Abbas ibn Ali

Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي‎, romanizedal-‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī), also known as Qamar Banī Hāshim (Arabic: قمر بني هاشم)[6][7][8] (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was a son of Ali (who was the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims), and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons (Arabic: أم البنين‎).

Abbas, also known as Abbas Alamdar, is highly revered by Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims for his loyalty to his brother Husain, his respect for the Household of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura.[9] He was praised for his "handsome looks"[10] and was also well known in the Arab community for his courage, bravery, strength and ferocity as a warrior. Ibn Manzur narrates in his al-Ayn that Al-Abbas was the "lion that other lions feared" as a testament to his accolades as a warrior.[11] Sheikh at-Turaihi describes Abbas's appearance as resembling an unshakable mountain, with his heart firmly rooted, due to his qualities as a "unique horseman" and a "fearless hero".[11]

Al-Abbas ibn Ali
العباس بن علي
Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Al-Abbas ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib's name in Arabic calligraphy
BornSha'ban 4, 26 AH[1]:39–40
May 15, 647
Medina, Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia)[1]:39–40
DiedMuharram 10, 61 AH
October 10, 680 (aged 33)
Cause of deathMartyrdom during the Battle of Karbala by Yazid I's men while bringing some water from Euphrates river for the family of Muhammad
Resting placeShrine of Abbas, Karbalā, Iraq
ResidenceMedina, Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia)
NationalityHejazi Arab
Known forBattle of Karbala
Titleأبو الفضل
(Arabic: Father of Virtue)
*قمر بني هاشم[1]:45–47
(Arabic: Moon of the Hashimites)
*السقى[1]:45–47
(Arabic: The provider of water)
*علمدار
(Persian: Flag/Standard bearer)
*شہنشاہِ وفا
(Persian: King of Loyalty)
*باب الحسین
(Arabic: Door to Hussein)
*باب الحوائج[2][3]
(Arabic: The door to fulfilling needs)
*افضل الشهداء
(Arabic: Most superior martyr)
*Abū Qurba
(Arabic: The owner of the skin of water)
*قوت الحسین
(Arabic: Strength of Hussein)
Opponent(s)Yazid I
Spouse(s)Lubaba bint Ubaydillah
ChildrenUbaydullah ibn Abbas (died in the Battle of Karbala
Fadl ibn Abbas
Mohammad ibn Abbas (died in the Battle of Karbala)
Parent(s)Ali
Ummul Banin (known as the mother of the sons only)
RelativesSayyida Ruqayya bint Ali( real sister[4])
Hasan ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)
Husayn ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)
Zaynab bint Ali (paternal half-sister)
Umm Kulthum bint Ali (paternal half-sister)
Muhsin ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)
Muhammad
FamilyBanū Hāshim Banū Kilab
Brooklyn Museum - Battle of Karbala - Abbas Al-Musavi - overall
Painting commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Husayn at the Battle of Karbala; its focus is his half brother Abbas ibn Ali on a white horse.[5]

Birth and early life

Abbas was born in the month of Sha'ban in the year 26 AH (approximately May 647 CE) in the city of Medina to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Ummul Banin. Abbas had three full brothers – Abdullah ibn Ali, Jafar ibn Ali, and Usman ibn Ali. Abbas married a distant cousin, Lubaba. They had three sons – Fadl ibn Abbas, Mohammad ibn Abbas, and Ubaydullah ibn Abbas.[9] His mother would recite famous lines of poetry in supplication to ward off the evil of those who envied him.[11]

Battle of Siffin

Abbas debuted as a soldier in the Battle of Siffin, one of the main conflicts of the struggle between Abbas's father Ali and Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria, in 657 CE. Wearing the clothes of his father, who was known to be a great warrior, Abbas killed many enemy soldiers. Muawiya's forces actually mistook him for Ali. Therefore, when Ali himself appeared on the battlefield, Muawiya's soldiers were astonished to see him and confused about the identity of the other soldier. Ali then introduced Abbas by saying:

He is Abbas, the moon of the Hashimites.[12][13]

Abbas was trained by his father in the art of battle, which may be one reason he resembled his father on the battlefield. When describing his fighting on the battlefield, many historians have likened him to an angry lion because of his courage, fearlessness, and strength as an attacker.[11]

