Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Turkish: Abdülaziz; 8 February 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.
Born at Eyüp Palace, Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), on 8 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West. He was the first Ottoman Sultan who travelled to Western Europe, visiting a number of important European capitals including Paris, London and Vienna in the summer of 1867.
Apart from his passion for the Ottoman Navy, which had the world's third largest fleet in 1875 (after the British and French navies), the Sultan took an interest in documenting the Ottoman Empire. He was also interested in literature and was a talented classical music composer. Some of his compositions, together with those of the other members of the Ottoman dynasty, have been collected in the album "European Music at the Ottoman Court" by the London Academy of Ottoman Court Music. He was deposed on grounds of mismanaging the Ottoman economy on 30 May 1876, and was found dead six days later under unnatural and mysterious circumstances.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Knight of the Garter
|32nd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)|
|Reign||25 June 1861 – 30 May 1876|
|Born||8 February 1830|
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
|Died||4 June 1876 (aged 46)|
Çırağan Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Tomb of Sultan Mahmud II, Fatih, Istanbul
His parents were Mahmud II and Pertevniyal Sultan (1812–1883), originally named Besime, a Circassian. In 1868 Pertevniyal was residing at Dolmabahçe Palace. That year Abdülaziz led the visiting Eugénie de Montijo, Empress of France, to see his mother. Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult. She reportedly slapped Eugénie across the face, almost resulting in an international incident. According to another account, Pertevniyal became outraged by the forwardness of Eugénie taking the arm of one of her sons while he gave a tour of the palace garden, and she gave the Empress a slap on the stomach as a possibly more subtly intended than often represented reminder that they were not in France. The Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque was built under the patronage of his mother. The construction work began in November 1869 and the mosque was finished in 1871.
His paternal grandparents were Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Sultana Nakşidil Sultan. Several accounts identify his paternal grandmother with Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a cousin of Empress Joséphine. Pertevniyal was a sister of Khushiyar Qadin, third wife of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Khushiyar and Ibrahim were the parents of Isma'il Pasha.
Between 1861 and 1871, the Tanzimat reforms which began during the reign of his brother Abdulmejid I were continued under the leadership of his chief ministers, Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha. New administrative districts (vilayets) were set up in 1864 and a Council of State was established in 1868. Public education was organized on the French model and Istanbul University was reorganised as a modern institution in 1861. He was also integral in establishing the first Ottoman civil code.
Abdülaziz cultivated good relations with the Second French Empire and the British Empire. In 1867 he was the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe; his trip included a visit to the Exposition Universelle (1867) in Paris and a trip to the United Kingdom, where he was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria and shown a Royal Navy Fleet Review with Ismail Pasha. He travelled by a private rail car, which today can be found in the Rahmi M. Koç Museum in Istanbul. His fellow Knights of the Garter created in 1867 were Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland, Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (a son of Queen Victoria), Franz Joseph I of Austria and Alexander II of Russia.
Also in 1867, Abdülaziz became the first Ottoman Sultan to formally recognize the title of Khedive (Viceroy) to be used by the Vali (Governor) of the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan (1517–1867), which thus became the autonomous Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan (1867–1914). Muhammad Ali Pasha and his descendants had been the governors (Vali) of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan since 1805, but were willing to use the higher title of Khedive, which was unrecognized by the Ottoman government until 1867. In return, the first Khedive, Ismail Pasha, had agreed a year earlier (in 1866) to increase the annual tax revenues which Egypt and Sudan would provide for the Ottoman treasury. Between 1854 and 1894, the revenues from Egypt and Sudan were often declared as a surety by the Ottoman government for borrowing loans from British and French banks. After the Ottoman government declared a sovereign default on its foreign debt repayments on 30 October 1875, which triggered the Great Eastern Crisis in the empire's Balkan provinces that led to the devastating Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) and the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881, the importance for Britain of the sureties regarding the Ottoman revenues from Egypt and Sudan increased. Combined with the much more important Suez Canal which was opened in 1869, these sureties were influential in the British government's decision to occupy Egypt and Sudan in 1882, with the pretext of helping the Ottoman-Egyptian government to put down the Urabi Revolt (1879–1882). Egypt and Sudan (together with Cyprus) nominally remained Ottoman territories until 5 November 1914, when the British Empire declared war against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
In 1869, Abdülaziz received visits from Eugénie de Montijo, Empress consort of Napoleon III of France and other foreign monarchs on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal. The Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII, twice visited Istanbul.
