A Rose for Emily

"A Rose for Emily" is a short story by American author William Faulkner, first published in the April 30, 1930, issue of The Forum. The story takes place in Faulkner's fictional city, Jefferson, Mississippi, in the fictional southern county of Yoknapatawpha. It was Faulkner's first short story published in a national magazine.[1]

"A Rose for Emily"
AuthorWilliam Faulkner
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Genre(s)Southern gothic
Published in1930

Title

Faulkner described the title "A Rose For Emily" as an allegorical title; this woman had undergone a great tragedy, and for this Faulkner pitied her. And as a salute, he handed her a rose.[2] The word rose in the title has multiple meanings to it. The rose may be seen as Homer, interpreting the rose as a dried rose. Homer's body could be the dried rose, such as one that is pressed between the pages of a book, kept in perfect condition as Emily did with Homer's body.[3] The "Rose" also represents secrecy. Roses have been portrayed in Greek legends as a gift of secrecy and of confidentiality, known as sub rosa, introducing that the "Rose" is a symbol of silence between the narrator and Miss Emily, the narrator keeps Emily's secrets until her death.

Plot summary

The story opens with a brief first-person account of the funeral of Emily Grierson, an elderly Southern woman whose funeral is the obligation of their small town. It then proceeds in a non-linear fashion to the narrator's recollections of Emily's archaic and increasingly strange behavior throughout the years. Emily is a member of a family of the antebellum Southern aristocracy. After the Civil War, the family falls into hard times. She and her father, the last two of the clan, continue to live as if in the past; Emily's father refuses for her to marry. Her father dies when Emily is about the age of 30, which takes her by surprise. She refuses to give up his corpse, and the townspeople write it off as her grieving process. The townspeople pity Emily not only after her father's death but also during his life when he wouldn't let Emily marry.

After her father's death, the only person seen moving about Emily's home is Tobe, a black man, serving as Emily's butler, going in and out with a market basket. Although Emily did not have a strong relationship with her community, she did give art lessons to young children within her town at the age of forty. The townspeople make curl comments and nasty looks behind Miss Emily back, as she wasn't respected in her town. With the acceptance of her father's death, Emily somewhat revives, even changing the style of her hair and becomes friendly with Homer Barron. He is a Northern laborer who comes to town shortly after Mr. Grierson's death. The connection surprises some of the community while others are glad she is taking an interest; However, Homer claims that he is not a marrying man. Emily shortly buys arsenic from a druggist in town, presumably to kill rats, however, the townspeople are convinced that she will use it to poison herself. Emily's distant cousins are called into town by the minister's wife to supervise Miss Emily and Homer Barron. Homer leaves town for some time, reputedly to give Emily a chance to get rid of her cousins, and returns three days later after the cousins have left. After he is observed entering Miss Emily's home one evening, Homer is never seen again.

Despite these turnabouts in her social status, Emily continues to behave mysterious, as she had before her father died. Her reputation is such that the city council finds itself unable to confront her about a strong smell that has begun to emanate from the house. Instead, they decide to send men to her house under the cover of darkness to sprinkle lime around the house, after which the smell dissipates. The mayor of the town, Colonel Sartoris, made a gentleman's agreement to overlook her taxes as an act of charity, though it was done under a pretense of repayment towards her father to assuage Emily's pride after her father had died. Years later, when the next generation has come to power, Emily insists on this informal arrangement, flatly refusing that she owes any taxes, stating "I have no taxes in Jefferson." After this, the council declines to press the issue. Emily has become a recluse: she is never seen outside of the house, and only rarely accepts people into it. The community comes to view her as a "hereditary obligation" on the town, who must be humored and tolerated.

The funeral is a large affair; Emily had become an institution, so her death sparks a great deal of curiosity about her reclusive nature and what remains of her house. After she is buried, a group of townsfolk enters her house to see what remains of her life there. The door to her upstairs bedroom is locked; some of the townsfolk break down the door to see what has been hidden for so long. Inside, among the possessions that Emily had bought for Homer, lies the decomposed corpse of Homer Barron on the bed; on the pillow beside him is the indentation of a head and a single strand of gray hair, indicating that Emily had slept with Homer's corpse.

