A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) is a list of wetlands of national importance to Australia. Intended to augment the list of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, it was formerly published in report form, but is now essentially an online publication. Wetlands that appear in the Directory are commonly referred to as "DIWA wetlands" or "Directory wetlands".

Criteria for determining wetland importance

Using criteria agreed in 1994, a wetland can be considered “nationally important” if it satisfies at least one of the following criteria:[1]

  1. It is a good example of a wetland type occurring within a biogeographic region in Australia.
  2. It is a wetland which plays an important ecological or hydrological role in the natural functioning of a major wetland system/complex.
  3. It is a wetland which is important as the habitat for animal taxa at a vulnerable stage in their life cycles, or provides a refuge when adverse conditions such as drought prevail.
  4. The wetland supports 1% or more of the national populations of any native plant or animal taxa.
  5. The wetland supports native plant or animal taxa or communities which are considered endangered or vulnerable at the national level.
  6. The wetland is of outstanding historical or cultural significance.

Types of wetlands

The directory uses a classification system consisting of the following three categories (i.e. A, B and C) which are further sub-divided into a total of 40 different wetland types:[1]

  • A. Marine and Coastal Zone wetlands, which consists of 12 wetland types
  • B. Inland wetlands, which consists of 19 wetland types
  • C. Human-made wetlands, which consists of 9 wetland types.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Eyles, Kathy; Larmour, Geoff; Young, Sarah; Australia. Environment Australia; Natural Heritage Trust (Australia). National Wetlands Program (2001), A Directory of important wetlands in Australia (PDF) (3rd ed.), Environment Australia, pp. 9–11, ISBN 978-0-642-54721-7

External links

Beatrice Islets

Beatrice Islets are pair of islets in the Australian state of South Australia located in Nepean Bay on the north coast of Kangaroo Island about 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) east of Kingscote. The islets and adjoining intertidal areas are notable as habitat for bird life. The islet pair has enjoyed protected area status since 1909 and since at least 1972, have been part of the Beatrice Islet Conservation Park. During either the 1960s or the 1970s, the islets were extensively damaged by an exercise to remove an infestation of South African boxthorn.

Brixton Street Wetlands

The Brixton Street Wetlands (32°02′S 115°58′E) is an environmentally significant wetland area in the city of Perth, Western Australia. The wetlands are located in the suburb of Kenwick, in the south-east of the city not far from the foot of the Darling Scarp. The Brixton Street Wetlands occupies 1.26 km² adjoining urban residential developments, schools and remnant semi-rural properties in an area which is rapidly urbanising. The Roe Highway, a major transport artery, runs along one boundary of the wetlands, together with a parallel railway line.

The wetlands contain a huge number of plant species for such a small area, some of which are rare and endangered. Over 400 plant species, comprising some 20% of the flora species of the Perth area, can be found in the wetlands. Of these, about 80 flowering plants are considered endangered and are not commonly found on the Swan Coastal Plain on which Perth is located, and the plant communities located here are in fact the last substantial wetland plant communities on the plain's claypans. Four of the species are classified as Declared Rare Flora, including the Purdie's donkey orchid (Diuris Purdiei).

Fauna include frogs, snakes and insects, but the wetlands are especially important as a habitat for the rare southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon Obesulus), often known by its Nyoongar Aboriginal name of Quenda.

The wetlands were entered A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia in 1992 (recorded there as the Brixton Street Swamps), and were placed on the Register of the National Estate of the Australian Heritage Commission on 21 November 2000.

Busby Islet

Busby Islet (also known as Bushy Island and Anchorage Island) is an islet in the Australian state of South Australia located in Nepean Bay on the north coast of Kangaroo Island about 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) north of the municipal seat of Kingscote. The islet and adjoining areas are notable as habitat for bird life. The islet has enjoyed protected area status since 1909 and since at least 1972, have been part of the Busby Islet Conservation Park.

Cod Grounds Marine Park

The Cod Grounds Marine Park (formerly known as the Cod Grounds Commonwealth Marine Reserve) is an Australian marine park located approximately 5.5 km offshore of New South Wales, near Laurieton. The marine park covers an area of 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi) and is assigned IUCN category II. It is one of 8 parks managed under the Temperate East Marine Parks Network.

Coongie Lakes

The Coongie Lakes is a freshwater wetland system located in the Far North region of South Australia. The 21,790-square-kilometre (8,410 sq mi) lakes system is located approximately 1,046 kilometres (650 miles) north of the Adelaide city centre. The wetlands includes lakes, channels, billabongs, shallow floodplains, deltas, and interdune swamps. It lies on the floodplain of Cooper Creek, an ephemeral river flowing through a desert landscape in the Lake Eyre Basin which rarely, after occasional large floods, empties into Lake Eyre. The wetland system has been recognised both as being of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention with a listing on 15 June 1987 and being nationally important within Australia with a listing in A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA). Its extent includes the regional town of Innamincka, the Malkumba-Coongie Lakes National Park, the Innamincka Regional Reserve, the Strzelecki Regional Reserve and the Coongie Lakes Important Bird Area.

Director of National Parks

Director of National Parks is a government-owned corporation of the Australian government responsible for the management of a portfolio of terrestrial and marine protected areas proclaimed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The agency is a corporation sole and its work is supported by Parks Australia, a division of the Department of the Environment and Energy.

