ATSC standards

Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard, and like that standard, used mostly in the United States, Mexico and Canada. Other former users of NTSC, like Japan, have not used ATSC during their digital television transition because they adopted their own system called ISDB.

The ATSC standards were developed in the early 1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of electronics and telecommunications companies that assembled to develop a specification for what is now known as HDTV. The standard is now administered by the Advanced Television Systems Committee. The standard includes a number of patented elements, and licensing is required for devices that use these parts of the standard. Key among these is the 8VSB modulation system used for over-the-air broadcasts.

ATSC includes two primary high definition video formats, 1080i and 720p. It also includes standard-definition formats, although initially only HDTV services were launched in the digital format. ATSC can carry multiple channels of information on a single stream, and it is common for there to be a single high-definition signal and several standard-definition signals carried on a single 6 MHz (former NTSC) channel allocation.

Background

The high-definition television standards defined by the ATSC produce wide screen 16:9 images up to 1920×1080 pixels in size – more than six times the display resolution of the earlier standard. However, many different image sizes are also supported. The reduced bandwidth requirements of lower-resolution images allow up to six standard-definition "subchannels" to be broadcast on a single 6 MHz TV channel.

ATSC standards are marked A/x (x is the standard number) and can be downloaded for free from the ATSC's website at ATSC.org. ATSC Standard A/53, which implemented the system developed by the Grand Alliance, was published in 1995; the standard was adopted by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States in 1996. It was revised in 2009. ATSC Standard A/72 was approved in 2008 and introduces H.264/AVC video coding to the ATSC system.

ATSC supports 5.1-channel surround sound using Dolby Digital's AC-3 format. Numerous auxiliary datacasting services can also be provided.

Many aspects of ATSC are patented, including elements of the MPEG video coding, the AC-3 audio coding, and the 8VSB modulation.[1] The cost of patent licensing, estimated at up to $50 per digital TV receiver,[2] has prompted complaints by manufacturers.[3]

As with other systems, ATSC depends on numerous interwoven standards, e.g. the EIA-708 standard for digital closed captioning, leading to variations in implementation.

Digital switchover

ATSC replaced much of the analog NTSC television system[4] in the United States[5][6] on June 12, 2009, on August 31, 2011 in Canada, on December 31, 2012 in South Korea, and[7] on December 31, 2015 in Mexico.[8]

Broadcasters who used ATSC and wanted to retain an analog signal were temporarily forced to broadcast on two separate channels, as the ATSC system requires the use of an entire separate channel. Channel numbers in ATSC do not correspond to RF frequency ranges, as they did with analog television. Instead, virtual channels, sent as part of the metadata along with the program(s), allow channel numbers to be remapped from their physical RF channel to any other number 1 to 99, so that ATSC stations can either be associated with the related NTSC channel numbers, or all stations on a network can use the same number. There is also a standard for distributed transmission systems (DTx), a form of single-frequency network which allows for the synchronised operation of multiple on-channel booster stations.

Audio

Dolby Digital AC-3 is used as the audio codec, though it was standardized as A/52 by the ATSC. It allows the transport of up to five channels of sound with a sixth channel for low-frequency effects (the so-called "5.1" configuration). In contrast, Japanese ISDB HDTV broadcasts use MPEG's Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) as the audio codec, which also allows 5.1 audio output. DVB (see below) allows both.

MPEG-2 audio was a contender for the ATSC standard during the DTV "Grand Alliance" shootout, but lost out to Dolby AC-3. The Grand Alliance issued a statement finding the MPEG-2 system to be "essentially equivalent" to Dolby, but only after the Dolby selection had been made. Later, a story emerged that MIT had entered into an agreement with Dolby whereupon the university would be awarded a large sum of money if the MPEG-2 system was rejected. Dolby also offered an incentive for Zenith to switch their vote (which they did); however, it is unknown whether they accepted the offer.[9]

Video

The ATSC system supports a number of different display resolutions, aspect ratios, and frame rates. The formats are listed here by resolution, form of scanning (progressive or interlaced), and number of frames (or fields) per second (see also the TV resolution overview at the end of this article).

For transport, ATSC uses the MPEG systems specification, known as an MPEG transport stream, to encapsulate data, subject to certain constraints. ATSC uses 188-byte MPEG transport stream packets to carry data. Before decoding of audio and video takes place, the receiver must demodulate and apply error correction to the signal. Then, the transport stream may be demultiplexed into its constituent streams.

