عبد الله خليل
|3rd Prime Minister of Sudan|
5 July 1956 – 17 November 1958
|Preceded by||Ismail al-Azhari|
|Succeeded by||Ibrahim Abboud|
Omdurman, Mahdist Sudan
|Died||23 August 1970 (aged 77–78)|
|Political party||National Umma Party|
|Branch/service||Egyptian Army (1910-1924)|
Sudan Defence Force (1925-1944)
|Years of service||1910-1944|
In 1944 Khalil became an influential member of the Advisory Council for the Northern Sudan, which became a pro-Mahdist organisation. In 1945 Khalil helped found the Umma Party, and became the party's first Secretary General. In 1947 he became a member of the Independence Front, serving as a representative of Umma Party interests, opposing the dominant Khatmiyya interests.
Khalil maintained a close relationship with Colonial Administrators Robert George Howe and J.W. Robertson, often serving as an advocate for their views on Sudanese politics. Khalil's constant struggle with the Khatmiyya is often criticized, with it being alleged that he helped to make the emerging Sudanese nationalism divisive and sectarian. Khalil was for instance appointed Minister of Agriculture in 1947, largely due to his insistence that this was necessary to counterbalance the strong role of the Khatmiyya and to respond to the Sudanization press.
In 1948 Khalil became leader of the newly formed Legislative Assembly and Executive Council, serving the Umma Party's representative on the Constitutional Commission. Khalil was elected to parliament in the 1953 parliamentary election.
Following the 1958 election Khalil formed a coalition government comprising his Umma Party and the People's Democratic Party. Khalil served as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense in the new government. He allied Sudan with the United States, sparking a tense standoff with Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser. On November 17, 1958, Khalil carried out a military coup against his own government, putting the government under the control of a military junta. (See History of Sudan (Independent Sudan))
was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1892nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 892nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.1948 Sudanese parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Sudan on 15 November 1948.1958 Sudanese parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Sudan on 27 February and 8 March 1958.
The first elections since independence in 1956, they were supposed to be held in August 1957, but were postponed by the ruling council, who claimed that flooding would affect the vote. The result was a victory for the Umma Party, which won 63 of the 173 seats.
The Southern Sudan Federal Party competed in the election, and won 40 of the 46 seats allocated to the southern provinces.
The party platform represented a serious challenge to the authorities.
However, when it became clear that the party's demands for a federal structure would be ignored by the Constituent Assembly, on 16 June 1958 the southern MPs left parliament.1970
was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1970th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 970th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1970s decade.Anti-Imperialist Front
The Anti-Imperialist Front (Arabic: الجبهة المعادية للإستعمار) was a political movement in Sudan, founded in 1952. The Anti-Imperialist Front was organized by the clandestine Sudanese Movement for National Liberation (i.e. the Communist Party). The communists decided not to try to register their own party ahead of the 1953 legislative election, preferring to launch the Anti-Imperialist Front as their legal umbrella organization.Council of Ministers (Syria)
The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic. According to the Constitution of Syria:
Section 2 The Council of Ministers
Article 118 [Cabinet]
(1) The Cabinet is the state's highest executive and administrative body. It consists of the Prime Minister, his deputies, and the ministers. It supervises the execution of the laws and regulations and the work of the state machinery and institutions.Deim Zubeir
Deim Zubeir, from the Arabic ديم الزبير [“Daim az-Zubayr”], commonly translated as the “Camp of Zubeir”, is the historically established but highly controversial name of Uyujuku town in the Lol State of the Republic of South Sudan, located in the Western Bahr El Ghazal part of the country, some 70 km from the border with the Central African Republic (CAR), near the Biri tributary of the River Chel.Due to different transliterations from the Arabic, the name components are also spelled in various combinations Dem, Dehm, Deym, Dam, Daym or Daim, and Zubair, Zubayr, Zoubair, Zoubeir, Zoubayr, Zobeir, Ziber, Zebehr, or Zubier, respectively.
The historical remains of the slave camp have been designated a potential UNESCO World Heritage Centre site. In the collective memory of South Sudanese people, the very name Deim Zubeir rings as a synonym for millennia of Slavery, at least since Pharaonic times.History of Sudan (1956–69)
On 1 January 1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan became the independent Republic of the Sudan. Before 1955, however, the government under Ismail al-Azhari had temporarily halted Sudan's progress toward self-determination, hoping to promote unity with Egypt. Despite his pro-Egyptian National Unionist Party (NUP) winning a majority in the 1953 parliamentary elections, however, Azhari realized that popular opinion had shifted against such a union. Azhari, who had been the major spokesman for the "unity of the Nile Valley", therefore reversed the NUP's stand and supported Sudanese independence. On December 19, 1955, the Sudanese parliament, under Azhari's leadership, unanimously adopted a declaration of independence that became effective on January 1, 1956. Azhari called for the withdrawal of foreign troops and requested the condominium powers to sponsor a plebiscite in advance.Ibrahim Abboud
El Ferik Ibrahim Abboud (Arabic: إبراهيم عبود, Suakin 26 October 1900 – Khartoum 8 September 1983) was a Sudanese president, general, and political figure. A career soldier, Abboud served in World War II in Egypt and Iraq. In 1949, Abboud became the deputy Commander in Chief of the Sudanese military. Upon independence, Abboud became the Commander in Chief of the Military of Sudan. He served as the head of state of Sudan between 1958 and 1964 and as president of Sudan in 1964; however, he soon resigned, ending Sudan's first period of military rule.Ibrahim Abboud was born 26 October 1900 at Mohammed-Gol, near the old port city of Suakin on the Red Sea. He trained as an engineer at the Gordon Memorial College and at the Military College in Khartoum. He received a commission in the Egyptian Army in 1918 and transferred to the Sudan Defence Force in 1925, after its creation separate from the Egyptian army. During World War II he served in Eritrea, in Ethiopia, with the Sudan Defence Force, and with the British army in North Africa. After the war, Abboud rose rapidly to commander of the Sudan Defence Force in 1949 and assistant commander in chief in 1954. With the declaration of independence for the Sudan in 1956, he was made commander in chief of the Sudanese military forces. After the Sudanese army staged a coup d'état in November 1958, overthrowing the civilian government of Abdullah Khalil, Gen. Abboud led the new military government.