By 1871 both Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha were dead. The Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the North German Confederation under the leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia. Abdülaziz turned to the Russian Empire for friendship, as unrest in the Balkan provinces continued. In 1875, the Herzegovinian rebellion was the beginning of further unrest in the Balkan provinces. In 1876, the April Uprising saw insurrection spreading among the Bulgarians. Ill feeling mounted against Russia for its encouragement of the rebellions.
While no one event led to his being deposed, the crop failure of 1873 and his lavish expenditures on the Ottoman Navy and on new palaces which he had built, along with mounting public debt, helped to create an atmosphere conducive to his being overthrown. Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers on 30 May 1876.
In Sultan Abdulhamid II's recently surfaced memoirs, the event is described as an assassination by the order of Hüseyin Avni Pasha and Midhat Pasha. According to this source, when Sultan Murad V began to show signs of paranoia, madness and continuous fainting and vomiting even on the day of his coronation and threw himself into a pool yelling at his guards to protect his life, they were afraid the public would become outraged and revolt to bring the former Sultan back. Within a few days, on 4 June 1876, they arranged for Sultan Abdülaziz to kill himself with scissors, cutting his wrists.
On the morning of June 5, Abdülaziz asked for a pair of scissors with which to trim his beard. Shortly after this he was found dead in a pool of blood flowing from two wounds in his arms. His body was examined by 17 physicians ("Dr. Marco, Nouri, A. Sotto, Physician attached to the Imperial and Royal Embassy of Austria‐Hungary; Dr. Spagnolo, Marc Markel, Jatropoulo, Abdinour, Servet, J. de Castro, A. Marroin, Julius Millingen, C. Caratheodori; E. D. Dickson, Physician of the British Embassy; Dr. O. Vitalis, Physician of the Sanitary Board; Dr. E. Spadare, J. Nouridjian, Miltiadi Bey, Mustafa, Mehmed") who certified that the death had been “caused by the loss of blood produced by the wounds of the blood‐vessels at the joints of the arms” and that “the direction and nature of the wounds, together with the instrument which is said to have produced them, lead us to conclude that suicide had been committed.” 
One of those physicians also stated that “His skin was very pale, and entirely free from bruises, marks or spots of any kind whatever. There was no lividity of the lips indicating suffocation nor any sign of pressure having been applied to the throat.” 
Abdülaziz had one another daughter whose mother is unknown:
Media related to Abdül Aziz I at Wikimedia Commons
AbdülazizBorn: 8 February 1830 Died: 4 June 1876
| Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876
|Sunni Islam titles|
| Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876
Abdülaziz Demircan (born 5 February 1991 in Turkey) is a Turkish footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Osmanlıspor.Atiye Sultan
Atiye Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: عطیه سلطان; 2 January 1824 – 11 August 1850) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Mahmud II and Pervizifelek Kadın. She was the half-sister of Sultans Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz.Emine Sultan (daughter of Abdülaziz)
Emine Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: امینه سلطان; 24 August 1874 – 30 January 1920) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz and Nesrin Kadın.Eshab-ı Kehf Cave
Eshab-ı Kehf Cave, also known as Ashab-ı Kehf Cave or Seven Sleepers' Cave, (Turkish: Eshab-ı Kehf Mağarası, Ashab-ı Kehf Mağarası or Yedi Uyurlar Mağarası) is a show cave situated to the north of Tarsus, an ilçe (district) in Mersin Province, Turkey. The cave is named after the Arabic language word "aṣḥāb al kahf", "people of the cave", for Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, a belief in Christian and Islamic tradition.