Characters

Emily Grierson - The main character of the story. Emily's father kept her from seeing suitors and controlled her social life, essentially keeping her in isolation until his death, when she is 30 years old. Her struggle with loss and attachment is the impetus for the plot, driving her to kill Homer Barron, the man that is assumed to have married her. Because no man has ever been able to stay with her before, Emily poisons and kills Homer. She sees murder as the only way to keep Homer with her permanently, and she treats him as if he is her husband even after she has murdered him. This is shown by her keeping his clothes in the room, keeping his engraved wedding items on the dresser, and even sleeping with him, all acts that normal married couples do. Her act of murdering Homer also displays her obstinate nature. Emily deals in absolutes throughout the story. She refuses to pay her taxes because she didn't have to pay them when her father was alive. She has her servant Tobe follow the same patterns, such as his grocery errands. She kills Homer to ensure that he will never leave her. By the end of the story, Emily's story is seen as a tragedy rather than an atrocity because of what her character has gone through.

Homer Barron - Emily's romantic interest. He is later found dead and decomposed in Emily's bedroom after her funeral. He initially enters the story as a foreman for a road construction project occurring in the town. He is soon seen to be with Emily in her Sunday carriage rides, and it is soon expected for them to be married. Homer differs from the rest of the town because he is a Northerner. The story takes place in the South shortly after the Civil War, and while Homer is not necessarily unwelcome to the town, he does stand out. This, along with the fact that he is seemingly courting Emily, sets him apart from all of the other characters in the story. It is because he is an outlier that Emily becomes attracted to him. It is generally unknown if Homer reciprocates the romantic feelings Emily has for him. Recently the topic of whether or not Homer is homosexual has been discussed and whether or not it factors into the story.

The Narrator - An unnamed member(s) of the town who watched the events of Emily's life unfold in its entirety. The story is presented to the reader in a non-chronological order; this suggests that the story is being patched together by multiple people. Some parts of the story are repeated, such as Homer's disappearance, the idea that Emily and Homer will get married, and Emily's refusal to pay taxes, also indicating that the narrator is a voice for the town. Though the townspeople disapprove of most of Emily's actions, such as refusing to pay her taxes and purchasing poison, nobody intervenes.

Colonel Sartoris - The former mayor who remitted Emily's taxes. While he is in the story very little, his decision to remit Emily's taxes leads to her refusal to pay them ever again, contributing to her stubborn personality. The reason for Sartoris remitting her taxes is never given, only that he told Emily it was because her father loaned the money to the town.

Mr. Grierson - Emily's father, the patriarchal head of the Grierson family. His control over Emily's personal life prohibited her from romantic involvement. The reason for his refusal to let Emily court men is not explained in the story. It could be that he is overprotective because he loves Emily too much. It could be because he believes that there is not a man good enough to marry his daughter. It could be that he is set in his ways and does not want Emily to become distracted from her societal duties. Whatever the reason, Mr. Grierson shapes the person that Emily becomes. His decision to ban all men from her life drives her to kill the first man she is attracted to and can be with, Homer Barron, in order to keep him with her permanently.

The cousins - Emily's extended relatives from Alabama. They come to town during Emily's courting of Homer Barron to check on Emily's well-being. They are thought of as even more uptight and stuffy than Emily by the townspeople. They are called in to prevent Emily and Homer from marrying; however, they are later sent back home so that the two can be wed. There seems to be some type of dispute between Emily and the cousins, indicated by them living far away from Emily and the fact that they did not go to Emily's father's funeral.

Tobe - Emily's cook/gardener, who is also very likely her secret keeper. During the years of Emily's isolation, he provides no details of her life to the townspeople and promptly disappears directly following her death. He became old and stooped from all of his work while Emily grew large and immobile. This could suggest that he resented Emily, or at the very least disliked working for her, as he does not mourn her or stay for her funeral.