Between 1956 and 1958, Sudanese nationalist leaders from both major parties sought to find solutions to the seemingly intractable problems of building a nation, developing the economy and creating a permanent constitution. Neither Ismail al-Azhari, leader of the Nationalist Unionist party and the first prime minister of the Sudan, nor his rival, Abdullah Khalil, the Umma party leader and successor to al-Azhari as prime minister, was able to overcome the weaknesses of the political system or to grapple with the country's problems. Parliamentary government was so discredited that Gen. Abboud, who formerly had remained studiously aloof from politics, led a coup d'état on 17 November 1958, to end, in his words, "the state of degeneration, chaos, and instability of the country." The Council of State and cabinet were dismissed, parliament and all political parties were declared dissolved, and the constitution was suspended.List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country
This is a list by country of coups d'état and coup attempts, in chronological order.List of heads of government of Sudan
This article lists the heads of government of Sudan, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1952 until the present day. The office of Prime Minister was abolished after the 1989 coup d'état, and reestablished in 2017 when Bakri Hassan Saleh was appointed Prime Minister by President Omar Al-Bashir.List of state leaders in 1956
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1956.List of state leaders in 1957
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1957.List of state leaders in 1958
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1958.List of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000)
State leaders: 1901–1950 – State leaders in the 21st century – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.
These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.Nubians
Nubians () are an ethnolinguistic group of Africans indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization. They speak Nubian languages, part of the Northern Eastern Sudanic languages.
Early Neolithic settlements from prehistoric Egypt have been found in the central Nubian region dating back to 7000 BC, with Wadi Halfa believed to be the oldest settlement in the central Nile valley. Parts of Nubia, such as Ta-Seti (the first nome or administrative region of ancient Egypt), were continuously a part of ancient Egypt throughout the dynastic era. Other parts of Nubia, particularly Lower or Upper Nubia, were at times a part of ancient Pharaonic Egypt and at other times a rival state representing parts of Meroë or the Kingdom of Kush. However, by the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, all of Nubia was united with Egypt, extending down to what is now Khartoum.Towards the end of the dynastic era, Upper Nubia broke off from Egypt proper. During that time, the Nubians founded a dynasty that ruled Upper and Lower Egypt in the eighth century BC. As warriors, the ancient Nubians were famous for their skill and precision with the bow and arrow.In the medieval period the Nubians converted to Christianity and established three kingdoms: Nobatia in the north, Makuria in the center and Alodia in the south.
Today, Africans of Nubian descent primarily live in southern Egypt, especially in the Luxor and Aswan area, and in northern Sudan, particularly in the region between the city of Wadi Halfa on the Egyptian-Sudanese border and al Dabbah. Additionally, several groups known as the Hill Nubians live in the northern Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state, Sudan. The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas and Dongola.Suad Ibrahim Ahmed
Suad Ibrahim Ahmed (May 30, 1935 – December 29, 2013) was a leader and central committee member of the Sudanese Communist Party. She was an activist for women's issues. She was a leader in the struggle against displacement of Nubian people of the Wadi Halfa region caused by erection of the Aswan Dam.Sudanese Armed Forces
The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF; Arabic: القوات المسلحة السودانية Al-Quwwat al-Musallaha as-Sudaniyah) are the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sudan. According to 2011 IISS estimates, it numbers 109,300 personnel. They comprise the Land Forces, the Sudanese Navy, the Sudanese Air Force, and the Popular Defence Forces. They also previously had Joint Integrated Units formed together with its rebel enemies the Sudan People's Liberation Army. The Armed Forces operate under the authority of the People's Armed Forces Act 1986. In 1991, the Library of Congress used the term "Sudan People's Armed Forces" to refer to the entire armed forces, but by the late 2000s (decade), the "Sudanese Armed Forces" term was most widespread. In 2004, the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress estimated that the Popular Defence Forces, the military wing of the National Islamic Front, consists of 10,000 active members, with 85,000 reserves. It has been deployed alongside regular army units against various rebel groups.
Sudan now receives most of its military equipment from the People's Republic of China and Russia. Sudan has a weapons production company called the Military Industry Corporation. Sudan has been recognized as having a reputation of a battle-hardened military force.