The cave is about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) to Tarsus and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) to Mersin. It is at the foothill of a small hill. The cave is small, not comparable to other caves of the province. However, it is a famed to be the cave of the Seven Sleepers. The exact location of the Seven Sleepers' cave is not known, and there are many other places including some in Turkey claiming to be the cave of the Seven Sleepers. Next to the cave, there is a mosque commissioned by the Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–1876), and built in 1873. The mosque's tall minaret with three balconies was added later.The other probable locations of the Seven Sleepers in Turkey are:
Ephesus in İzmir Province
Lice in Diyarbakır Province
Afşin in Kahramanmaraş Province (see Eshab-ı Kehf Kulliye)Esma Sultan (daughter of Abdülaziz)
Esma Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: اسما سلطان; 21 March 1873 – 7 May 1899) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Abdülaziz and Gevheri Kadın.Feriye Palace
The Feriye Palace (Turkish: Feriye Sarayı) is a complex of Ottoman imperial palace buildings along the European shoreline of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey. Currently, the buildings host educational institutions such as a high school and a university.
The palace complex was commissioned by Sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–76) in 1871, and designed by architect Sarkis Balyan. The buildings were built to meet the need of the extended family members of the imperial court for residence. The palace, which was constructed in addition to Dolmabahçe Palace and Çırağan Palace, took the name "Feriye" meaning "secondary" or "auxiliary" in Ottoman Turkish language. It consists of three main buildings on the waterfront, a ward for concubines, a small two-story building and outbuildings on the backside.
On May 30, 1876, Sultan Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers. He moved to Feriye Palace at his own request after a four-day stay in Topkapı Palace. Shortly after, he was found wrists cut at Feriye Palace. This was documented as a suicide at the time.Various members of the Ottoman imperial court resided in Feriye Palace until March 3, 1924, the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate by the parliament of the newly founded Republic of Turkey. The buildings remained vacant for a period of time following the external deportation of the last caliph Abdülmecid II together with the court members.Hüseyin Avni Pasha
Hüseyin Avni Pasha (1820, Isparta – 15 June 1876, Constantinople) was an Ottoman governor-general and statesman.
He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 15 February 1874 to 26 April 1875. He was killed by Çerkess Hassan the younger brother of Neşerek Kadın Efendi, who accused him of the murder of Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz, on 15 June 1876 during a cabinet meeting of Ottoman Sultan Murad V at the residence of Midhat Pasha near Beyazıt in Fatih, Istanbul. The foreign affairs minister Mehmed Rashid Pasha was also skilled in the attack.Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire used anthems since its foundation in the late 13th century, but did not use a specific imperial or national anthem until the 19th century. During the reign of Mahmud II, when the military and imperial band were re-organized along Western lines, Giuseppe Donizetti was invited to head the process. Donizetti Pasha, as he was known in the Ottoman Empire, composed the first Western-style imperial anthem, the Mahmudiye Marşı.
Like in many other monarchies of its time, the anthem of the Ottoman Empire was an imperial anthem, not a national one. Hence it paid homage to a specific ruler and a new anthem was composed at each imperial succession. However, in 1844, with the Tanzimat reforms, the Mecidiye Marşı was recognized as the first official Ottoman national anthem. The first official Ottoman national flag (which was in essence identical to the present-day Turkish flag) was also adopted in 1844.