Structure

Faulkner tells this story in a series of flashbacks and stretches the story out over decades. It starts with the announcement of Emily's death, an event that has the entire town talking. This leads the reader to assume that she was an important figure in the town. As Fassler says in his article “The Key,” “Clearly, this lady who died unmarried was of importance to everyone. And yet the town itself is eventually divided,”[4] and we see that division with the events depicted in between the announcement at the beginning and the revelation at the end are told out of order, making the reader analyze the story more closely than if it was told chronologically. Based on the townspeople's thoughts of Emily displayed in this section, the reader discovers that the town was not dreading Emily's death; on the other hand, it was somewhat welcomed. Emily stuck out from the rest of the town as a figure stuck in the past, desperately trying to cling to old traditions and ways of life. With her passing on, the town can finally be free of this remnant, being wholly set in the present. Had the story been told in a linear fashion, this understanding would have been lost, something Faulkner knew and incorporated into the story. By presenting the story in terms of present and past events, he could examine how they influence each other. In terms of mathematical precision, time moves on and what exists is only the present. In terms of the more subjective time, time moves on but memories can exist no matter how much time changes. Those memories stay unhindered. Through this Faulkner could analyze the depth at which Miss Emily could change as a character. If Faulkner presented the story in a linear fashion, the chances of the reader sympathizing with Emily would be far less. By telling the story out of order, the reader sees Emily as a tragic product of her environment rather than a twisted necrophiliac.

Themes

"A Rose for Emily" discusses many dark themes that characterized the Old South and Southern Gothic fiction.

The story explores themes of death and resistance to change; they reflect the decaying of the societal tenets of the South in the 1930s. Emily Grierson had been oppressed by her father for most of her life and hadn't questioned it because that was her way of living. Likewise, the antiquated traditions of the south (often harmful, such as in the treatment of black people) had remained acceptable, as that was their way of living. Once her father had passed, Emily, in denial, refused to give his corpse up for burial—this shows her inability to functionally adapt to change. When the present mayor and aldermen insist Miss Emily pay the taxes which she had been exempted from, she refuses and continues to live in her house.[5] Miss Emily's stubborn insistence that she "pays no taxes in Jefferson" and her mistaking the new mayor for Colonel Sartoris brings into question whether her acts of resistance are a conscious act of defiance or a result of a decayed mental stability. The reader is only shown Emily from an external perspective, we can not ascertain whether she acts in a rational manner or not. The death of Homer, if interpreted as having been a murder, can be seen in the context of the North-South clash. Homer, notably a northerner, is not one for the tradition of marriage. In the framework that his death was not an accident, but a murder on the part of Emily, Homer's rejection of the marriage can be seen as the North's rejection of Southern tradition. The South ends its relations with the North in retaliation. Emily continuing to sleep next to Homer's body can be seen as the south holding on to an ideal that is no longer feasible.

Control and its repercussions is a persistent theme throughout the story. Emily's father was an intimidating and manipulative figure, keeping her from experiencing life in her own terms. She was never able to grow, learn, live her life, start a family, and marry the one she truly loved. Even after Emily's father died, his presence and impact on his daughter were still apparent. Discussing Emily and her father, the townspeople said "We had long thought of them as a tableau, Miss Emily a slender figure in white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip, the two of them framed by the back-flung front door.".[6] Emily is portrayed as small and powerless, placed behind the overbearing frame of her father. She wears white, a symbol of innocence and purity. Emily falls victim to the ruling hand of her father and to her place in the society: she has to uphold the noblesse oblige to which she was born into.[5] In this way, her father's influence remains after he has passed. This control leads to Emily's isolation, both externally and internally imposed. Emily is alone, yet always being watched by the townspeople; she is both apart from and a part of the community.[7] Her position prevents her from ever finding happiness.

The power of death is a consistent theme throughout the story. Emily herself is portrayed as a "skeleton" that is both "small and spare" which is representative of the fact that she emanates death. When it comes to death itself, Emily is in denial and most of that feeling has to do with her loneliness. After her father dies, she keeps his corpse for three days and refuses to admit that he is dead. The reader also sees this with the corpse of Homer Barron, except she is the one who inflicts death upon him. She poisons him and keeps him locked away in her room; she did not want to lose the only other person she had ever loved, so she made his stay permanent. These examples show that the power of death triumphs over everything, including "poor Emily", herself.[8]

Due to this inevitability in the portrayal of death, A Rose for Emily is seen as a tale based on determinism, making the short story part of the naturalism literary movement. Here, a character's fate is already determined no matter how much the individual struggles to change it. There are impersonal forces of nature that prevent him or her from taking control. As the very universe itself appear indifferent, this character descends into an inevitable death and decay. The case of Emily is the same. She had a mental illness, an unavoidable fate, which her father must have sought to finally end by refusing to let Emily marry, which would have continued his line. No matter what she did, there was the implication that she would ultimately go mad. There was also the depiction of a cursed land due to slavery and the class structure based upon it and that no matter how the people clung to the glorious past and soldier on, there was a tarnished way of life that leads to an impending ruin. [9]