MPEG-2

There are four basic display sizes for ATSC, generally known by referring to the number of lines of the picture height. NTSC and PAL image sizes are smallest, with a width of 720 (or 704) and a height of 480 or 576 lines. The third size is HDTV images that have 720 scan lines in height and are 1280 pixels wide. The largest size has 1080 lines high and 1920 pixels wide. 1080-line video is actually encoded with 1920×1088 pixel frames, but the last eight lines are discarded prior to display. This is due to a restriction of the MPEG-2 video format, which requires the height of the picture in luma samples (i.e. pixels) to be divisible by 16.

The lower resolutions can operate either in progressive scan or interlaced mode, but not the largest picture sizes. The 1080-line system does not support progressive images at the highest frame rates of 50, 59.94 or 60 frames per second, because such technology was seen as too advanced at the time. The standard also requires 720-line video be progressive scan, since that provides better picture quality than interlaced scan at a given frame rate, and there was no legacy use of interlaced scan for that format. The result is that the combination of maximum frame rate and picture size results in the same maximum number of samples per second for both the 1080-line interlaced format and the 720-line format, as 1980*1080*30=64152000 is equal (?!?) to 1280*720*60=55296000. A similar equality relationship applies for 576 lines at 25 frame per second versus 480 lines at 30 frames per second.

A terrestrial (over-the-air) transmission carries 19.39 megabits of data per second (a fluctuating bandwidth of about 18.3 Mbit/s left after overhead such as error correction, program guide, closed captioning, etc.), compared to a maximum possible MPEG-2 bitrate of 10.08 Mbit/s (7 Mbit/s typical) allowed in the DVD standard and 48 Mbit/s (36 Mbit/s typical) allowed in the Blu-ray disc standard.

Although the ATSC A/53 standard limits MPEG-2 transmission to the formats listed below (with integer frame rates paired with 1000/1001-rate versions), the U.S. Federal Communications Commission declined to mandate that television stations obey this part of the ATSC's standard. In theory, television stations in the U.S. are free to choose any resolution, aspect ratio, and frame/field rate, within the limits of Main Profile @ High Level. Many stations do go outside the bounds of the ATSC specification by using other resolutions – for example, 352 x 480 or 720 x 480.

"EDTV" displays can reproduce progressive scan content and frequently have a 16:9 wide screen format. Such resolutions are 704×480 or 720×480 in NTSC and 720×576 in PAL, allowing 60 progressive frames per second in NTSC or 50 in PAL.

ATSC Standard A/53 Part 4:2009 (MPEG-2 Video System Characteristics)
Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate (Hz)
Vertical Horizontal
1080 1920 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
480 704 or 858 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
640 4:3 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)

ATSC also supports PAL frame rates and resolutions which are defined in ATSC A/63 standard.

ATSC Standard A/63:1997 (Standard for Coding 25/50 Hz Video)
Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate (Hz)
Vertical Horizontal
1080 1920 16:9 1:1 interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)
progressive 25
720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 50
576 720 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M progressive 25
50
interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)
544 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M
three quarters
progressive 25
interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)
480 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M
two thirds
progressive 25
interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)
352 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M
half
progressive 25
interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)
288 352 4:3 or 16:9 CIF progressive 25

The ATSC A/53 specification imposes certain constraints on MPEG-2 video stream:

  • The maximum bit rate value in the sequence header of the MPEG-2 video stream is 19.4 Mbit/s for broadcast television, and 38.8 Mbit/s for the "high data rate" mode (e.g., cable television). The actual MPEG-2 video bit rate will be lower, since the MPEG-2 video stream must fit inside a transport stream.
  • The amount of MPEG-2 stream buffer required at the decoder (the vbv_buffer_size_value) must be less than or equal to 999,424 bytes.
  • In most cases, the transmitter can't start sending a coded image until within a half-second of when it's to be decoded (vbv_delay less than or equal to 45000 90-kHz clock increments).
  • The stream must include colorimetry information (gamma curve, the precise RGB colors used, and the relationship between RGB and the coded YCbCr).
  • The video must be 4:2:0 (chrominance resolution must be 1/2 of luma horizontal resolution and 1/2 of luma vertical resolution).

The ATSC specification and MPEG-2 allow the use of progressive frames coded within an interlaced video sequence. For example, NBC stations transmit a 1080i60 video sequence, meaning the formal output of the MPEG-2 decoding process is sixty 540-line fields per second. However, for prime-time television shows, those 60 fields can be coded using 24 progressive frames as a base – actually, an 1080p24 video stream (a sequence of 24 progressive frames per second) is transmitted, and MPEG-2 metadata instructs the decoder to interlace these fields and perform 3:2 pulldown before display, as in soft telecine.