Battle of Karbala

Entrance Abbas shrine,Karbala
Entrance to the shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Iraq

Abbas showed his loyalty to Hussein at the Battle of Karbala. After succeeding his father Muawiya I as caliph, Yazid I demanded that Hussein pledge allegiance to him, but Hussein refused,[14] saying:

Yazid is a person who kills people without cause, and an individual like me doesn't pledge allegiance to someone like him...[15]

As these behaviors were (and still are) prohibited in Islam, if Hussein had pledged allegiance to Yazid, his act would have ruined the basics of Islam.[16] Hussein's elder brother Hassan had made a pact, that they (i.e. Ahl al-Bayt) would be responsible for religious (i.e., Islamic) decisions and would not interfere in other matters. Hussein wanted to do what had been agreed upon, but Yazid I wanted to take total control of diverse affairs. With the help of Ubayd Allah, Yazid I conspired to kill Hussein by sending a letter to him in the name of people of Kufa (Iraq), inviting him to come to Kufa and guide them on the right path, an invitation that was accepted by Hussein; though most historians state that the letters were actually sent by the people of Kufa who later betrayed him when the body of Muslim ibn Aqeel (Hussein's messenger to Kufa) was thrown from a building in the center of Kufa by Yazid's army while the people of Kufa stood silent. In 60 AH (680 AD), Hussein left Medina for Mecca with a small group of companions and family members to travel to Kufa. He sent his cousin, Muslim, on ahead to make his decision after the advice of his cousin. But, by the time Hussein arrived near Kufa, his cousin had been killed.

On the way of Kufa, Hussein and his group were intercepted.[17] They were forced into a detour[18] and arrived in Karbala on the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH.[19] Hussein's camp was surrounded and cut off from the Euphrates river. The camp ran out of water on the 7th of Muharram.[20]

Martyrdom

Apart of being the "standard bearer" of Hussain ibn Ali's army, Abbas was asked by Hussain to provide some water for the thirsty children.[21] The Euphrates river was occupied by Yazid I's army to prevent the camp of Hussain from getting water. Because of his skill and bravery, Abbas could have attacked Yazid I's army, occupied the river, and retrieved water for the camp alone. However, Abbas was only allowed to be defensive because his brother Hussain didn't want him to fight. He was only allowed to get water [22] (although there are also narrations which mention that he participated in battle, too).[23] Eventually, Abbas went to the river to get water for the children in Hussein's camp.[22] Sakinah was very attached to Abbas, who was her uncle. To her, Abbas was their only hope for getting water. Abbas could not stand to see her thirsty and crying, Thy thirst!.[12] When Abbas entered the battlefield, he only had a spear, and a bag for water in his hands. He was also given the authority to hold the standard in the battle and Hussain gave the standard to him who was the bravest one; therefore he came to be known as Abbas Alamdar. Once he had made it to the river, he started filling the bag with water. Abbas's loyalty to Hussein was so great that, although he was very thirsty, Abbas drank no water because he could not bear the thought that Sakinah was thirsty. This story illustrates how Abbas conquered the Euphrates river, held it with his mighty hands, yet still did not drink. After gathering the water, Abbas rode back towards the camp. On his way back, he was struck from behind, and one of his arms was amputated. Then he was struck from behind again; the attack amputated his other arm. Abbas continued, carrying the water-bag in his mouth. Yazid's soldiers started shooting arrows at him. One arrow hit the bag, and water poured out of it. Immediately after the bag of water was hit, the enemy shot an arrow at Abbas that hit his eye.[24] One of Yazid's men hit Abbas' head with a mace, and, lacking the support of his arms, Abbas fell off his horse. As he was falling, he called, "Oh brother!", [calling for Hussein]. Abbas fell on his face before he let the standard fall.

He was martyred on Friday, the 10th of Muharram, 61 AH, near the bank of the river Euphrates. Hence, he is called the "Hero of the Euphrates." His death is generally commemorated by the Shiite Muslims on the eighth night of Muharram. Muslims, particularly Shiites, mourn the death of all the martyrs who fell at the Battle of Karbala with Hussein in the Islamic month of Muharram, mainly in the first ten days of the month. Fadl ibn Abbas and Qasim ibn Abbas also laid down their lives in Karbala. Ubaydullah ibn Abbas lived to continue the lineage of Abbas with five sons of his own.