Critical response

Floyd C. Watkins wrote about the structure of "A Rose for Emily" in "Modern Language Notes". Watkins claims that this is Faulkner's best story and is among the best American writers of this time period. Faulkner had to carefully dissect his sections, bringing importance to every aspect of Miss Emily's life, but Watkins sees this as a "structural problem" but later goes on to rave about the symmetry of this short story. Watkins enjoys this story in its entirety, and is impressed by Faulkner's ordering, as building suspense was an important aspect in the response.[10]

This critical response by John Skinner explores the interpretations of Faulkner's short story in detail while reviewing the importance of over-analyzing a piece of literary work. William Faulkner published this story in the 1930s, Skinner had published his critical response in 1985. More than 40 years have passed and people are still ignoring his claim; “A Rose for Emily” should not be interpreted any further. The characters and theme of this tale have been scrutinized by many. There have been numerous interpretations of what Miss Emily stands for; Skinner gives examples of scholars including S.W. M. Johnson “Emily represented a refusal to submit to, or even concede, to the inevitability of change”. Whereas William Going pictures Emily as a rose, “the treasured memory of the Confederate veterans”. The point of view according to Skinner is of immediate relevance to the story as the chief character, the narrator tells the chronology of the story. This narrator gives approximately “round figures” for the important events of the accounts. Yet the exact chronology is of little relevance to the overall importance of the story itself. John Skinner states that Faulkner should be taken literally, appreciate his formal subtlety in his works.[11]

Alice Petry introduces a different type of critical response that is not focused on the usual subjects. Rather, she focuses on the complex and provocative language. For example, Hall discusses how the sentence, "Thus she passed from generation to generation-dear, inescapable, impervious, tranquil and perverse" has been considered misleading, but is in fact strategically placed to provide foreshadowing and unification of plot. The five descriptive words used in the sentence each correspond to one of the five parts in the order they are seen. For example, the adjective "inescapable" corresponds to Part II, to the incident of the strange smell coming from Miss Emily's home. Faulkner's placement of these adjectives at the end of Part IV serves as an important unifying sentence that connects all five parts to each other.[12]

Jim Barloon of the University of St. Thomas wrote about an idea introduced to him by his students, that Homer was homosexual, possibly providing another reason for his murder. He proposes that Emily did not kill Homer because of her own insecurities, but also because he did not reciprocate her romantic feelings. Thus, she could have murdered him out of affection as well as spite. Whether or not this theory is correct, it proves that the story is still being closely analyzed decades after it was written. As Barloon states in his article, “Positing that Homer Barron is gay not only raises a new set of questions but transforms [the story], or at least our perspective of it.”[13]

The psychology of Emily Grierson has been analyzed countless times, with many people reaching the conclusion that she was mentally ill, and from that point, the reasons why. Though many different diagnoses have been made, the most common can be summarized as follows by Nicole Smith in her psychological analysis of the character: “It is reasonable to propose that Miss Emily developed [schizophrenia] as a response to the demanding conditions in which she was living as a Southern woman from an aristocratic family.”[14] This has been thought to represent just how unbearable life in the old South could be, not only for a person similar to Emily but to the people around them as well. A contributing factor to this point would change. The story is an allegory for the change that the South dealt with after the Civil War, with Emily representing the resistance of that change. This is shown in the story through Emily's conflicts with the town and her refusal of cooperation. Tuncay Tezcan in his analysis of the story states: “It represents the numerous conflicts in the main character's life, illustrating the effect of social change on the individual.”[15]

There has been much discussion over the title of the story. Why have a rose for Emily? At that time, giving a rose to a woman was common if they had been through a great tragedy. Emily's tragedy is her environment, changing quickly and with volatility, causing her to cling to the past in hopes of stopping the change from occurring. This has a deep impact on her mental state, driving her to extreme acts such as murdering Homer and then sleeping with his corpse for years. The town does nothing to stop these events, merely entertain the idea. Terry Heller writes in his analysis of the story that the town, “[chose] to deal with an idea of Emily, rather than with Emily herself; they are different in that they have different ideas of her and, therefore, approach her… differently.”[16] With nobody willing to help her, Emily died a broken person, and for that Faulkner gave her a rose, in sympathy of her ending.