The ATSC specification also allows 1080p30 and 1080p24 MPEG-2 sequences, however they are not used in practice, because broadcasters want to be able to switch between 60 Hz interlaced (news), 30 Hz progressive or PsF (soap operas), and 24 Hz progressive (prime-time) content without ending the 1080i60 MPEG-2 sequence.

The 1080-line formats are encoded with 1920 × 1088 pixel luma matrices and 960 × 540 chroma matrices, but the last 8 lines are discarded by the MPEG-2 decoding and display process.

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

In July 2008, ATSC was updated to support the ITU-T H.264 video codec. The new standard is split in two parts:

  • A/72 part 1: Video System Characteristics of AVC in the ATSC Digital Television System[10]
  • A/72 part 2 : AVC Video Transport Subsystem Characteristics[11]

The new standards support 1080p at 50, 59.94 and 60 frames per second; such frame rates require H.264/AVC High Profile Level 4.2, while standard HDTV frame rates only require Levels 3.2 and 4, and SDTV frame rates require Levels 3 and 3.1.

ATSC Standard A/72 Part 1:2008 (Video System Characteristics of AVC)
Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate (Hz) Level
Vertical Horizontal
1080 1920 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
25
4
progressive 59.94
60
50
4.2
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
4
1440 16:9 HDV
(4:3)
progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
25
4
progressive 59.94
60
50
4.2
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
4
720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
25
50
3.2, 4
480 720 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M
(10:11 or 40:33)
progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
25
50
3.1, 4
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
3
704 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M
(10:11 or 40:33)
progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
25
50
3.1, 4
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
3
640 4:3 1:1 progressive 23.976
24
29.97
30
59.94
60
25
50
3.1, 4
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
30 (60 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
3
544 4:3 SMPTE 259M
three quarters
(40:33)
progressive 23.976
25
3
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
528 4:3 SMPTE 259M
three quarters
(40:33)
progressive 23.976
25
3
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
352 4:3 SMPTE 259M
half
(20:11)
progressive 23.976
25
3
interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s)
25 (50 fields/s)
240 352 4:3 SIF
(10:11)
progressive 23.976
25
3
120 176 4:3 SIF half
(10:11)
progressive 23.976
25
1.1

Transport stream (TS)

The file extension ".TS" stands for "transport stream", which is a media container format. It may contain a number of streams of audio or video content multiplexed within the transport stream. Transport streams are designed with synchronization and recovery in mind for potentially lossy distribution (such as over-the-air ATSC broadcast) in order to continue a media stream with minimal interruption in the face of data loss in transmission. When an over-the-air ATSC signal is captured to a file via hardware/software the resulting file is often in a .TS file format.

Modulation and transmission

ATSC signals are designed to use the same 6 MHz bandwidth as analog NTSC television channels (the interference requirements of A/53 DTV standards with adjacent NTSC or other DTV channels are very strict). Once the digital video and audio signals have been compressed and multiplexed, the transport stream can be modulated in different ways depending on the method of transmission.

  • Terrestrial (local) broadcasters use 8VSB modulation that can transfer at a maximum rate of 19.39 Mbit/s, sufficient to carry several video and audio programs and metadata.
  • Cable television stations can generally operate at a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can use either the 16VSB as defined in ATSC or the 256-QAM defined in SCTE, to achieve a throughput of 38.78 Mbit/s, using the same 6 MHz channel.

The proposals for modulation schemes for digital television were developed when cable operators carried standard-resolution video as uncompressed analog signals. In recent years, cable operators have become accustomed to compressing standard-resolution video for digital cable systems, making it harder to find duplicate 6 MHz channels for local broadcasters on uncompressed "basic" cable.

Currently, the Federal Communications Commission requires cable operators in the United States to carry the analog or digital transmission of a terrestrial broadcaster (but not both), when so requested by the broadcaster (the "must-carry rule"). The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission in Canada does not have similar rules in force with respect to carrying ATSC signals.

However, cable operators have still been slow to add ATSC channels to their lineups for legal, regulatory, and plant & equipment related reasons. One key technical and regulatory issue is the modulation scheme used on the cable: cable operators in the U.S. (and to a lesser extent Canada) can determine their own method of modulation for their plants. Multiple standards bodies exist in the industry: the SCTE defined 256-QAM as a modulation scheme for cable in a cable industry standard, ANSI/SCTE 07 2006: Digital Transmission Standard For Cable Television. Consequently, most U.S. and Canadian cable operators seeking additional capacity on the cable system have moved to 256-QAM from the 64-QAM modulation used in their plant, in preference to the 16VSB standard originally proposed by ATSC. Over time 256-QAM is expected to be included in the ATSC standard.