Abbas was buried at the spot where he fell from his horse in Karbala, Iraq. The Shrine of Abbas was built around his grave, at which millions of pilgrims pay homage every year.[25] The Albanian Bektashi community also maintain a shrine to Abbas on the summit of Mount Tomorr, where an annual pilgrimage is held every August.

Descendants

Abbas ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib had 5 sons, namely: Ubaidullah, Fadhl, Hassan, Qasim and Mohammad; and also 2 daughters.[26] Ibn Shahrashub, the prominent historian, recorded that: "Muhammad ibn Abbas was martyred in Karbala with his father." The mother of Ubaidullah and Fadhl was Lubaba. Genealogists have agreed unanimously that the progeny of Al-Abbas came from his son Ubaidullah. Sheikh al-Futouni, however, mentioned that Hassan ibn Abbas also had sons and descendants. Ubaidullah ibn Abbas, who died in 155 AH, was a celebrated scholar known for his handsomeness, perfect morality, and fine personality. He had three wives.[26]

Ali (son of Hussein), had great respect for his uncle Abbas. He often wept when his eyes fell on Ubaidullah, explaining that he reminded him of his father's heroic and tragic exploit on that day in Karbala.

Al-Hassan, son of Ubaidullah, lived to age 67 and had five sons – Fadhl, Hamza, Ibrahim, Abbas, and Ubaidullah, all of whom became honorable, virtuous authors.

Shole-zrad-2014
Stenciled phrase Arabic: یا أبوالفضل‎, meaning O' Abol-Fazl (title of Abbas ibn Ali), made by stencil and cinnamon powder on the Iranian dessert, Sholeh-zard

Al-Fadhl was such an eloquent, religious, and courageous personality that even caliphs respected him. He was named 'Ibn al-Hashimiyya – son of the Hashemite woman . He had three sons – Ja'far, al-Abbas al-Akbar, and Mohammad.

Abu'l-Abbas al-Fadhl ibn Mohammed ibn al-Fadhl ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas who was a famous orator/poet, composed several poetic verses eulogizing his ancestor, Abbas ibn Ali.

Hamza ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah was from Abbas's descendants, and was like "Ali ibn Abu Talib" who was his ancestor.[27] A Pakistani tribe namely Awan are descendants of Qutab Shah who is a direct descendant of Hamza ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah. Awans are descendants of Qutab Shah (also known as Aawn) ibn Yaala ibn Hamza ibn Qasim ibn Tayyar ibn Qasim ibn Ali ibn Jaffar ibn Humza ibn al-Hassan ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abbas ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib. [28] [29] [30]

Ibrahim Jardaqa (Arabic: ابراهیم جردقة) was another descendant of Abbas ibn Ali. Jardaqa was a jurist and litterateur; he was well-known for his ascetics (piety), too.[27] Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Ibrahim (Arabic: عبدالله بن علي بن ابراهیم) wrote several books, consisting one titled al-Ja'fariyya. He died in Egypt in AH 312. Al-Abbas ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas was a well-known celebrity among the Hashemites; he visited Baghdad at the time of Harun ar-Rashid reign. He was also among the most celebrated poets.[26]

Abu't-Tayyib Mohammad ibn Hamza (Arabic: ابوطیب محمد بن حمزه) was also one of Abbas descendants who had a good personality. He was likewise well-known for his regard for his relatives and likewise his virtue. Abu-Tayyib had properties in Jordan where he was killed in 291 AH .[31] His descendants were called "sons of the martyr".[26] Abdullah ibn al-Abbas, another son of Abbas ibn Ali whose name has been mentioned among the "martyrs of Karbala",[32] He was famous for his virtue/celebrity, too. The Abbasid caliph al-Ma'moun mentioned about him that: "All people are the same after your departure, son of al-Abbas!".[26]

