional basketball player for the Washington Mystics of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Sanders played college basketball at the University of North Carolina before getting drafted by the Phoenix Mercury in the 2008 WNBA Draft. Currently, she also plays for Kayseri Kaski S.K. in Turkey.

Laura Nicholls (basketball)

Laura Nicholls González (born 26 February 1989) is a Spanish basketball player who plays for Nadezhda Orenburg of the Russian Women's Basketball Premier League. She is a regular member of the Spain women's national basketball team since 2008, having won eight medals in final tournaments.

List of international presidential trips made by Abdullah Gül

This is a list of presidential trips made by Abdullah Gül, the 11th President of Republic of Turkey. During his presidency, which began with his inauguration on August 28, 2007, Abdullah Gül has travelled to 63 different states internationally as of February 2014.

Nicky Anosike

Nkolika "Nicky" Nonyelum Anosike (born February 27, 1986) is an American professional basketball player in the WNBA, most recently with the Los Angeles Sparks.

Nuria Martínez

Nuria Martínez Prat (born February 29, 1984) is a Spanish professional basketball player for Spar CityLift Girona.

Tuğba Taşçı

Tuğba Taşçı (born 19 August 1984) is a Turkish professional female basketball player of Kayseri Kaski.

Yasemin Begüm Dalgalar

Yasemin Begüm Dalgalar (born June 8, 1988) is a Turkish female basketball player for Adana ASKİ in the Power forward position.

She is 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in) tall and 70 kg (150 lb) weight.

She started her career at Fenerbahçe of İstanbul in 1998 in youth level, and continued in senior level between 2005–2011.

She played for Tarsus Belediyespor in the 2011–2012 season before moving to her current team Kayseri Kaski in the 2012–2013 season.

As of July 2012, she has 105 appearances for Turkey women's national basketball team.She has been in the rooster of the Turkey women's national basketball team that ranked 5th at the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Şaziye İvegin

Şaziye İvegin (born February 8, 1982) is a Turkish female basketball player. Nicknamed "Şaz" (IPA: [ˈʃaz]), the 1.80 m (5' 11") national plays forward. She currently plays for Abdullah Gül Üniversitesi.

A basketball player’s daughter, İvegin started basketball in 7th school class on the same day together with her two younger sisters. The three sisters played in the Adana-based club Botaşspor and won twice the Turkish Girls’ Basketball League championship title. At her age of 22, she became the youngest women's basketball team captain in the country. After 10 successful years with Botaş, İvegin transferred to Fenerbahçe on May 7, 2004.

İvegin was member of the Turkish national team that participated at the 2005 Mediterranean Games in Almería, Spain and won the gold medal.

She is a student of business administration at the Anadolu University.

Government of the Grand
National Assembly

(1920–1923)
Republic of Turkey
(1923–2018)
Cabinet of Prime Minister Abdullah Gül (2002–2003)
Deputy Prime Ministers
Minister of State
Minister of Justice
Minister of National Defense
Minister of the Interior
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister of Finance
Minister of National Education
Minister of Public Works and Settlement
Minister of Health
Minister of Transport and Communication
Minister of Agriculture
Minister of Labour and Social Security
Minister of Industry and Commerce
Minister of Energy and Natural Resources
Minister of Culture
Minister of Tourism
Minister of Environment
Minister of Forestry
Erdoğan Cabinet I (2003–2007)

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