Abbas Mirza (Persian: عباس میرزا; August 20, 1789 – October 25, 1833) was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813 and the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 with neighbouring Imperial Russia, as well as through the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823 with the Ottoman Empire. He is furthermore noted as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali Shah. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
Nevertheless, with Abbas Mirza as the military commander of the Persian forces, Iran lost all of its territories in the Caucasus comprising Transcaucasia and parts of the North Caucasus (Dagestan) to Russia in conformity with the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay, following the outcomes of the 1804–1813 and 1826–1828 wars.
|Prince Abbas Mirza|
شاهزاده عباس ميرزا
Prince Abbas Mirza, signed by L. Herr, dated 1833.
|Crown prince of Persia|
|Born||20 August 1789|
Nava, Mazandaran, Qajar Iran
|Died||25 October 1833 (aged 44)|
Mashhad, Qajar Iran
|Father||Fat'h Ali Shah|
Abbas Mirza was born on August 20, 1789 in Nava, Mazandaran. He was a younger son of Fath Ali Shah, but on account of his mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him. Considered the favorite son by his father, he was named governor (beglarbeg) of the Azerbaijan region of Persia, in approximately 1798, when he was 10 years old. In 1801, three years after Agha Mohammad Khan's death, the Russians capitalized on the moment, and annexed Kartli-Kakheti. As (Eastern) Georgia had been under intermittent Iranian suzerainty since the early 16th century, this act by the Russians was seen as intrusion into Iranian territory. In 1804, eager to take the rest of Iran's territories, the Russian army led by general Pavel Tsitsianov, besieged, captured and sacked the city of Ganja, thereby initiating the Russo-Persian War (1804–13). Fath-Ali Shah appointed Abbas Mirza as commander of the expeditionary force of 30,000 men. His aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, anxious to checkmate one another in the East, especially as Persia bordered a common rival, namely Imperial Russia. Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas Mirza continued the war against Russia's young General Kotlyarevsky, aged only twenty-nine but his new ally could give him very little assistance.
The early stages of the war following Fath Ali Shah's orders to invade and regain Georgia and the northern parts of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic ended up in years of relatively territorial stale warfare. However, as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, Abbas Mirza led the army in an overall disastrous campaign against the Russians, suffering defeats at Gyumri, Kalagiri, the Zagam River (1805), Karakapet (1806), Karababa (1808), Ganja (1809), Meghri, the Aras River, and Akhalkalaki (1810). The tide started to decisively turn as Russia was sending more and more advanced weaponry and increasing numbers of soldiers. Commanding the southernmost Russian divisions during the long war, Kotlyarevsky defeated the numerically superior Persian army in the Battle of Aslanduz (1812) and in early 1813 stormed and took Lankaran. The Russians were encamped on the opposite bank of River Aras when his two British advisers Capt Christie and Lt Pottinger told him to post sentry pickets in short order, but Mirza ignored the warnings. Christie and other British officers tried to rally an army retreating in panic; for days the Russians launched fierce assaults, but at last Christie fell, and Mirza ordered a full retreat. Complacency cost 10,000 Persian lives; Mirza believing wrongly in the weight of superior numbers. In spite of the absence of leadership, The Persians at Lenkoran held out for weeks, until breaking through the Russians slaughtered the garrison of 4,000 officers and men.
In October 1813, with Abbas Mirza still commander-in-chief, Persia was compelled to make a severely disadvantageous peace known as the Treaty of Gulistan, irrevocably ceding swaths of its territory in the Caucasus, comprising present-day Georgia, Dagestan, and most of what most recently became the Republic of Azerbaijan. The only promise the Shah received in return was a lukewarm guarantee the Mirza would succeed to his throne, without let or hindrance. Persia's dire losses attracted the attention of the British Empire; following the reversal of initial successes, the Russians now posed a serious threat from the Caucasus.
The drastic losses suffered by his forces made him realize that he needed to train Persia's military in the European style of war, and he started sending his students to Europe for military training. By introducing European-style regiments, Abbas Mirza believed it would enable Iran to gain the upper hand over Russia and to reclaim its lost territories.  Influenced by Sultan Selim III's reforms, Abbas Mirza set out to create an Iranian version of the Ottoman Nizam-ı Cedid, and reduce the Qajar dependence on tribal and provincial forces. In 1811 and 1815, two groups were sent to Britain, and in 1812 a printing press was finished in Tabriz as a means to reproduce European military handbooks. Tabriz also saw a gunpowder factory and a munitions depot. The training continued with constant drilling by British advisers, with a focus on the infantry and artillery.
