A Hanging

A Hanging (1931) is a short essay written by George Orwell, first published in August 1931 in the British literary magazine The Adelphi. Set in Burma, where Orwell (under his real name of Eric Arthur Blair) had served in the British Imperial Police from 1922 to 1927, it describes the execution of a criminal.

The story

The condemned man is given no name, nor is it explained what crime he has committed. For the British police who supervise his execution, the hanging is an unpleasant but routine piece of business. The narrator takes no active part in the hanging, and appears to be less experienced than his colleagues. As the prisoner is marched and handcuffed to the gallows he steps slightly aside to avoid treading in a puddle of rainwater; the narrator sees this, and reflects:

It is curious, but till that moment I had never realised what it means to destroy a healthy, conscious man. When I saw the prisoner step aside to avoid the puddle I saw the mystery, the unspeakable wrongness, of cutting a life short when it is in full tide. This man was not dying, he was alive just as we are alive. All the organs of his body were working - bowels digesting food, skin renewing itself, nails growing, tissues forming - all toiling away in solemn foolery. His nails would still be growing when he stood on the drop, when he was falling through the air with a tenth of a second to live. His eyes saw the yellow gravel and the grey walls, and his brain still remembered, foresaw, reasoned - even about puddles. He and we were a party of men walking together, seeing, hearing, feeling, understanding the same world; and in two minutes, with a sudden snap, one of us would be gone - one mind less, one world less.

The sentence is carried out, and all concerned feel a sudden relief as they leave the scene where the dead man still hangs.

Context

Britain conquered Burma over 62 years (1824–86) and was seen to be the greatest dictating empire in the whole of the world, which took control of many countries and governments in the hope to colonise them all with the 'british' way of life, during which three Anglo-Burmese Wars were fought, and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Britain administered Burma as an Indian province until 1937, when it became a separate, self-governing colony. Burma attained independence in 1948.

Veracity

When asked about A Hanging, Orwell was unwilling to discuss the subject, and once said that it was "only a story."[1] No known evidence shows specifically where and when he witnessed an execution during his time in Burma.[2] In his writings, however, he repeated that he had done so.[3] He further reflected upon hanging in his As I Please column for Tribune, 15 November 1946.[4] According to Dennis Collings, a friend of Orwell from 1921, when his father became the Blair (Orwell) family doctor, it was certain Orwell would have witnessed a hanging, and that policemen had to see a hanging, 'as a kind of initiation. There had to be police officers present at executions - and cadets were assigned to that kind of thing.'[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Timothy Garton Ash, "The Complete Works of George Orwell" book review Archived September 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Review of Books, 22 October 1998, reproduced at netcharles.com.
  2. ^ Bernard Crick, George Orwell: A Life, 1980.
  3. ^ In The Road to Wigan Pier, published in 1937, and again in his "As I Please" column in Tribune, 3 November 1944.
  4. ^ Orwell, A Kind of Compulsion, p.210
  5. ^ Arena, Part One, 31:28-33:56 Collings on Orwell and a hanging

External links

Abbey Falls

Abbey Falls (also spelled Abbi Falls and Abbe Falls) (Kannada: ಅಬ್ಬೆ ಜಲಪಾತ Abbe jalaphatha) is in Kodagu, in the Western Ghats in Karnataka. It is located 8 km from the Madikeri, 122 km from Mysore, 144 km from Mangalore and 268 km from Bangalore.The river is part of the early reaches of the river Kaveri. Flow is much higher during the monsoon season.The waterfall is located between private coffee plantations with stocky coffee bushes and spice estates with trees entwined with pepper vines. A hanging bridge constructed just opposite the falls.

The falls was earlier called Jessi falls, named after a British officer's wife. However, the place was a thick jungle area back then. Years later, the waterfall was discovered by Mr. Neravanda B.Nanaiah who bought the place from the government and converted it into a coffee and spices plantation that surrounds the waterfall today.

Bartley Glacier

Bartley Glacier (77°32′S 162°13′E) is a hanging glacier on the south wall of Wright Valley in the Asgard Range of Victoria Land, just west of Meserve Glacier. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for construction driver Ollie B. Bartley, U.S. Navy, who was killed on January 14, 1957 when the vehicle (weasel) he was driving dropped through the sea ice at Hut Point, McMurdo Sound.