There is also a standard for transmitting ATSC via satellite; however, this is only used by TV networks. Very few teleports outside the U.S. support the ATSC satellite transmission standard, but teleport support for the standard is improving. The ATSC satellite transmission system is not used for direct-broadcast satellite systems; in the U.S. and Canada these have long used either DVB-S (in standard or modified form) or a proprietary system such as DSS or DigiCipher 2.

Other systems

Digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems. Countries using ATSC are shown in orange.

Digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems. Countries using ATSC are shown in orange.

ATSC coexists with the DVB-T standard, and with ISDB-T. A similar standard called ADTB-T was developed for use as part of China's new DMB-T/H dual standard. While China has officially chosen a dual standard, there is no requirement that a receiver work with both standards and there is no support for the ADTB modulation from broadcasters or equipment and receiver manufacturers.

For compatibility with material from various regions and sources, ATSC supports the 480i video format used in the NTSC analog system (480 lines, approximately 60 fields or 30 frames per second), 576i formats used in most PAL regions (576 lines, 50 fields or 25 frames per second), and 24 frames-per-second formats used in film.

While the ATSC system has been criticized as being complicated and expensive to implement and use,[12] both broadcasting and receiving equipment are now comparable in cost with that of DVB.

The ATSC signal is more susceptible to changes in radio propagation conditions than DVB-T and ISDB-T. It also lacks true hierarchical modulation, which would allow the SDTV part of an HDTV signal (or the audio portion of a television program) to be received uninterrupted even in fringe areas where signal strength is low. For this reason, an additional modulation mode, enhanced-VSB (E-VSB) has been introduced, allowing for a similar benefit.

In spite of ATSC's fixed transmission mode, it is still a robust signal under various conditions. 8VSB was chosen over COFDM in part because many areas are rural and have a much lower population density, thereby requiring larger transmitters and resulting in large fringe areas. In these areas, 8VSB was shown to perform better than other systems.

COFDM is used in both DVB-T and ISDB-T, and for 1seg, as well as DVB-H and HD Radio in the United States. In metropolitan areas, where population density is highest, COFDM is said to be better at handling multipath propagation. While ATSC is also incapable of true single-frequency network (SFN) operation, the distributed transmission mode, using multiple synchronized on-channel transmitters, has been shown to improve reception under similar conditions. Thus, it may not require more spectrum allocation than DVB-T using SFNs. A comparison study found that ISDB-T and DVB-T performed similarly, and that both were outperformed by DVB-T2.[13]

Mobile TV

Mobile reception of digital stations using ATSC has, until 2008, been difficult to impossible, especially when moving at vehicular speeds. To overcome this, there are several proposed systems that report improved mobile reception: Samsung/Rhode & Schwarz's A-VSB, Harris/LG's MPH, and a recent proposal from Thomson/Micronas; all of these systems have been submitted as candidates for a new ATSC standard, ATSC-M/H. After one year of standardization, the solution merged between Samsung's AVSB and LGE's MPH technology has been adopted and would have been deployed in 2009. This is in addition to other standards like the now-defunct MediaFLO, and worldwide open standards such as DVB-H and T-DMB. Like DVB-H and ISDB 1seg, the proposed ATSC mobile standards are backward-compatible with existing tuners, despite being added to the standard well after the original standard was in wide use.

Mobile reception of some stations will still be more difficult, because 18 UHF channels in the U.S. have been removed from TV service, forcing some broadcasters to stay on VHF. This band requires larger antennas for reception, and is more prone to electromagnetic interference from engines and rapidly changing multipath conditions.

Future

ATSC 2.0

ATSC 2.0 is a major new revision of the standard which will be backward compatible with ATSC 1.0. The standard will allow interactive and hybrid television technologies by connecting the TV with the Internet services and allowing interactive elements into the broadcast stream. Other features include advanced video compression, audience measurement, targeted advertising, enhanced programming guides, video on demand services, and the ability to store information on new receivers, including Non-realtime (NRT) content.[14][15][16]

ATSC 2.0 was never actually launched, as it was essentially outdated before it could be launched. All of the changes that were a part of the ATSC 2.0 revision were adopted into ATSC 3.0.[17]