He received his opportunity to test his newly reformed military when the Ottoman–Persian War (1821–1823) began, and they proved themselves adept with several victories. This resulted in a peace treaty signed in 1823 after the Battle of Erzurum. The war was a victory for Persia, especially considering they were outnumbered, and this gave much needed confidence to his forces. His second war with Russia, which began in 1826, started off on a good note as he won back most of the territory lost in the Russo-Persian War (1804–13); however it ended in a string of costly defeats after which Persia was forced to cede the last of its Caucasian territories, comprising all of what is modern day Armenia, Nakhchivan, the rest of the remainder of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that was still in Iranian hands, and Igdir Province, all conform the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. The eventual loss was due less to his and his armies skill and more to do with lack of reinforcements and overwhelming superiority in numbers. The irrevocable losses, which in total amounted up for all of Qajar Iran's territories in the North Caucasus and the South Caucasus, affected Abbas Mirza severely and his health began to suffer. He also lost enthusiasm for any more military reform. In 1833, he sought to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the task died at Mashhad in 1833. In 1834 his eldest son, Mohammed Mirza, succeeded Fath Ali Shah as the next king. R. G. Watson (History of Persia, 128-9) describes him as “the noblest of the Qajar race”.
He is most remembered for his valor in battle and his failed attempts to modernize the Persian army. He was not successful in part due to the lack of government centralization in Iran during the era. Furthermore, it was Abbas Mirza who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education. He was unable to prove successful in the long run in his wars with Russia as he ended up losing more territory than he gained.
Abbas Mirza Mosque (Armenian: Աբաս Միրզայի մզկիթ (Abas Mirzayi mzkit'), Persian: مسجد عباس میرزا, Azerbaijani: Abbas Mirzə məscidi) was a nineteenth-century Shia mosque in Yerevan, Armenia. Abbas Mirza the eighteenth century, the castle was built by the mosque in Yerevan. This mosque was built at the beginning of the nineteenth century, during the reign of the last khan (governor) of the Erivan Khanate, Huseyn Khan. It was named Abbas Mirza Jami, after the Persian crown prince Abbas Mirza, the son of Fat′h-Ali Shah. The façade of mosque was covered in green and blue glass, reflecting Persian architectural styles. After the capture of Yerevan by the Russians, the mosque was used as an arsenal.
The mosque was turned into barracks after it was conquered by Russian troops.
During the Soviet era the mosque, along with Christian buildings, was derelict and currently only the frame of the mosque has been preserved.Abbas Mirza Sharifzadeh
Abbas Mirza Abdulrasul oglu Sharifzadeh (Sharifov) (Azerbaijani: Abbas Mirzə Şərifzadə) (22 March 1893, Shamakhi – 16 November 1938, Baku) was an Azerbaijani actor, film director and film editor, and Honoured Artist of the Azerbaijan SSR (1935).Amir Nezam House
The Amir Nezām House (Persian: خانه امیرنظام, Khaneh-e Amir Nezām, Azeri: Emir Nizamin evi), or The Qajar Museum of Tabriz, is a historical building in the Sheshghelan district (Persian: ششگلان), one of the oldest quarters of the city of Tabriz, Iran. The base of the edifice covers an area of 1200 square metres. This monument which since 2006 houses a museum dedicated to the Qajar dynasty (1781-1925), was built in the period of the Crown Prince Abbas Mirza (1789-1833). It was renovated by Hasan-Ali Khan (حسنعلی خان), Hasan Ali Khan Garroosy, in his position as the Major-domo of Azarbaijan, and used as his residency. In the subsequent periods, the house was employed as the official residence of the provincial governors of Azarbaijan. Because of persistent neglect over a long period of time, this building had come to be in such a bad state of disrepair that for a time it was seriously considered to demolish it and build a school in its place. Between 1993-2006 it has been subject of an extensive renovation process and since the completion of this undertaking it has been granted the National Heritage status.
The Sheshghelan district has been Governor's seat during the Ilkhanate dynasty.