Diwa

Diwa or DIWA may refer to:

Diva, Maharashtra, India

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia

Diwa: Studies in Philosophy and Theology

Ladislao Diwa (1863–1930), Filipino patriot

Tropical Storm Diwa

Voith DIWA, a bus transmission

DIgital Wireless Audio, a 5 GHz wireless audio network from Neutrik

Franklin Commonwealth Marine Reserve

Franklin Commonwealth Marine Reserve is a 671 km2 marine protected area within Australian waters located off the west coast of north-west Tasmania. The reserve was established in 2007 and is part of the South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network.

The area incorporates two major bioregions: western Bass Strait and the Tasmanian shelf. To the north of the reserve is Black Pyramid Rock, which supports the largest breeding colony of the Australasian gannet in Tasmania.

Goyder River

The Goyder River is a river in the Northern Territory, Australia.

Lake Blanche

Lake Blanche is a salt lake in central South Australia that lies below sea level. It is located within the Strzelecki Creek Wetland System which is listed on A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia. It also is within the extent of the Strzelecki Desert Lakes Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for waterbirds when holding water in the aftermath of floods.

Lake Eyre

Lake Eyre ( AIR), officially known as Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre, contains the lowest natural point in Australia, at approximately 15 m (49 ft) below sea level (AHD), and, on the rare occasions that it fills, is the largest lake in Australia, covering 9,500 km2 (3,668 sq mi). The shallow endorheic lake is the depocentre of the vast Lake Eyre basin and is found in Northern South Australia, some 700 km (435 mi) north of Adelaide.

When the lake is full, it has the same salinity level as the sea, but as the lake dries up and the water evaporates, salinity increases.

The lake was named by Europeans in honour of Edward John Eyre, who was the first European to see it, in 1840. The lake's official name was changed in December 2012 to combine the name "Lake Eyre" with the indigenous name, Kati Thanda. The native title over the lake and surrounding region is held by the Arabana people.

Lake Hope (South Australia)

Lake Hope is an ephemeral salt lake in the far north of South Australia.

Lake Torrens

Lake Torrens is a large ephemeral, normally endorheic salt lake in central South Australia. After extreme rainfall events, the lake flows out through the Pirie-Torrens corridor to the Spencer Gulf.

Murray Commonwealth Marine Reserve

Murray Commonwealth Marine Reserve is a 25,803 km2 marine protected area within Australian waters located off the coast of South Australia. The reserve was established in 2007 and is part of the South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network.

The reserve features the Murray Canyon which descends to 4,600 m (15,100 ft) below sea level and stretches for more than 150 km (93 mi). The southern right whale uses the inshore area of the reserve to nurse its young.

National Wetlands Inventory

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) was established by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to conduct a nationwide inventory of U.S. wetlands to provide biologists and others with information on the distribution and type of wetlands to aid in conservation efforts. To do this, the NWI developed a wetland classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) that is now the official FWS wetland classification system and the Federal standard for wetland classification (adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee on July 29, 1996: 61 Federal Register 39465). The NWI also developed techniques for mapping and recording the inventory findings. The NWI relies on trained image analysts to identify and classify wetlands and deepwater habitats from aerial imagery. NWI started mapping wetlands at a small scale (1:250,000 map which covers an area the size of 128-1:24,000 USGS topographic maps or approximately 7,400 square miles). Eventually, large-scale (1:24K scale) maps became the standard product delivered by NWI. As computerized mapping and geospatial technology evolved, NWI discontinued production of paper maps in favor of distributing data via online "mapping tools" where information can be viewed and downloaded. Today, FWS serves its data via an on-line data discovery "Wetlands Mapper". GIS users can access wetlands data through an online wetland mapping service or download data for various applications (maps, data analyses, and reports). The techniques used by NWI have recently been adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee as the federal wetland mapping standard (FGDC Wetlands Subcommittee 2009). This standard applies to all federal grants involving wetland mapping to insure the data can be added to the Wetlands Layer of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. NWI also produces national wetlands status and trends reports required by the United States Congress.

Nelson Commonwealth Marine Reserve

Nelson Commonwealth Marine Reserve is a 6,123 km2 marine protected area within Australian waters located in the Southern Ocean near the South Australia-Victoria border. The reserve was established in 2007 and is part of the South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network.

The reserve spans deepwater ecosystems (below 3,000 m (9,800 ft)) and encloses geological features including plateaus, knolls, canyons and the abyssal plain. It is an important migration area for humpback, blue, fin and possibly sei whales.

Ningaloo Marine Park (Commonwealth waters)

The Ningaloo Marine Park (formerly known as the Ningaloo Commonwealth Marine Reserve) is an Australian marine park offshore of Western Australia, and west of the Ningaloo Coast. The marine park covers an area of 2,435 km2 (940 sq mi) and is assigned IUCN category IV. It is one of the 13 parks managed under the North-west Marine Parks Network.A marine park of the same name lies directly east, but is managed by the Department of Parks and Wildlife of Western Australia.

The Dales (Christmas Island)

The Dales is a wetland site located at the western end of Christmas Island, an Australian external territory in the eastern Indian Ocean. The site has been recognised as being of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.

Yanga National Park

The Yanga National Park is a newly formed national park, located near the township of Balranald in south- western New South Wales. It covers an area of 66,734 hectares (164,900 acres) which includes 1,932 hectares (4,770 acres) of Yanga Nature Reserve, and has a frontage of 170 kilometres (110 mi) on the Murrumbidgee River. It is largely located in the Lower Murrumbidgee Floodplain (or Lowbidgee Floodplain), which is included on A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia because of its importance as a breeding site for waterbirds when flooded.

Generally
Classification systems
Organizations

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