Adaptations

References

  1. ^ "WFotW ~ "A Rose for Emily": COMMENTARY & RESOURCES". www.mcsr.olemiss.edu. Archived from the original on 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  2. ^ Outón, Cristina Blanco (1999). Introducción a la narrative breve de William Faulkner (in Spanish). ISBN 9788481217469.
  3. ^ Getty, Laura (Summer 2005). "Faulkner's A ROSE FOR EMILY" (PDF). The Explicator. 63: 230–234.
  4. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2017/02/the-key-to-writing-a-mystery-is-asking-the-perfect-question/515799/
  5. ^ a b "Crytical Analysis Essay on "A Rose for Emily"". AnalysisEssay.org. 2012-12-22. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  6. ^ Kennedy, X.J. (2016). Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. p. 32.
  7. ^ "A Rose for Emily Themes - eNotes.com". eNotes. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  8. ^ Kim, Ji-won (2011). "Narrator as Collective 'We':The Narrative Structure of "A Rose for Emily"". English Language and Literature Teaching.
  9. ^ Wilder, Laura (2012). Rhetorical Strategies and Genre Conventions in Literary Studies: Teaching and Writing in the Disciplines. SIU Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780809330942.
  10. ^ Watkins, Floyd C. "Structure of "A Rose for Emily"." Modern Language Notes 7th ser. 69 (1954): 508-10. JSTOR. Web. 5 Apr. 2017.
  11. ^ Skinner, John (Winter 1985). ""A Rose for Emily": Against Interpretation."". The Journal of Narrative Technique. 15.1: 42–51.
  12. ^ Petry, Alice (Spring 1986). "Faulkner's A ROSE FOR EMILY". Explicator. 44: 52–54.
  13. ^ http://www.semo.edu/cfs/teaching/10186.html
  14. ^ http://www.articlemyriad.com/psychological-character-analysis-rose-emily/
  15. ^ Tezcan, Tuncay (2014). "A Stylistic Analysis of a Rose for Emily by William Faulkner and its Turkish Translation". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 158: 364–9. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.101.
  16. ^ http://www.public.coe.edu/~theller/essays/rose.html
  17. ^ Petridis, Alexis (17 April 2017). "The story behind A Rose for Emily – and why it's perfect for S-Town". The Guardian.

Bibliography

  • Morton, Clay (2005). "'A Rose for Emily': Oral Plot, Typographic Story", Storytelling: A Critical Journal of Popular Narrative 5.1.
American Gothic Tales

American Gothic Tales is an anthology of "gothic" American short fiction. Edited and with an Introduction by Joyce Carol Oates, it was published by Plume in 1996. It featured contributions by Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Stephen King, Anne Rice and others, and included over 40 stories.

Apothecary

Apothecary () is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients. The modern pharmacist (also colloquially referred to as a chemist in British English) has taken over this role. In some languages and regions, the word "apothecary" is still used to refer to a retail pharmacy or a pharmacist who owns one. Apothecaries' investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients was a precursor to the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology.In addition to dispensing herbs and medicine, the apothecary offered general medical advice and a range of services that are now performed by other specialist practitioners, such as surgeons and obstetricians. Apothecary shops sold ingredients and the medicines they prepared wholesale to other medical practitioners, as well as dispensing them to patients. In seventeenth century England, they also controlled the trade of tobacco which was imported as a medicine.

Collected Stories of William Faulkner

Collected Stories of William Faulkner is a short story collection by William Faulkner published by Random House in 1950. It won the National Book Award for Fiction in 1951. The publication of this collection of 42 stories was authorized and supervised by Faulkner himself, who came up with the themed section headings.

Emily (given name)

Emily is a feminine name derived from the Roman feminine name Aemilia. The Latin name Aemilia in turn may derive from the Latin word aemulus (or from the same root as aemulus)

Emily Grierson

Emily Grierson, also referred to Miss Emily in the text, is the main character of the short story "A Rose for Emily" by William Faulkner. Miss Emily is described as “a small, fat woman” who lived within a modernizing town full of people who saw her as a very cold, very distant woman who lived in her past. Throughout the story, she is referred to by her fellow townspeople as a tradition, a duty, and a care, and is portrayed as a very mean, stubborn old woman. However, as her story unfolds, Faulkner wants readers to sympathize with her because of the amount of loss that she's had to cope with throughout her life.