Hasan-Ali Khan, Amir Nezām Garousi, was born in 1820 in Bijar, in the Kurdistan Province. For a period of twenty-two years he served in various governmental positions. In particular, for a period he was in charge of the Iranian students sent to Europe by the government of Iran. He also served as the General of the Garrus Army and Head of the Security Guards of the High Court and of Arg-e Tabriz. He is buried in Mahan, in the Kerman Province. He is best remembered for his exemplary prose in the Persian language.Battle of Aslanduz
The Battle of Aslanduz took place on 19–20 October 1812 between Russia and Persia. The Persian Fath Ali Shah had his large army stationed in Aslanduz led by the heir to the throne, Abbas Mirza. The Russian squad, headed by the charismatic Major General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, using the element of surprise night attack, routed the Persians who were still at sleep and quickly moved on to storm Lankaran victoriously in the beginning of 1813, thus ending any Persian hopes of continuing the war or settling on even peace terms for both parties.Battle of Echmiadzin (1804)
The Battle of Echmiadzin took place in June 1804, during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813. A Russian force of 5,000 men under Pavel Tsitsianov advanced on Erivan. An Iranian army of 20,000 under Crown-Prince Abbas Mirza met him at Echmiadzin. Cutting off the Russian's supplies the Iranians successfully defended the town and forced the Russians to withdraw. Though the Russians were unable to capture Echmiadzin, the outcome of the battle itself has been variously described as inconclusive,
an Iranian victory, or a Russian victory.Battle of Erzurum (1821)
The Battle of Erzurum occurred in 1821 as part of the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823. The Persians, led by crown prince Abbas Mirza himself scored a crushing defeat over their Ottoman arch rivals near Erzurum, securing a Persian victory.
The Persians were heavily outnumbered with 30,000 men, led by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza, against the Turks with 50,000 men. However, the Persian army had recently been undergoing new modernisations according to the most up to date European models, with leadership of Abbas Mirza's brother, Dowlatshah, as part of the modernising policy known as Nezām-e Jadīd.Battle of Ganja (1826)
The Battle of Ganja or Elisavetpol (also Elizabethpol, Yelisavetpol, &c.) took place on 26 September 1826, during the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828.Crown prince and commander-in-chief Abbas Mirza had launched a successful campaign in the summer of 1826, which resulted in the recapture of many of the territories that were lost to the Russians by virtue of the Treaty of Gulistan (1813). Noticing the approach of the Iranian army, many of the locals that had recently come under formal Russian jurisdiction, quickly switched sides. Amongst the swiftly recaptured territories by the Iranians were the important cities of Baku, Lankaran and Quba.Then Russian commander-in-chief in the Caucasus, Aleksey Yermolov, convinced that he had insufficient resources to battle the Iranians, ordered for the withdrawal from Elisavetpol (Ganja), which was thus retaken as well.Yermolov's replacement, Ivan Paskevich, now with additional resources, started the counteroffensive. At Ganja, in late September 1826, the Iranian and Russian armies met, and Abbas Mirza and his men were defeated. As a result, the Iranian army was forced to retreat across the Aras river.Battle of Sultanabad
The Battle of Sultanabad occurred on February 13, 1812, between the Russian Empire and Persian Empire. In the resulting battle, the Russians were routed.
