Abdelhamid Ben Badis

Abdelhamid Ben Badis (Arabic: عبد الحميد بن باديس‎, Ben Badis; December 4, 1889 – April 16, 1940) was an emblematic figure of the Islamic Reform movement in Algeria. In 1931, Ben Badis founded the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema, which was a national grouping of many Islamic scholars in Algeria from many different and sometimes opposing perspectives and viewpoints. The Association would have later a great influence on Algerian Muslim politics up to the Algerian War of Independence. In the same period, it set up many institutions where thousands of Algerian children of Muslim parents were educated. The Association also published a monthly journal, the Al-Chihab and souheil Ben Badis contributed regularly to it between 1925 and his death in 1940. The journal informed its readers about the Association's ideas and thoughts on religious reform and spoke on other religious and political issues.

Abdelhamid Ben Badis
Ibn Badis 2
Abdelhamid Ben Badis at his young Age.
BornDecember 4, 1889
DiedApril 16, 1940
NationalityAlgeria Algerian
Era19th century philosophy
RegionArab Philosophy
SchoolIslamic philosophy

Biography

Education

Abdelhamid Ben Badis was of an old town middle-class family, which claimed descent from the Zirids, a Berber Muslim dynasty founded in the 10th Century by Bologhine ibn Ziri. Ben Badis grew up in a scholarly and religious household and as a result memorized the Quran at the age of thirteen.

He was still very young when he was placed under the tutorship of Hamdan Lounissi. Lounissi had a significant influence on the youth of Ben Badis. Ben Badis never forgot Lounissi's counsel. Lounissi remarked to him "learn knowledge for the sake of knowledge, not for the office." Lounissi was a stalwart defender of the rights of the Muslim inhabitants of Constantine. Lounissi extracted from young Ben Badis a promise to never enter into the service of France (the Colonial power in Algeria).

Pilgrimages and study

At the Zeitouna University

In 1908, Ben Badis, decided to begin his first trip in order to advance his learning. He traveled to Tunis and enrolled at the Zeitouna University, which was, at the time, a great center of learning and knowledge, particularly in the Islamic fields of studies.

At the Zeitouna University, Ben Badis horizons widened. He learned a great deal of the Islamic Sciences and Arabic Language. He met many scholars who left an indelible mark on his personality and his knowledge of Islam. The teachings of Sheik Mohammed Al-Nakhli convinced him on the need to purge Muslim communities of deviant or incorrect religious practices such as the cult of saints. Sheik Muhammed Al-Taher Ben Achour influenced Ben Badis in finding his appreciation of the splendor of the Arabic language. With Sheik Al-Bachir Safer, Ben Badis developed an interest in contemporary and past problems of Muslim communities, including finding a response to Western colonialism and dealing with its socioeconomic after-effects.

In 1912, he was awarded a degree. He spent another year at the Zeituna University as a teacher.

Return to Algeria

In 1913, Ben Badis returned to Algeria and settled in Constantine. He started teaching at the Sidi Qammouch mosque. The teachings were destined for men, women, children, and adults. He gave people education in Islamic sciences, Arabic language, literature, and history. It was at this point that Ben Badis conceived the idea of establishing a Muslim organization of religious scholars and leaders.

In 1936, Ben Badis played a role in the founding of the "Algerian Muslim Congress" (CMA). This congress was disbanded the following year in the summer of 1937 and shortly after Ben Badis established and led another organization: the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema.

In addition to working against deviations in the correct practice of Islam, Ben Badis and his fellow members of the Association strove to save the Algerian culture from being eclipsed by French values and morals.[1] Ben Badis and other Islamic scholars resisted the suppression of Algerian patriots; working as a journalist during those years he regularly denounced fascist propaganda and anti-Semitic intrigues of the French occupiers.

Ben Badis was one of the most prominent Algerian Islamic scholars. With the aid of his contemporaries and associates he criticized Maraboutic practices and had a great influence in the creation of an Islamic conservative subsection of Algerian society.[1]

On April 16, 1940, Ben Badis died in his birthplace of Constantine. He was buried in the presence of 20,000 people and his funeral took the aspect of a gigantic humanistic demonstration; anti-colonialist and democratic; the very principles he practiced throughout his life

References

  1. ^ a b Islamism in Algeria: A struggle between hope and agony - Council on Foreign Relations Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine at https://www.cfr.org/
Abdelhamid Ben Badis Mosque

The Abdelhamid Ben Badis Mosque (Arabic: مسجد عبد الحميد بن باديس‎) was inaugurated in Oran, Algeria in 2015.

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Algeria

Algeria ( (listen); Arabic: الجزائر‎ al-Jazā'ir, Algerian Arabic الدزاير al-dzāyīr; French: Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية‎), is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries.

Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Idrisid, Aghlabid, Rustamid, Fatimids, Zirid, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Spaniards, Ottomans and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria.

Algeria is a regional and middle power. It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent; most of Algeria's weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union.

Ammar Bouhouche

Ammar Bouhouche was born on December 17, 1938 in Al-Ancer (El-milia, Jijel), Algeria.

He was member of the National Liberation Army, and later the National Liberation Front. Bouhouche is known for his nationalist activism in the Middle East and The United States of America supporting the Algerian Revolution against French colonisation and oppression.

First Algerian holder of a Ph.D. in political science, his professional career started at the Algerian presidency with Houari Boumediene. Few years later he decided to join the University of Algiers, then the Arab organization of Administrative Sciences as senior expert, in Amman (Jordan).

He held various senior positions in academic and scientific circles, both in his country and abroad, and has been awarded several prizes for his academic achievements.