Blow fill seal

Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) technology is a manufacturing technique used to produce small, (0.1mL) and large volume, (500mL +) liquid-filled containers. Originally developed in Europe in the 1930s, it was introduced in the United States in the 1960s, but over the last 20 years it has become more prevalent within the pharmaceutical industry and is now widely considered to be the superior form of aseptic processing by various medicine regulatory agencies including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the packaging of pharmaceutical and healthcare products.

The basic concept of BFS is that a container is formed, filled, and sealed in a continuous process without human intervention, in a sterile enclosed area inside a machine. Thus this technology can be used to aseptically manufacture sterile pharmaceutical liquid dosage forms.

The process is multi-stepped: first, pharmaceutical-grade plastic resin is vertically heat extruded through a circular throat to form a hanging tube called the parison. This extruded tube is then enclosed within a two-part mould, and the tube is cut above the mould. The mould is transferred to the filling zone, or sterile filling space, where filling needles (mandrels) are lowered and used to inflate the plastic to form the container within the mould. Following the formation of the container, the mandrel is used to fill the container with liquid. Following filling the mandrels are retracted and a secondary top mould seals the container. All actions take place inside a sterile shrouded chamber inside the machine. The product is then discharged to a non-sterile area for labeling, packaging and distribution.

Blow-fill-seal technology reduces personnel intervention making it a more robust method for the aseptic preparation of sterile pharmaceuticals. BFS is used for the filling of vials for parenteral preparations and infusions, eye drops, and inhalation products. Generally the plastic containers are made up of polyethylene and polypropylene. Polypropylene is more commonly used to form containers which are further sterilised by autoclaving as polypropylene has greater thermostability.

Breaking ball

In baseball, a breaking ball is a pitch that does not travel straight as it approaches the batter; it will have sideways or downward motion on it, sometimes both (see slider). A breaking ball is not a specific pitch by that name, but is any pitch that "breaks", such as a curveball, slider, or slurve. A pitcher who primarily uses breaking ball pitches is often referred to as a junkballer.

A breaking ball is more difficult than a straight pitch for a catcher to receive as breaking pitches sometimes hit the ground (whether intentionally, or not) before making it to the plate. A curveball moves down and to the left for a right handed pitcher. For a left hand pitcher, it moves down and to the right. And blocking a breaking ball requires thought and preparation by the catcher. The pitcher then, must have confidence in the catcher, and the catcher in himself, to block any ball in the dirt; if there are runners on base, they will likely advance if the ball gets away from the catcher. (Whether the pitcher is right- or left-handed will dictate which direction the catcher must turn his body to adjust for the spin of an upcoming breaking ball. This necessary movement may reveal the next intended pitch to the batter; therefore an experienced catcher must fake or mask his intentions when preparing for the pitch.)

If a breaking ball fails to break, it is called a "hanging" breaking ball, or specifically, a "hanging" curve. The "hanger" presents a high, slow pitch that is easy for the batter to see, and often results in an extra-base hit or a home run.

Don Mattingly wrote in Don Mattingly's Hitting Is Simple: The ABC's of Batting .300 that "hitting a breaking ball is one of the toughest things you'll have to learn" due to the ball's very brief window in the strike zone.

Capital punishment by country

The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country. Globally, of the 195 UN states 55 countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, 7 have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 28 are abolitionist in practice.

Capital punishment in Albania

The last execution of a civilian carried out in Albania was a hanging on 29 June 1995. While capital punishment was abolished for murder on 1 October 2000, it was still retained for treason and military offences. The reason for the abolition of the death penalty in Albania as well as in other European nations is the signing of Protocol No. 6 to the ECHR. In Albania this came into force on 1 October 2000.

Albania under communism the death penalty was used highly from 1941-1985.In 2007 Albania ratified Protocol No. 13 to the ECHR, abolishing the death penalty under all circumstances, replacing it with life imprisonment.

Giles Glacier

Giles Glacier (78°40′00″S 84°46′00″W) is a hanging glacier that flows eastward along the south side of Moyher Ridge to Thomas Glacier in the south Sentinel Range in the Ellsworth Mountains. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in 2006 after J. David Giles, Polar Ice Coring Office, University of Nebraska, who supported United States Antarctic Program drilling operations at Taylor Dome, the South Pole, Windless Bight, Siple Dome and Kamb Ice Stream, from 1993 to 1998.

Good Day for a Hanging

Good Day for a Hanging is a 1959 American ColumbiaColor Western film directed by Nathan H. Juran and starring Fred MacMurray and Margaret Hayes.