The Persians, numerically superior, were led by Abbas Mirza and fought the Russians led by Pyotr Kotlyarevsky. A Persian offensive into Georgia, with their British and French trained Nezam-e Jadid infantry, initiated the battle. The Persians had also obtained European cannons from the French.The Persians won the battle by moving faster than the Russians and attacking them near their camp. Although this was a minor victory for the Persians, Abbas Mirza tried to show it as a major victory.In the end however the Persians lost the invasion due to the Russian maneuvering around the Aras River which culminated in the Battle of Aslanduz. The Persians would have given up had it not been for the news of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in the spring.Erivan Fortress
Erivan Fortress (Armenian: Երևանի բերդը; Yerevani berdë; Persian: قلعه ایروان, Ghaleh-ye Iravân; Azerbaijani: İrəvan qalası – ايروان قالاسى; Russian: Эриванская крепость E'rivanskaya krepost' ) was a 16th-century fortress in Yerevan.Fath-Ali Shah Qajar
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: فتحعلى شاه قاجار; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah (Qajar emperor) of Iran. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death. His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus, comprising what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay. Historian Joseph M. Upton says that he "is famous among Persians for three things: his exceptionally long beard, his wasp-like waist, and his progeny."At the end of his reign, his difficult economic problems and military and technological liabilities took Iran to the verge of governmental disintegration, which was quickened by a consequent struggle for the throne after his death.Hossein Khan Sardar
Hossein Qoli Khan Sardar Qajar (Persian: حسین قلی خان سردار قاجار), better simply known as Hossein Khan Sardar (حسین خان سردار) (born ca. 1742 – died 1831) was an Iranian statesman in Qajar Iran, who was the last governor of the Erivan Khanate from 1807 to 1828. Around 1826–1828, he and Abbas Mirza, the crown prince, attempted to win back the Transcaucasian and Dagestanian possessions lost to Russia during the war of 1804-1813 which had ended with the Gulistan Treaty. However, using superior tactics and weapons developed since their defeat of Napoleon, the Tsar’s generals inflicted even greater losses on Iran.
In addition to ceding further territories, the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay forced Iran to pay crippling reparations. The treaty also banned Hossein Khan and his younger brother, Hasan Khan, from ever venturing north of the Aras River, the new border.
Hossein Khan belonged to the Qoyunlu branch of the Qajar clan, and was thus part of the royal Qajar dynasty. He was the son of Mohammad Khan Qajar, who had served as the governor of Erivan in the late 18th-century. Furthermore, Hossein Khan was a confidant of Fath Ali Shah, who had cemented their relationship by marrying his sister and giving one of his daughters, Shirin Jan Khanom, in marriage to Hossein Khan's son, Mohammad Qoli Khan.
According to foreign writers who visited Iran, Hossein Khan was one of the most influential and wealthy leaders in Iran with as much power as Abbas Mirza. Hossein Khan Khan did not have any members of his family as prisoners in Tehran, had the privilege to issue coins, and had the infrequent favorable circumstance of maintaining an extensive part of the income for defense intentions. He inspired commerce and established a steady government. Indeed, Armenian and Russian sources, who rarely have anything positive to assert about the Iranian khans in Transcaucasia, praise Hossein Khan for being generous, truthful, grand, diligent, and fair.The Shah had been indebted to Hossein Khan ever since, on the death of Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, Hossein Khan led an advance column of troops to Tehran to secure the capital and the throne for Fath Ali. Later, the Shah dispatched him to quell a rebellion in Khorasan province. In return for his loyalty, Hossein Khan was rewarded with the Khanate of Erevan, which he ruled until the last Russo-Persian War (1826-1828).
Hossein Khan was also granted estates encompassing some 62 villages near the city of Qazvin. Later generations of Sardars bequeathed their inheritance to religious endowments, or vaqf. The ab anbar sardar, a cavernous underground water reservoir in Qazvin, was named after Hossein Khan. Local legend has it that, at 3,000 cubic meters and 28.5 meters from base to ceiling, it took seven months to fill and its supply of water lasted for seven years. Fed by three qanats (subterranean water canals), it is the largest in Iran.
Unlike other Transcaucasian khans, Hossein Khan did not make an agreement with the Russians and accomplished to hinder their attempts for two decades. Russia’s irritation was displayed in article 14 of the Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), which particularly removed him and his brother of the privilege to sell or trade their estates in Erevan, a privilege which was allowed to all others.Mirza Abutaleb Zanjani
Mirzā Abutāleb Zanjānī (Persian: میرزا ابوطالب زنجانی) also known as Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Mohammad Abutāleb Mousavi al-Zanjānī (10 December 1843 – 16 March 1911) Iranian Jurist and Shia scholar
He was born on 10 December 1843, to an educated family in Zanjan, Iran. His paternal ancestors were all celebrated scholars. He started his education in his birthplace and continued in Qazvin, Iran and Najaf, Iraq, trained under Morteza Ansari, Sheikh Razi and Sayyid Hossein Kooh-kamari. He returned to Iran at the age of 40 and stayed in Tehran, where as a distinguished disciple of Koohkamari, became the centre of clerical circles.He spent most of his time on teaching his students and writing religious books.
