Abdallah ibn Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz

Abdallah ibn Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Umar II (r. 717–720), and briefly governor of Iraq under Yazid III in 744–745. In this capacity he quelled the pro-Alid rebellion of Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya at Kufa, although Ibn Mu'awiya managed to flee to Istakhr in Persia.[1]

Following the death of Yazid III, Marwan II, who seized the throne, appointed a supporter of his own, the Qaysi Nadr ibn Sa'id al-Harashi, as governor of Iraq, but Abdallah ibn Umar retained the loyalty of the Kalbi majority of the Syrian garrison of Iraq. Ibn Umar remained at al-Hira, while Nadr and his followers installed themselves at the suburb of Dayr Hind, and for several months the two rival governors and their troops confronted and skirmished at each other around al-Hira.[2] This conflict was abruptly ended by the Kharijite revolt which had begun among the Banu Rabi'ah tribes in Upper Mesopotamia. Opposed to Marwan II's takeover and the tribes of Mudar and Qays who supported him, the Kharijites elected al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Shaybani as their caliph, and in early 745 they invaded Iraq and defeated both rival Umayyad governors.[3] Nadr fled back to Syria to join Marwan, but Ibn Umar and his followers withdrew to Wasit. By the summer of 745 however Ibn Umar and his supporters surrendered and even embraced Kharijism and Dahhak—who was not even of the Quraysh tribe of Muhammad—as their caliph. Ibn Umar was appointed as Dahhak's governor for Wasit, eastern Iraq, and western Persia, while Dahhak governed western Iraq from Kufa.[3] After Dahhak was killed by Marwan's army at Kafartuta, Yazid ibn Hubayra was sent to establish Umayyad control over Iraq. Ibn Hubayra defeated the Kharijites at Kufa and then marched on Wasit, where he took Ibn Umar prisoner.[4]

References

  1. ^ Hawting 2000, p. 99.
  2. ^ Hawting 2000, pp. 99–100.
  3. ^ a b Hawting 2000, p. 100.
  4. ^ Hawting 2000, pp. 100–101.

Sources

  • Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750 (2nd Edition). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24072-7.
Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya

ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muʿāwiya ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ja'far ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: عبدلله بن معاویه بن عبد الله بن جعفر ابن أبي طالب‎; fl. 744–746/7) was an Alid leader who led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate at Kufa and later Persia during the Third Fitna.

Al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Shaybani

Aḍ-Ḍaḥāk ibn Qays al-Shaybānī (Arabic: الضحاك بن قيس الشيباني‎) was the leader of a widespread but unsuccessful Kharijite rebellion in Iraq against the Umayyad Caliph Marwan II from 745 until his death in battle in 746.

Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi

Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi (Arabic: منصور بن جمهور الكلبي‎) was an 8th-century Arab commander and one of the main and most fanatical leaders of the south Arab ("Yaman") tribes in the Qays–Yaman rivalry of the period, playing a major role during the Third Fitna civil war.

Patricia Crone describes Mansur as "a coarse soldier equally devoid of nobility and piety" who was "shunned by devout contemporaries" as he disregarded religion and was motivated solely by his desire to avenge the torture and murder of the Yaman champion, Khalid al-Qasri, by the ardently pro-Qays governor of Iraq, Yusuf ibn Umar al-Thaqafi, in 743.A member of the Amir branch of the Banu Kalb tribe, he began his career possibly in Iraq, where the tribe had settled, but appears for the first time in Syria as a member of the plot to overthrow Caliph al-Walid II in early 744. After Walid's murder, his successor Yazid III favoured the Yaman faction, and appointed Mansur as governor of Iraq in succession to Yusuf al-Thaqafi, perhaps as a deputy of al-Harith ibn al-Abbas ibn al-Walid. His tenure was brief, as he was soon replaced by the son of Caliph Umar II, Abdallah ibn Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz. During his governorship, Mansur tried to dismiss the governor of Khurasan, Nasr ibn Sayyar, nominating his own brother Manzur as replacement, but Nasr managed to hold out and maintain his post until Mansur's replacement.Mansur returned to Syria, but soon returned to Iraq, where he fought against the Kharijite rebels under al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Shaybani. As the Kharijites proved successful, he embraced their doctrine and converted to save his life. He continued fighting alongside the Kharijites until Marwan II's general Yazid ibn Hubayra defeated them in 747. Like many opponents of Marwan, he fled to Fars and joined the forces of the Alid rebel Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya. When Ibn Hubayra defeated Ibn Mu'awiya shortly after, Mansur fled to India, where he managed to become governor of Sind, and even obtained recognition of this post from the nascent Abbasid Caliphate. In 751, however, the Abbasids sent Musa ibn Ka'b al-Tamimi against him. Defeated in battle, Mansur fled to the desert, where he died.

Third Fitna

The Third Fitna (Arabic: الفتنة الثاﻟﺜـة‎; al-Fitna al-thālitha), was a series of civil wars and uprisings against the Umayyad Caliphate beginning with the overthrow of Caliph al-Walid II in 744 and ending with the victory of Marwan II over the various rebels and rivals for the caliphate in 747. However, Umayyad authority under Marwan II was never fully restored, and the civil war flowed into the Abbasid Revolution (746–750) which culminated in the overthrow of the Umayyads and the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate in 749/50. Thus a clear chronological delimitation of this conflict is not possible.

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