Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Walid

Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Walid (Arabic: عبد العزيز بن الوليد‎; died 728/9) was a member of the Umayyad dynasty and a military leader in the wars against the Byzantine Empire during the reign of his father, Caliph al-Walid I (reigned 705–715).[1] The latter also appointed Abd al-Aziz governor of Jund Dimashq (District of Damascus).[2] Abd al-Aziz's mother was Umm al-Banin, a daughter of al-Walid's paternal uncle, Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan.[3]

Abd al-Aziz led his first campaign against the Byzantines in Asia Minor in 709, when he captured a fortress, although his uncle Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik led the main raid of the year afterwards.[4] In 710 he led the main Umayyad attack, although under the auspices of Maslama as commander-in-chief for the Byzantine front,[5] and in 713 he led an attack against the frontier fortress of Gazelon.[6] In 714/15, his father attempted to reverse the succession arrangement, by which the throne would pass to his brother Sulayman, in favour of Abd al-Aziz, but was unable to impose his will.[1] When Sulayman in turn died in 717, Abd al-Aziz intended to claim the throne, but upon learning that Umar II had been chosen as caliph, he presented himself before him and acknowledged his rule.[1] Abd al-Aziz died in Anno Hegirae 110 (728/729 CE).[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Zetterstéen (1986), p. 58.
  2. ^ Crone (1980), p. 126.
  3. ^ Hinds (1990), p. 219.
  4. ^ Lilie (1976), pp. 118–119.
  5. ^ Lilie (1976), p. 119.
  6. ^ Lilie (1976), p. 121.

Sources

  • Crone, Patricia (1980). Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52940-9.
  • Hinds, Martin, ed. (1990). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume 23: The Zenith of the Marwānid House: The Last Years of ʿAbd al-Malik and the Caliphate of al-Walīd, A.D. 700–715/A.H. 81–95. SUNY series in Near Eastern studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-721-1.
  • Lilie, Ralph-Johannes (1976). Die byzantinische Reaktion auf die Ausbreitung der Araber. Studien zur Strukturwandlung des byzantinischen Staates im 7. und 8. Jhd (in German). Munich: Institut für Byzantinistik und Neugriechische Philologie der Universität München.
  • Zetterstéen, K.V. (1960–2005). "ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn al-Walīd". The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 58.
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North African Arabs

North African Arabs (Arabic: عرب شمال أفريقيا‎ ‘Arab Shamal Ifriqiya) or Maghrebi Arabs (Arabic: :العرب المغاربة‎ al-‘Arab al-Maghariba) are the inhabitants of the North African Maghreb region whose native language is a dialect of Arabic and identify as Arab. This ethnic identity is a product of the Arab conquest of North Africa during the Arab–Byzantine wars and the spread of Islam to Africa. The migration of Arab tribes to North Africa in the 11th century was a major factor in the linguistic and cultural Arabization of the Maghreb region, mainly Beni Hassan, Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym.

The descendants of the original Arab settlers who continue to speak Arabic as a first language currently form the single largest population group in North Africa.

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