He advocated Persian Constitutional Revolution, but later adhered to royalists.He died at the age of 69 on 16 March 1911, Tehran and was buried in Mashhad.Zanjani was among the few scholars of Qajar period who used their Arabic knowledge to translate Arabic texts into Persian. In addition to Persian and Azari, he had acquaintance with French and Ottoman Turkish language. He also had knowledge of ideas of his contemporary European intellects such as Thomas Malthus and Charles Darwin, and used their views in his essays.Arthur Henry Hardinge, the British ambassador to Iran, wrote about him:"As I have previously mentioned, the most intellectual and enlightened Shia scholar that I've met in Tehran was Mirza Abutaleb Zanjani with whom we usually had debates about religion and politics. I personally think that Mirza Abutaleb worked on the same aspiration for Islamic unity as Abdul Hamid II ... although he himself had less faith to these principals".He married a daughter of Bahram Mirza son of Abbas Mirza and had 4 daughters. He is maternal grandfather of Reza Zanjani.Ottoman–Persian War (1821–23)
The Ottoman–Qajar War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Empire from 1821 to 1823.Prince Abbas Mirza Farman Farmaian
Prince Abbas Mirza Farman Farmaian Qajar (or Kadjar) (1890–1935) Iranian royal prince of the Persian Imperial Qajar Dynasty, was the second son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma of Persia, one of the most preeminent political figures of his time and of the royal Princess Ezzat ed-Dowleh Qajar, the daughter of king Mozaffar-al-Din Shah. He was named after his great-grand father, crown prince Abbas Mirza son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar.Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute. The new Persian king, Fath Ali Shah Qajar, wanted to consolidate the northernmost reaches of his kingdom—modern-day Georgia—which had been annexed by Tsar Paul I several years after the Russo-Persian War of 1796. Like his Persian counterpart, the Tsar Alexander I was also new to the throne and equally determined to control the disputed territories.
The war ended in 1813 with the Treaty of Gulistan which ceded the previously disputed territory of Georgia to Imperial Russia, and also the Iranian territories of Dagestan, most of what is nowadays Azerbaijan, and minor parts of Armenia.Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
After the Treaty of Gulistan that concluded the previous Russo-Persian War in 1813, peace reigned in the Caucasus for thirteen years. However, Fath 'Ali Shah, constantly in need of foreign subsidies, relied on the advice of British agents, who pressed him to reconquer the territories lost to Russia and pledged their support for military action. The matter was decided upon in spring 1826, when a bellicose party of Abbas Mirza prevailed in Tehran and the Russian minister, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov, was placed under house arrest.The war ended in 1828 following the occupation of Tabriz. The war had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war, as the ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia. These territories had once extended throughout most of Transcaucasia and part of the North Caucasus.
The war marked the end of the era of the Russo-Persian Wars, with Russia now being the unquestioned dominant power in the Caucasus. Persia (Iran) was forced to cede swaths of territories that it never regained. The conquered territories spent more than 160 years under Russian domination before establishing their independence, except Dagestan, which is still a Russian possession. In 1991, through the dissolution of the USSR, the modern states of Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia were established from the bulk of the South Caucasus territories that had come under the dominion of Russia by 1828.
As a direct result of the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties arising from the two Russo-Persian Wars of the 19th century, the Azerbaijanis and Talysh people are divided between two nations (Azerbaijan and Iran).Siege of Erivan (1804)
The Siege of Erivan (Yerevan, the capital of modern Armenia) took place from July to September 1804, during the Russo-Persian War (1804–13). After a difficult advance, the Russians under Pavel Tsitsianov besieged Erivan. The Iranian forces inside Erivan's citadel prevented the Russians from making a direct attack, while those outside the citadel surrounded the Russians and cut the invaders' supply lines. Commanded by Crown-Prince Abbas Mirza and King Fath-Ali Shah Qajar himself (r. 1797–1834), the Iranians successfully defended the city and defeated the Russian attack. Tsitsianov, in order to save his reputation, shifted the blame on a plethora of people and matters, and deliberately left out his own wrongdoings.Tayebi family
Descendants of the Qajar Dynasty through Prince Hessam-ol-Saltaneh, son of the Persian Crown Prince Abbas Mirza.Treaty of Turkmenchay
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор, Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey).
The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed.By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century.As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Abbas Mirza's Battles