Hanging garden (cultivation)

A hanging garden is a sustainable landscape architecture, an artistic garden or a small urban farm: attached to or built on a wall. They are mainly found in areas where land is scarce or where the farmer is mobile or not permanent.

Hanging scroll

A hanging scroll is one of the many traditional ways to display and exhibit Chinese paintings and calligraphy inscriptions and designs. The hanging scroll was displayed in a room for appreciation; it is to be distinguished from the handscroll, which was narrower and designed to be viewed flat on a table in sections and then stored away again.

Hanging scrolls are generally intended to be displayed for short periods of time and are then rolled up to be tied and secured for storage. The hanging scrolls are rotated according to season or occasion, and such works are never intended to be on permanent display. The painting surface of the paper or silk can be mounted with decorative brocade silk borders. In the composition of a hanging scroll, the foreground is usually at the bottom of the scroll while the middle and far distances are at the middle and top respectively.The traditional craft involved in creating a hanging scroll is considered an art in itself. Mountings for Chinese paintings can be divided into a few types, such as handscrolls, hanging scrolls, album leaves, and screens amongst others. In the hanging scroll the actual painting is mounted on paper, and provided at the top with a stave, to which is attached a hanging cord, and at the bottom with a roller.

Hangman's knot

The hangman's knot or hangman's noose (also known as a collar during the Elizabethan era) is a knot most often associated with its use in hanging a person. For a hanging, the knot of the rope is typically placed under or just behind the left ear, although the most effective position is just ahead of the ear, beneath the angle of the left lower jaw. The pull on the knot at the end of the drop levers the jaw and head violently up and to the right, which combines with the jerk of the rope becoming taut to wrench the upper neck vertebrae apart. This produces very rapid death, whereas the traditional position beneath the ear was intended to result in the mass of the knot crushing closed (occluding) the neck arteries, causing cessation of brain circulation. The knot is non-jamming but tends to resist attempts to loosen it.

Jack Sheppard

Jack Sheppard (4 March 1702 – 16 November 1724) was a notorious English thief and jail-breaker of early 18th-century London. Born into a poor family, he was apprenticed as a carpenter but took to theft and burglary in 1723, with little more than a year of his training to complete. He was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes. Ultimately, he was caught, convicted, and hanged at Tyburn, ending his brief criminal career after less than two years. The inability of the notorious "Thief-Taker General" Jonathan Wild to control Sheppard, and injuries suffered by Wild at the hands of Sheppard's colleague, Joseph "Blueskin" Blake, led to Wild's downfall.

Sheppard was as renowned for his attempts to escape from prison as he was for his crimes. An autobiographical "Narrative", thought to have been ghostwritten by Daniel Defoe, was sold at his execution, quickly followed by popular plays. The character of Macheath in John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728) was based on Sheppard, keeping him in the limelight for over 100 years. He returned to the public consciousness around 1840, when William Harrison Ainsworth wrote a novel entitled Jack Sheppard, with illustrations by George Cruikshank. The popularity of his tale, and the fear that others would be drawn to emulate his behaviour, led the authorities to refuse to license any plays in London with "Jack Sheppard" in the title for forty years.

Pannus

Pannus is an abnormal layer of fibrovascular tissue or granulation tissue. Common sites for pannus formation include over the cornea, over a joint surface (as seen in rheumatoid arthritis), or on a prosthetic heart valve. Pannus may grow in a tumor-like fashion, as in joints where it may erode articular cartilage and bone.

In common usage, the term pannus is often used to refer to a panniculus (a hanging flap of tissue).

Pilcaya

Pilcaya is a town and municipality of state of Guerrero, Mexico, located 153 kilometres (95 mi) from Mexico City, 105 kilometres (65 mi) from Cuernavaca, 84 kilometres (52 mi) from Toluca, 68 kilometres (42 mi) from Taxco and 5 kilometres (3 mi) from Ixtapan de la Sal. The name "Pilcaya" is from the Nahuatl word pilcacyan, place of a hanging object.

Pilcaya (municipality)

Pilcaya is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Pilcaya. The municipality covers an area of 62.1 km².

Pilcaya is located 153 kilometers from Mexico City, 105 from Cuernavaca, 84 from Toluca, 68 from Taxco and 5 from Ixtapan de la Sal. Pilcaya, of Náhuatl origin, is from the Náhuatl word pilcacyan, place of a hanging object.