The former General Secretary of the United Nations, Dr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, said that Bouhouche is one of the most prominent specialist in the fields of political science and public administration.

Arab and Muslim rescue efforts during the Holocaust

A number of Arabs participated in efforts to help save Jewish residents of Arab lands from the Holocaust while fascist regimes controlled the territory. From June 1940 through May 1943, Axis powers, namely Germany and Italy, controlled large portions of North Africa. Approximately 1 percent of the Jewish residents, about 4,000 to 5,000 Jews, of that territory were murdered by these regimes during this period. The relatively small percentage of Jewish casualties, as compared to the 50 percent of European Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust, is largely due to the successful Allied North African Campaign and the repelling of the Axis powers from North Africa.No occupied country in Africa or Europe was free of collaboration with the genocide campaign against the Jews, but this was more common in European countries than Arab ones. The offer made to Algerians by colonial French officials to take over confiscated Jewish property found many French settlers ready to profit from the scheme, but no Arab participated and, in the capital, Algiers itself, Muslim clerics openly declared their opposition to the idea. While some Arabs collaborated with the Axis powers by working as guards in labor camps, others risked their own lives to attempt to save Jews from persecution and genocide.

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Hadj Smaine Mohamed Seghir

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Islam is the majority religion in Algeria. The vast majority of citizens are Sunni Muslims belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence, with a minority of Ibadi, most of whom live in the M'zab Valley region. Islam provides the society with its central social and cultural identity and gives most individuals their basic ethical and attitudinal orientation. Orthodox observance of the faith is much less widespread and steadfast than is identification with Islam. There are also Sufi philosophies which arose as a reaction to theoretical perspectives of some scholars.

List of mosques in Algeria

This is a list of mosques in Algeria. According to the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Endowment in 2006, there are around 15,000 mosques in Algeria as a whole, of which 450 are in the capital city of Algiers. 90% of which are built after the independence of Algeria in 1962.

MC Oran

Mouloudia Club Oranais (Arabic: نادي مولودية وهران‎), known as Mouloudia d'Oran, commonly referred to as MC Oran or MCO for short, is a football club based in Oran, Algeria. Founded in 1946, the club was known as Mouloudia Chaâbia Ouahrania from 1971 to 1977, Mouloudia Pétroliers d'Oran (Arabic: مولودية نفط وهران‎, MP Oran for a short) from 1977 to 1987 and Mouloudia d'Oran from 1987 to 1989. The club colours are red and white. Their home stadium, Ahmed Zabana Stadium, has a capacity of 40,000 spectators. The club is currently playing in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1.

Until 2008, MC Oran was the only club in Algeria to have participated in every single season of the first division since its inception in 1962. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 2007–08 season but returned after just one season in the Algerian Championnat National 1.

Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali

Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din bin Abdil-Qadir Al-Hilali (1893–1987) was a 20th-century Salafi scholar from Morocco, most notable for his English translations of Sahih Bukhari and, along with Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the Qur'an, entitled The Noble Qur'an.

Omar Derdour

Omar Derdour (Arabic: عمر دردور‎), full name Abou El Kacem Omar Derdour (13 October 1913 – 19 March 2009), was an Algerian Muslim leader, nationalist, and political worker.

A disciple of Abdelhamid Ben Badis, he was active in the Islamic reformation of Algeria and the Algerian War of Independence. He directed the Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty Party's (in French: Amis du Manifeste et de la Liberté, AML) Federation in Constantine, and was a member of the Central Committee and Deputy of the Constantine region from 1947 to 1951.

In 1954, Omar Derdour became a political worker within the National Liberation Front (FLN) and undertook a great deal of propaganda and mobilization in France in 1955 and 1956 and then in Cairo, Egypt and throughout the Arab world. After independence, Omar Derdour devoted himself to teaching, became a founding member of the Islamic Institute, and founded numerous other Muslim institutions and schools.

Sheikh Abbas

Abbas el Hocine Bencheikh called Sheikh Abbas (Mila Algeria 1912-Paris 3 May 1989), was an Algerian diplomat, a cleric a writer, and the rector of the Muslim Institute and the Great Mosque of Paris until his death. Known in the political and interreligious scenes by his wisdom and tolerance environment, he left many disciples including his own son, Soheib Bencheikh, the researcher in theology and former Mufti of Marseille, and Ghaleb Bencheikh, the physicist and host of the program "Islam" broadcast on France 2.

After theological studies in family brotherhood and once aged 21, Sheikh Abbas studied at the Islamic University of Zaytuna in Tunis and that of al-Qarawiyyin in Fez. After ten years, he returned to Algeria and became the disciple of the reformer Abdelhamid Ben Badis. He campaigned with him for religious and political reform (commonly known as "al-iṣlāḥ" by Muslim reformists). At independence of Algeria, he was appointed ambassador to Saudi Arabia, following his resignation from the post he has held the office of President of the Supreme Islamic Council of Algeria, a seat he left by personal choice to pursue the weekly preaching in the Great Mosque of Algiers. In 1982, Sheikh Abbas took charge of the Great Mosque of Paris, succeeding Sheikh Hamza Boubakeur. He restructured the mosque by creating a second prayer room and putting in place many cultural services, social associations etc..

He allowed the mosque to receive a share of a specific budget from the Department of Endowments of Algeria and secondly to develop a body of imams whose number (80 imams) is still the same nowadays.He intervened to resolve the painful issue of divorce between binational families, especially in defending the rights of French mothers whose children had been brought in Algeria after the divorce. He also interjected to facilitate the return of many French-Muslims (Harkis) who had left the Algeria since independence in 1962 and stay there instead.

He hosted many conferences in various regions of France (Lille, Lyon, Marseille...).

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