Ubaidullah ibn al-Hasan whose ancestor is reached to Abbas, was the governor/qadi of Mecca and Medina during the reign of al-Ma'moun.[26] Abu-Ya'la al-Hamza ibn al-Qasim ibn Ali ibn Hamza ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas ibn Ali, as another descendant of Abbas was one of the most celebrated men of knowledge. He was great hadithist who instructed many famed scholars and wrote many books, such as "Kitab ut-Tawhid", "Kitab uz-Ziyaraatu wel-Menasik", and many others in different fields of knowledge, particularly in Ilm ur-Rijal and Ilm ul-Hadith. Many scholars described him with remarkable words of praise. In a village called al-Hamza in al-Jazira, central Iraq, between the Euphrates and the Tigris, 102 is a handsome shrine built over the tomb of al-Hamza that continues to be visited by many people.[33]

Titles

Abbas is known as Abu al-Fazl (ابوالفضل), meaning the father of heavenly graces and/or the father of the graceful manner.[34][35][36] Abbas was the king of chivalry and the most loyal companion to his half brother Hussain. Abbas ibn Ali is also known as-Qamar Banu Hashim, meaning the moon of the Hashim clan.

He is also known as Ghazi;[37] Ghazi (غازی), meaning "soldier who returns successfully from the battle". Although Abbas was killed at Karbala, he is known as because, when he carried out the first strike against Yazid's army, his mission was to rescue the horse which was seized by Shimr during the battle of Siffin. This horse belonged to his other brother Hasan ibn Ali. Abbas retained control over the horse and presented it to Husayn.

Horse of Abbas

Abbas ibn Ali
Abbas ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala

Abbas was given a horse named "Uqab" (Eagle).[38] Shia sources say that this horse was used by Muhammad and Ali and that this horse was presented to Muhammad by the King of Yemen, Saif ibn Zee Yazni, through Abdul Muttalib. The king considered the horse to be very important, and its superiority over other horses was evident by the fact that its genealogical tree was also maintained. It was initially named "Murtajiz", which comes from the Arabic name "Rijiz" meaning thunder (lightning).[38][39][40]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d at-Tabrizi, Abu Talib (2001). Ahmed Haneef (ed.). Al-Abbas Peace be Upon Him. Abdullah Al-Shahin. Qum: Ansariyan Publications.
  2. ^ Lalljee, Yousuf N. (2003). Know Your Islam. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-940368-02-6.
  3. ^ "شبكة رافــد للتنمية الثقافية". rafed.net. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
  4. ^ [File:Name plate Zarih Sayyida Ruqayya.jpg]
  5. ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Arts of the Islamic World: Battle of Karbala". Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, New York. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Biography of Hazrat Abbas (ibn Ali)". yjc.ir. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  7. ^ "Abbas martyrdom". hawzah.ne. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Al-'Abbas (a)". Archived from the original on 2016-05-19. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
  9. ^ a b Calmard, J. (13 July 2011). "ʿABBĀS B. ʿALĪ B. ABŪ ṬĀLEB". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  10. ^ Bulookbashi, Ali A.; Negahban, Tr. Farzin (2008). Al- ʿAbbās b. ʿAlī. Brill. doi:10.1163/1875-9831_isla_COM_0009.
  11. ^ a b c d Shahin, Badr (2001). Al-Abbas. Qum, Iran: Ansariyan Publications. p. 22. ISBN 978-1494329235.
  12. ^ a b "Hazrat Abul Fazl Al Abbas". Archived from the original on 7 January 2006. Retrieved 2006-01-08.
  13. ^ Lalljee, Yousuf N. (2003). Know Your Islam. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-940368-02-6.
  14. ^ "Imam Hussain didn't pledge allegiance to Yazid". Tebyan. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Yazid demands allegiance of Husayn". al-islam.org. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  16. ^ "If Imam Hussain (a.s.) would pledge allegiance to Yazid ..." mashreghnews.ir. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Who was Hurr?". .alkawthartv.com. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Detour, from Kufa to Karbala". karbobala.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Muharram came". farsnews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  20. ^ "The crisis of water". farsnews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Army standard bearer". hawzah.net. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b "The Great Sacrifice". Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
  23. ^ "Didn't Imam Hussain allow Hazrat Abbas to fight? (And solely asked him to bring water)?". islamquest.net. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  24. ^ "HAZRAT ABBAS BIN ALI (AS)". ziaraat.org.
  25. ^ KaraÌraviÌ, NajmulhÌ£asan (January 1, 1974). Biography of Hazrat Abbas. Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust. ASIN B0007AIWQW.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Descendants of Al-'Abbas". al-islam.org. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  27. ^ a b "Qamar Bani Hashim". ghadeer.org. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  28. ^ Kihalastah al-Nisab by Al-Hill
  29. ^ A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province
  30. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). A History of Pakistan and Its Origins (Reprinted ed.). Anthem Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2.
  31. ^ "His sons/descendants. (Abbas)". sarallah.valiasr-aj.com. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  32. ^ Khalkhali, "the bright face of Qamar-Babi-Hashim, Abul-Fazl al-Abbas", Vol. 1, P. 122
  33. ^ Al-Abbas by Badr Shahin Archived March 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Amin, A'yan al-Shia, Vol. 7, P. 429
  35. ^ Qommi, Nafs al-Mahmoum, P. 285
  36. ^ "Who is Abbas?". alkawthartv.com. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Hazrat Ghazi Abbas". shiatv.net. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  38. ^ a b Tehrani, Allama Ahhsan. Zindagi-e-Abbas Lang. Urdu. p. 83.
  39. ^ Pinault, David (February 3, 2001). Horse of Karbala: Muslim Devotional Life in India. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-21637-5.
  40. ^ Naqvi, Allama Zamir Akhtar (2007). Imam aur Ummat. Markaz-e-Uloom-e-Islamia.