Serac

A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac) is a block or column of glacial ice, often formed by intersecting crevasses on a glacier. Commonly house-sized or larger, they are dangerous to mountaineers, since they may topple with little warning. Even when stabilized by persistent cold weather, they can be an impediment to glacier travel.

Seracs are found within an icefall, often in large numbers, or on ice faces on the lower edge of a hanging glacier. Notable examples of the overhanging glacier edge type are well-known obstacles on some of the world's highest mountains, including K2 at "The Bottleneck" and Kanchenjunga on the border of India and Nepal. Significant seracs in the Alps are found on the northeast face of Piz Roseg, the north face of the Dent d'Hérens, and the north face of Lyskamm.

Stanley Peak (Ball Range)

Stanley Peak is a 3,155 m high mountain located in the Ball Range, at the northeastern section of Kootenay National Park, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains (British Columbia, Canada). The mountain was named in 1901 by its first climber, the English explorer Edward Whymper, after Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, the sixth Governor-General of Canada. There are sources that date the naming in 1912 after Stanley H. Mitchell, Secretary-Treasurer of Alpine Club of Canada.The peak is visible from the Trans-Canada Highway and Highway 93. Stanley Glacier on the northeast face of the peak can be seen up close by following a hiking trail into a hanging valley between the peak and a southern outlier of Storm Mountain.

Stanley Peak can be ascended from a scrambling route by late summer but involves much routefinding among the many ledges and gullies on the north face. Climbing routes (UIAA III) travel the north and northeast faces.

Upright jerker

The upright jerker was an execution method and device intermittently used in the United States during the 19th and early 20th century. Intended to replace hangings, the upright jerker did not see widespread use.

As in a hanging, a cord would be wrapped around the neck of the condemned. However, rather than dropping down through a trapdoor, the condemned would be violently jerked into the air by means of a system of weights and pulleys. The objective of this execution method was to provide a swift death by breaking the condemned's neck. The warden of the Connecticut State Prison at Wethersfield obtained US patent 541409 , issued on June 18, 1895, for one such "automatic gallows".

Executions of this type took place in several U.S. states, notably Connecticut, where among others the "Count of Gramercy Park", murderer and gang member Gerald Chapman was put to death by the method. The upright jerker was never very efficient at breaking the condemned's neck and was withdrawn from use by the 1930s.

Valley step

A valley step (German: Talstufe or Talschwelle) is a prominent change in the longitudinal slope of a valley, mainly in trough valleys formed by glaciers.

Typically, a valley formed by glaciers has a series of basins with intervening steps formed by the locally varying erosion depths of valley glaciers. After the ice melts, this initially becomes a sequence of lakes with intermediate rapids or waterfalls. The transportation of gravels, erosion and sedimentation processes in the streams lead to the formation of sequences of flat valley bottoms and gorges.

Such basin forms, with an abrupt beginning, often appear as marked steps, which may separate the flatter sections of the valley. Large steps were often formed where the erosion forces of the glacier that once filled the valley were suddenly increased, for instance, when large glaciers merged. They are then referred to as confluence steps. Similar steps are formed when moving sheets of ice merge into glacial streams, which can intensify surface scouring of the rocks (exaration). If these valley steps are close to the upper end of a valley, they are also referred to as a valley head or trough head; otherwise, they subdivide the course of the valley into often very distinct individual valley sections, with gentler and broader hollows alternating, chain-like, with and narrow intermediate valleys or gorges. In the interior of mountain ranges, these valleys dictate the structure of settlements, and may result in isolated communities that are difficult to access.

Side valleys, which rise high above the valley floor in a trough valley, also join the main valley at a marked step in the terrain, the stream descending over the valley wall of the main valley. This is referred to as a hanging valley, and the step is seen geomorphologically as the valley wall of the main valley, so it is not a valley stage in the narrow sense described above. Borderline cases are, for example, cirques, which typically form basins in which there is often a lake which either drains periodically over the valley threshold or seeps entirely into the subsoil.

Valley steps may also have existed before the glaciation of mountainous terrain or may be formed without the aid of glacial processes, typically due to varying erosion resistance of the rock, or due to active faults. These are then only accentuated by glacial and / or fluvial erosion. Examples of this are the tobel valleys in sandstones or, often only underground, draining troughs in the limestone, where the valley step is formed by downward erosion.

Valleys that were formed without the aid of glaciers are often found in the area of cuestas. These can then also create a very characteristic structure of a river course in its lower reaches on the broad plains and form a significant obstacle to navigation.

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