Mahmudiye Marşı, March of Mahmud – for Mahmud II (1808–1839 / 1918–1922), by Giuseppe Donizetti
Mecidiye Marşı, March of Abdülmecid – for Abdulmejid I (1839–1861), by Giuseppe Donizetti
Aziziye Marşı, March of Abdülaziz – for Abdülaziz (1861–1876), by Callisto Guatelli
Hamidiye Marşı, March of Abdulhamid – for Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909), by Necip Ahmed Pasha
Reşadiye Marşı, March of Mehmed Resad – for Mehmed V (1909–1918), by Italo SelvelliAfter the start of the imperial anthem tradition, two Sultans did not have specific anthems composed. The first is Murad V, who reigned for 3 months in 1876 and the second is the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, who used the Mahmudiye Marşı anthem.
Only the Hamidiye Marşı and Reşadiye Marşı have lyrics, the first three anthems being instrumental.Maslak Palace
Maslak Palace is a former imperial Ottoman palace located in Istanbul, Turkey. It was constructed during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz (1861-1876). It is under the administration of the Turkish Department of National Palaces.Mihrimah Sultan (daughter of Mahmud II)
Mihrimah Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: مهرماہ سلطان; 29 June 1812 – 31 August 1838) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Mahmud II and Hoşyar Kadın. She was the half-sister of Sultans Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz.Mihrişah Sultan (daughter of Şehzade Izzeddin)
Mihrişah Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: مهرشاہ سلطان; 1 June 1916 – 25 January 1987) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of heir to the throne Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin, son of Sultan Abdülaziz, and Leman Hanım. She was the second wife of Şehzade Ömer Faruk, son of the last Caliph of the Muslim world, Abdulmejid II and Şehsuvar Hanım.Murad V
Murad V (Ottoman Turkish: مراد خامس)
(21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.
He was born in Istanbul. His father was Abdulmejid I. His mother, whom his father married in Constantinople on 1 August 1839, was Şevkefza Valide Sultan, an ethnic Circassian from the Ubykh tribe, daughter of Mehmed Bey Zaurum and his wife Cemile Hanım.Nazime Sultan
Nazime Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: ناظمه سلطان; 14 February 1866 – c. 1947) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz and Hayranidil Kadın.Osmanoğlu family
The Osmanoğlu family refers to the current members of the historical House of Osman (the Ottoman dynasty), which was the namesake and sole ruling house of the Ottoman Empire from 1299 until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
There were 36 Ottoman Sultans who ruled over the Empire, and each one was a direct descendant through the male line of the first Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Osman I. After the deposition of the last Sultan, Mehmet VI, in 1922, and the subsequent abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924, members of the Imperial family were forced into exile. Their descendants now live in many different countries throughout Europe, as well as in the United States, the Middle East, and since they have now been permitted to return to their homeland, many now also live in Turkey. When in exile, the family adopted the surname of Osmanoğlu, meaning "son of Osman", after the founder of the House of Osman and direct ancestor of all current family members.Pertevniyal Sultan
Pertevniyal Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: پرتونیال سلطان; c. 1809 – 26 January 1884), was the consort of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire. Her sister, Hoşyar Kadın, was the mother of Isma'il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879.Pınarbaşı, Kayseri
Pınarbaşı is a town and district of Kayseri Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. It was founded by Sultan Abdülaziz and was initially named Aziziye. After the formation of the Turkish Republic, Pınarbaşı was renamed with its current name. Pınarbaşı is famous for its horses and water springs of exceptional water quality. The mayor is Dursun Ataş (MHP).Saliha Sultan (daughter of Abdülaziz)
Saliha Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: صالحه سلطان; 11 August 1862 – c. 1941) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz and Dürrünev Kadın.Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin
Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin (Ottoman Turkish: شہزادہ یوسف عزالدین; 29 September 1857 – 1 February 1916) was an Ottoman prince, the son of Sultan Abdülaziz and his wife Dürrünev Kadın.Şükriye Sultan
Şükriye Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: شکریه سلطان; 24 February 1906 – 1 April 1972) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of heir to the throne Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin, son of Sultan Abdülaziz, and Leman Hanım.
§ First Ottoman caliph