Faux Faulkner contest

The Faux Faulkner contest was an annual parody essay contest founded in 1989 by Dean Faulkner Wells, niece of Nobel laureate William Faulkner, with her husband Lawrence Wells, and sponsored by Yoknapatawpha Press and the Center for the Study of Southern Culture. It was held 16 times until 2005. The contest attracted as many as 750 entries in a single year from several countries as well as each of the 50 United States. The winners were published annually in Hemispheres magazine (the onboard magazine for United Airlines and the contest's corporate sponsor) and often received coverage in other major media outlets such as USA Today and MSNBC. The contest has been on hold since 2005 while it seeks a new corporate sponsor.The objective of the contest is to create the best entry to parody William Faulkner's uniquely artistic style of writing, his themes, his plots, or his characters, in a short-short story of 500 words or less.

First-person narrative

A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person i.e. "I" or "we", etc. It may be narrated by a first person protagonist (or other focal character), first person re-teller, first person witness, or first person peripheral (also called a peripheral narrator). A classic example of a first person protagonist narrator is Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre (1847), in which the title character is also the narrator telling her own story, "I could not unlove him now, merely because I found that he had ceased to notice me".This device allows the audience to see the narrator's mind's eye view of the fictional universe, but it is limited to the narrator's experiences and awareness of the true state of affairs. In some stories, first-person narrators may relay dialogue with other characters or refer to information they heard from the other characters, in order to try to deliver a larger point of view. Other stories may switch the narrator to different characters to introduce a broader perspective. An unreliable narrator is one that has completely lost credibility due to ignorance, poor insight, personal biases, mistakes, dishonesty, etc., which challenges the reader's initial assumptions.

Najaf Daryabandari

Najaf Daryabandari (Persian: نجف دریابندری‎; b. 23 August 1929) is an Iranian writer and translator of works from English into Persian. He started translation at the age of 17-18 with the book of William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily. He is also the author of a two-volume tome on Iranian cuisine that have collected the diverse dishes of the country.

Najaf is the son of Captain Khalaf Daryabandari, one of the first marine pilots of Iran. The Iranian Merchant Mariners' Syndicate held a commemoration ceremony for Najaf Daryabandari and awarded him a replica of Darius the Great’s Suez Inscriptions.

Naturalism (literature)

Naturalism is a literary movement beginning in the late nineteenth century, similar to literary realism in its rejection of Romanticism, but distinct in its embrace of determinism, detachment, scientific objectivism, and social commentary. The movement largely traces to the theories of French author Émile Zola.

Odessey and Oracle

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The album was received indifferently on release, but has since become one of the most acclaimed albums of the 1960s. It was ranked number 100 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

S-Town

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That Evening Sun

"That Evening Sun" is a short story by the American author William Faulkner, published in 1931 on the collection These 13, which included Faulkner's most anthologized story, "A Rose for Emily". The story was originally published, in a slightly different form, as "That Evening Sun Go Down" in The American Mercury in March of the same year. "That Evening Sun" is a dark portrait of white Southerners' indifference to the crippling fears of one of their black employees, Nancy. The story is narrated by Quentin Compson, one of Faulkner's most memorable characters, and concerns the reactions of him and his two siblings, Caddy and Jason, to an adult world that they do not fully understand. The black washerwoman, Nancy Mannigoe, fears that her common-law husband Jesus is seeking to murder her because she is pregnant with a white man's child. The title is thought to be taken from the song Saint Louis Blues, originally composed by W.C. Handy, but popularized by Bessie Smith and Louis Armstrong in 1927. Faulkner first came across Handy's music when the latter played dances in Oxford, Mississippi. Though the song is never explicitly referenced in the text, Faulkner employs a number of blues tropes to structure the plot and develop racial stereotypes. Scholar Ken Bennett notes that "the image of the 'evening sun' is a common one in black religious music. For example, the spiritual 'It's Gettin' Late Over in the Evenin', the Sun Most Down,' based on Revelation 20, uses the image of the evening sun to suggest the coming of death and judgment."

The Scent of the Night

The Scent of the Night (Italian: L'odore della notte) is a 2001 novel by Andrea Camilleri, translated into English in 2005 by Stephen Sartarelli. It is the sixth novel in the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series.