External links

2007 Karbala bombings

The 2007 Karbala bombings refer to a series of bombings in Karbala, Iraq in April 2007.

Abbas (name)

Abbas (also Abbass; Arabic: عباس‎) means "Lion" in Arabic The name traces back to Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (an uncle of Muhammad) and Abbas ibn Ali, a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who participated in the battle of Karbala alongside his master and Imam of the time Husayn ibn Ali. Abbas ibn Ali is revered by Shia Muslims, some of whom are named Abbas in remembrance and tribute to him. There is an Arabian tribe of the same name, the Banu Abbas. In Arabic language it literally means "Lion”.

Abbas Shirvanshah

Abbas ibn Ali Mazyadid was heir to the throne of Shirvanshahs, the title of the Muslim rulers of Shirvan, located in the modern day Azerbaijan Republic. He was expected to become shah as "Abbas I" after his father Shirvanshah Ali's death. However, he was captured along with his son Abu Bakr and father in rebellion of his great uncle Muhammed III Shirvanshah and executed.

Al Abbas Mosque

The Al-Abbas Shrine (Arabic: حرم أبي‌الفضل العبّاس‎, romanized: Ḥaram ’Abī al-Faḍl al-‘Abbās) is the mausoleum of ‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī and a mosque, located near the Imām Ḥusayn Mosque in Karbalā, Iraq. ‘Abbās was son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and the half-brother of Hasan and Ḥusayn. He was Ḥusayn's flag-bearer in the Battle of Karbalā and chief of his caravans. The distance between the shrines of ‘Abbās and Ḥusayn is the same as the distance between the hills of Safa and Marwah. The shrine is especially revered by the Shia who visit it every year, in the month of Muharram rather than various other times of the year.

Environmental effects over the years have caused the Euphrates river to change course. Nearly 1,400 years after the Battle of Karbalā, the river flows across the grave of ‘Abbās and encircles it. It is said that the Euphrates has come to ‘Abbās now.

In recent years the shrine has undergone a series of enhancements and additions, such as the re-gilding of the dome, and more recently covering the former courtyard with a roof to accommodate pilgrims better. Each year the shrine is visited by millions of pilgrims coming from all over the world.

Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn

Ali al-Akbar ibn Al-Husayn (Arabic: علي الأكبر بن الحسين‎), commonly known as simply Ali al-Akbar, was the son of Al-Husayn ibn Ali, the third Shia Imam, and Umm Layla. He was killed at the age of 18 on the day of ‘Ashura’, in Karbala’. According to Jean Calmard writing in Iranica, ‘Ali al-Akbar's reputation as a valiant warrior of the Household of Muhammad might have preceded that of Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Ali.

Bibi Pak Daman

Bibi Pāk Dāman (Urdu: بی بی پاکدامن) is the mausoleum of Ruqayyah bint Ali located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Legend has it that it holds the graves of six ladies from Muhammadصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم's household (Ahl Al-Bayt). Ruqayyah bint Ali ibn Abu Talib was the daughter of Muhammad'sصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abu Talib with his wife Sahba' bint Rabi'a al-Taghlibiyya. Ruqayah bint Ali was the Half sister of Al-Abbas ibn Ali and also the wife of Muslim ibn Aqeel (emissary of third Shi'a Imam Husayn ibn Ali to Kufah). Others are said to be Muslim ibn Aqil's sister and daughters. It is said that these ladies came here after the event of the battle of Karbala on the 10th day of the month of Muharram in 61 AH (October 10, AD 680). Bibi Pak Daman, which means the "chaste lady", is the collective name of the six ladies believed to interred at this mausoleum, though it is also (mistakenly) popularly used to refer to the personage of Ruqayyah bint Ali alone. They were among the women who brought Islam to South Asia, preaching and engaging in missionary activity in the environs of Lahore. It is said that Data Ganj Bakhsh, considered a great Sufi saint of the South Asia, was himself a devotee of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine and received holy knowledge from this auspicious shrine.

Some scholars consider Ruqayah to have been the daughter of Sayid Ahmed Tokhta (12th century). Bibi Paak Daaman is located between Garhi Shahu and Railway Station area. The easiest way to go to Bibi Paak Daaman is from the Empress Road and from there, take the small road opposite Police Lines and then the first left-turn. Recently Government of Pakistan is considering approval of the expansion of the Bibi Pak Daman's shrine.

Imambaras of Lucknow

Lucknow is a city of imambaras as it has a large number of imambaras among which are some very famous.

Imambargah Darbaray Hussaini

Imam Bargah Darbaray Hussaini (جامع مسجد و امام بارگاہ دربار حسینی کراچی)' is a Hussainia in Hussainabad, Malir Colony, Karachi, Pakistan. Majalis and Mahafils / Milads are arranged at Imam Bargah Darbaray Hussaini. The site is Malir's main mosque, and Namaz-e-Juma (congregational Friday prayers) are performed there.

It is one of the biggest Hussainia, or Imam Bargahs in Malir Town. It's being expanded and the process is currently under construction.

The main events held there include the Shabiyaan, a kind of funeral commemorating those martyred in Battle of Karbala, at the night of 9th Muharram every year. As well as Majalis and Mi'laad are held there on every occasion. Many Processions also start and end at this Imam Bargah including the one of Ashura, and Chhelum.

The structure of the bargah is facing towards the qibla, also called Ka'aba. It is currently double storey and the second one is being constructed. It has one main entrance and a small one. It consists of a mosque, a hude courtyard, and an AzaKhana. In the courtyard, a very high Alam, Shi'ite flag of Abbas ibn Ali, is present. It also has an underground room.

Many popular Noha Khuwans have recited at this imam bargah, including Farhan Ali Waris, Nadeem Raza Sarwar and his sons ,Ali Jee and Ali Shanawar, Hassan Sadiq, Irfan Haider, and Mir Hassan Mir.

List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala

This article contains the list of casualties of Husayn ibn Ali's companions in the Battle of Karbala. The battle took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, situated in present-day Iraq.The battle was between cruel Yazid's army from Syria reinforced by troops from Kufa, and the caravan of families and friends of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is claimed that 72 men (including Husayn's 6 months old baby son) of Husayn's companions were killed by the forces of Yazid I.

Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas

The Brigade of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas (Arabic:لواء أبو الفضل العباس, Liwa Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas), also known as the al-Abbas Brigade (Arabic:كتائب العباس, Kata'ib al-Abbas), is a pro-government Twelver Shia Muslim militant group operating throughout Syria. It is named after the nickname of Al-Abbas ibn Ali, son of Imam Ali.