The Zombies

The Zombies are an English rock band formed in 1962 in St Albans and led by keyboardist and vocalist Rod Argent and vocalist Colin Blunstone.

The group scored British and American hits in 1964 with "She's Not There". In the US, two further singles — "Tell Her No" in 1965 and "Time of the Season" in 1968 — were also successful. Their 1968 album Odessey and Oracle is ranked number 100 on Rolling Stone Magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The Zombies will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019.

These 13

These 13 is a 1931 collection of short stories written by William Faulkner, and dedicated to his first daughter, Alabama, who died nine days after her birth on January 11, 1931, and to his wife Estelle. No longer in print, These 13 is now a collector's item.

These 13, Faulkner's first release of short stories, contained the following stories:

"Victory"

"Ad Astra"

"All the Dead Pilots"

"Crevasse"

"Red Leaves"

"A Rose for Emily"

"A Justice"

"Hair"

"That Evening Sun"

"Dry September"

"Mistral"

"Divorce in Naples"

"Carcassonne"

Tideland

Tideland is the third published book by author Mitch Cullin, and is the third installment of the writer's Texas Trilogy that also includes the coming-of-age novel Whompyjawed and the novel-in-verse Branches.The story is a first-person narrative told by the young Jeliza-Rose, detailing the summer she spent alone at an isolated, rundown farmhouse in Texas called What Rocks. With only the heads of old Barbie dolls to keep her company, Jeliza-Rose embarks on a series of highly imagined and increasingly surreal adventures in the tall grass surrounding the farmhouse.Tideland was first published in the United States in 2000 by Dufour Editions. The book received major notices upon publication, including a review from New York Times Book Review which wrote that the novel was "brilliant and beautiful." Some have favourably compared the book to earlier Southern Gothic American literature such as To Kill a Mockingbird and A Rose for Emily, while others, including Terry Gilliam and film producer Jeremy Thomas, have called the book a modern hybrid of Psycho and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. A subsequent United Kingdom paperback edition followed in 2003 from Weidenfeld & Nicolson, with Gilliam's infamous blurb on the cover: "F*cking wonderful!" Other editions have since been published in the Netherlands, Japan, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Korea.In 1999, Cullin sent a pre-publication galley to Gilliam for a cover blurb, but Gilliam so liked what he read that he optioned the book with an eye to direct. The controversial film version was produced by Gabriella Martinelli and Jeremy Thomas for Capri Films and Recorded Picture Company, and was directed by Gilliam and shot in Canada in 2004. Cullin was given a brief cameo in the movie and contributed lyrics to the soundtrack, and the name "M. Cullin" appears on the mailbox at the farmhouse where much of the film takes place. The script adaptation was written by Gilliam and screenwriter Tony Grisoni.

Time of the Zombies

Time of the Zombies was a two-disc compilation album of music by the British band, The Zombies. It contained hits, non-album singles, previously unreleased tracks intended for a planned posthumous album named 'R.I.P.' which was never released, and the whole of their April 1968 album (recorded in 1967), Odessey and Oracle. It was released on Epic Records (cat. no.: REG 32861) in 1974, several years after the group had disbanded.Paul Weller stated in an interview with BBC Radio 4 in December 2012 that this compilation was how he first heard Odessey and Oracle, his favourite album of all time.

William Faulkner

William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, screenplays, poetry, essays, and a play. He is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life.Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally and Southern literature specifically. Though his work was published as early as 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was not widely known until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature, for which he became the only Mississippi-born Nobel winner. Two of his works, A Fable (1954) and his last novel The Reivers (1962), won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked his 1929 novel The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932). Absalom, Absalom! (1936) appears on similar lists.

Zombie Heaven

Zombie Heaven is a 1997 four-disc box set comprising roughly the entire catalog of British invasion band The Zombies. The first disc comprises their debut Begin Here and assorted singles. The second disc features their second album Odessey and Oracle and the unreleased album R.I.P.. Disc 3 is composed of rare and unissued recordings, including demos, alternate takes, EP tracks, and R.I.P. tracks without the additional instrumentation, while the fourth disc collects live recordings from the band's appearance on the BBC.

The accompanying 64-page booklet features interviews with the original band members and associated friends and engineers, as well as a brief history of each song in the set and a timeline featuring nearly every Zombies tour date.

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