The group was formed in late 2012 to defend the Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque and other Shia holy sites in Syria. It rose in prominence in reaction to the desecration of various shrines, heritage sites, and places of worship by rebels during the Syrian civil war and subsequently collaborated with the Syrian Army. Its fighters include native Shia Damascenes, Damascus-based Iraqi Shia refugees, Iraqi Shia volunteers, and other foreign Shia volunteers. Iraqis form its primary constituent. It fights primarily around Damascus, but has fought in Aleppo as well.In May and June 2013, Reuters reported a split had developed within the brigade over finances and leadership which erupted into a gunbattle. Many non-Syrian members subsequently formed a different brigade.On 19 May 2014, fighters from the Nour al-Din al-Zanki Brigade claimed to have taken over the al-Abbas Brigade's regional headquarters in Aleppo.As ISIS made significant gains in Iraq in mid 2014, its Iraqi members were forced to return home to defend the faltering Shi'ite led government in Baghdad.The al-Abbas Bridge reportedly took part in the 2018 Southern Syria offensive in support of government troops.The militia has the backing of Iran.

Lubaba bint Ubaydillah

Lubaba bint ‘Ubaydi l-Lāh was the great-granddaughter of Abdul Mutallib. She was married to al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Ali. They had three sons, al-Fadl ibn al-‘Abbās, Qasim ibn al-‘Abbās, and Ubaydullah ibn al-Abbas, two of whom were martyred during the Battle of Karbala.

Mohammad Reza Tabasi

Mohammad Reza Tabasi (Persian:محمد رضا طبسی) Shia Scientist in the fourteenth century AH. Sheikh Mohammad Reza Najafi Tabasi child of Abbas ibn Ali ibn al-Hasan, known as Moraveji is Tabasi. In Sha'ban AH 1317 (1989) was born in Mashhad. Ayatollah Moraveji Tabasi opponents of the Pahlavi regime. "

Qasim ibn Abbas

Qasim ibn Abbas (Arabic: قاسم بن عباس); although there is not such name (Qasim) as a/the son of Abbas ibn Ali in old sources, some sources regard him among the martyrs of Karbala. According to some sources, Qasim ibn Abbas was the son of Abbas ibn Ali and his mother was Lubaba bint Ubaydillah. He and his brother al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas died in the Battle of Karbala.

Sayyida Ruqayya bint Ali

Sayyida Ruqayyah was a daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib an ‘Alid saint, her mother being one of the wives of the Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib who married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. She is real sister of Abbas ibn Ali(per name plate as below), traditionally considered to be a patron saint of Cairo. Her Mashhad is still used as an oratory where vows and intercessionary prayers to her are offered.The Mashhad of Sayyidah Ruqayyah (Arabic: مـشـهـد الـسـيـدة رقـيـة‎, romanized: Mashhad al-Sayyidah Ruqayyah), also known as Sayyidah Ruqayyah Mashhad, and Ruqayyah Mashhad, is a 12th-century religious shrine and mosque in the madinah of Cairo, Egypt. It was built over the grave of sayyidah Ruqayyah in 1133 ACE as a memorial to her.

Tasu'a

Tasu'a (Arabic: تاسوعاء‎, romanized: Tāsū‘ā’) is the ninth day of Muharram and the day before Ashura. Several events occurred on this day, including: Shemr's entrance to Karbala, the granting of safe conduct for the children of Umm ul-Banin, preparation for war; and Husayn ibn Ali and his companions were besieged by the enemy (as part of the Battle of Karbala). The day is attributed to Abbas ibn Ali because of his actions as commander in the army of Husayn ibn Ali.

Timeline of Ali's life

17 March 599 coincided with Thirteenth of Rajab, 24 BH: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the Ka'ba, in the city of Mecca.

610: Ali converted to Islam soon after the first revelation of the Quran.

613: Yawm al-Inzar: Muhammad invited the Banu Hashim to Islam; Ali alone accepted his call.

617- 619: Meccan boycott of the Hashemites

619:Year of Sorrow:Death of Abu Talib, Ali's father.

September 622: Laylat al-mabit: Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that Muhammad could escape from Mecca in safety and migrate to Medina.

622: Ali migrated with his mother, Fatima Zahra and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad Muhammad's daughters, and another women.

622 or 623:The prophet chose him as his brother.

623: Ali married with Fatima Zahra, Muhammad's daughter.

624

March 17: Battle of Badr: Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior and killed about 20 to 22 pagans.

Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina.

625:

Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, the second Shia Imam.

Battle of Uhud: Ali destroyed the standard bearers and when the army of Islam was defeated and most of the Muslims had fled Ali was one of the few Muslims who defended Muhammad.

Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.

626:

Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Shia Imam.

Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.

627

Battle of the Trench: Ali ibn Abi Talib triumphed in combat over Arabs' hero, Amr ibn Wodd, and killed him.

Killing and enslavement of Banu Quraiza.

628

Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

Battle of Khaybar: Ali was the standard-bearer and conqueror of the Khaybar's castle.

Birth of Zaynab bint Ali

629

Participating in The first pilgrimage with the Prophet.

Death of Ali's brother Ja'far ibn Abi Talib in the Battle of Mu'tah

630

Conquest of Mecca:Ali was the standard-bearer.

Battle of Hunayn

Battle of Autas

Siege of Ta'if

Operation against Banu Tayy

631

Mubahela with the Christian of Najran

Expedition against Banu Rumla

Operation against Banu Zubuda

Mission to Yemen

632

Participation in Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Death of Muhammad

Abu Bakr assumes power as the first Rashidun caliph

Death of Fatimah, Ali's wife.

644: Umar, the second Rashidun caliph, was assassinated. Ali was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph

648: Birth of Al-Abbas ibn Ali

656:

Siege and assassination of Uthman, the third Rashidun caliph.

Election of Ali as the fourth Rashidun caliph.

Beginning of the First Fitna(first Islamic civil war).

Battle of Bassorah

657:Ali shifted the capital of Rashidun empire from Medina to Kufa in Iraq.

May–July 657: Battle of Siffin

658:

The Arbitration

Revolt of Kharijits.

July 658: Battle of Nahrawan

659:

Ali's governor of Egypt was defeated and Egypt was conquered by 'Amr ibn al-'As

Revolt of Khurrit ibn Rashid

Muawiyah I plundered Iraq

660:

Muawiyah plundered Hijaz and Yemen, but later withdrew

Muawiyah I declared himself as caliph in Damascus

28 January 661 coincided with Twenty-first of Ramadan: Ali dead in Kufa and buried in Najaf two days after he was struck by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam in the Great Mosque of Kufa.

Tourism in Iraq

Tourism in Iraq refers to tourism in the Western Asian country Iraq. The capital city Baghdad is the second largest city in the Arab world after Cairo. Iraq has several Islamic pilgrimage sites related to Shia Islam. Iraq is considered to be a potential location for ecotourism. Erbil was chosen as "Arab Tourism Capital" in 2014 by the Arab Tourism Committee. Yet, the cities of Karbala and Najaf are the most popular tourist destinations in Iraq due to the location of religious sites in the country.

Umm ul-Banin

Fāṭimah bint Ḥuzam al-Kulābīyya (Arabic: فاطمة بنت حزام الكلابية‎ - died (683/684) or 69 A.H. (688/689)), commonly known as Umm ul-Banin ("mother of several sons"), was a wife of Ali ibn Abi Talib. She was from the tribe of Banu Kilab Kalbasi, Khasaes al-Abbasiah, (1387 S.H.), P. 63 a branch of Qais Ailan tribes.

Umm ul-Banin married Ali ibn Abi Talib after the death of his first wife Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Umm ul-Banin and Ali had four sons, of whom the eldest was Abbas ibn Ali, the commander of Husain Ibn Ali's forces at the Battle of Karbala.Sayyida Ruqayya bint Ali was her daughter. Shimr ibn Dhi 'l-Jawshan, who later killed Husayn ibn Ali at the battle, had offered Abbas Ibn Ali and his brothers immunity before the battle commenced, however, Abbas Ibn Ali and his brothers rejected it since the offer was not including Imam Hussain Ibn Ali. All of Umm ul-Banin's sons were killed later in the battle at Karbala.It is believed that Umm ul-Banin died in 69 A.H. (688/689) or 13 Jumada al-Thani 64 A.H. (6 February 684). She was buried in the Jannatul Baqi, a cemetery in Medina.

 
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