ATSC 3.0

ATSC 3.0 will provide even more services to the viewer and increased bandwidth efficiency and compression performance, which requires breaking backwards compatibility with the current version. On November 17, 2017 the FCC voted 3-2 in favor of authorizing voluntary deployments of ATSC 3.0, and issued a Report and Order to that effect. ATSC 3.0 broadcasts and receivers are expected to emerge within the next decade.[18]

LG Electronics tested the standard with 4K on February 23, 2016. With the test considered a success, South Korea announced that ATSC 3.0 broadcasts would start in February 2017.[19]

On March 28, 2016, the Bootstrap component of ATSC 3.0 (System Discovery and Signalling) was upgraded from candidate standard to finalized standard.[20]

On June 29, 2016, NBC affiliate WRAL-TV in Raleigh, North Carolina, a station known for its pioneering roles in testing the original DTV standards, launched an experimental ATSC 3.0 channel carrying the station's programming in 1080p, as well as a 4K demo loop.[21]

ATSC 3.0 layers
ATSC 3.0's multiple layers. The standards within ATSC 3.0 are rolled into each of the layers.
Structure/ATSC 3.0 System Layers[22]
  1. Bootstrap: System Discovery and Signalling
  2. Physical Layer: Transmission (OFDM)
  3. Protocols: IP, MMT
  4. Presentation: Audio and Video standards (to be determined), Ultra HD with High Definition and standard definition multicast, Immersive Audio
  5. Applications: Screen is a web page

Countries and territories using ATSC

North America

  •  Bahamas plans for transition to ATSC standards were officially announced on December 14, 2011; national public broadcaster ZNS-TV announced it would be upgrading to ATSC digital television with mobile DTV capabilities, in line with its neighbors, the United States and Puerto Rico.[23]
  •  Canada switched to ATSC on August 31, 2011 in provincial/territorial capitals and locations with 300,000 or more people; expected to continue broadcasting analog over-the-air television signals in 22 markets until August 31, 2012.[24] As of 2017, many smaller towns and repeater stations still transmit in NTSC, but many UHF stations have been ordered by the government (in June 2017) to vacate the signal space, to free it up for wireless users. These stations have until June 2022 to shut off their UHF transmitters. Note this will still leave some NTSC transmissions in Canada for the foreseeable future.[25]
  •  Dominican Republic plans announced August 10, 2010; transition complete by September 24, 2015.[26]
  •  Mexico plans announced July 2, 2004,[27] started conversion in 2013[28] full transition was scheduled for December 31, 2015,[8] but due to technical and economic issues for some transmitters, the full transition was extended to December 31, 2016.
  •  United States switched to ATSC on June 12, 2009, excluding LPTV stations and translators which they are expected to shut down by July 13, 2021 due to economic concerns with a spectrum auction for Digital signals on LPTV and translators.[29][30] Class A Stations went to Digital on September 1, 2015.

Asia/Pacific

See also

References

  1. ^ "TV makers to fight royalties". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  2. ^ FCC Opens Inquiry Into Patent Costs For Digital TVs, Dow Jones, February 25, 2009
  3. ^ Amtran affiliate accuses Funai of unfair competition Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Lisa Wang, Taipei Times, February 24, 2009
  4. ^ "Best Buy Exits the Analog TV Business, Outlines Plans to Help With Digital Broadcast Transition". businesswire.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  5. ^ A New Era in Television Broadcasting Archived November 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine – DTVTransition.org
  6. ^ "Congress delays DTV switch". February 4, 2009. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via Christian Science Monitor.
  7. ^ The Commission establishes a new approach for Canadian conventional television Archived May 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b "DOF - Diario Oficial de la Federación". dof.gob.mx. Archived from the original on January 21, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  9. ^ Keith J. Winsteln (November 8, 2002), "MIT Getting Millions For Digital TV Deal" (PDF), The Tech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, archived (PDF) from the original on March 26, 2009
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Nick (October 16, 2008). "ATSC vs DVB for North American amateurs". nsayer.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  13. ^ Julian Clover DVB-T far superior to ISDB, DVB-T2 beats them both Archived June 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, in broadbandtvnews November 2, 2010
  14. ^ 2013_electronic.indd Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  15. ^ George Winslow. "With ATSC 2.0, Broadcasting Gets Facelift Archived March 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine". Broadcasting & Cable, June 6, 2011.
  16. ^ "A/103:2012, Non-Real-Time Content Delivery" (PDF). atsc.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 5, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  17. ^ https://www.digitaltrends.com/home-theater/atsc-3-0-ota-broadcast-standard-4k-dolby-atmos/
  18. ^ "FCC Authorizes Next Gen TV Broadcast Standard". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
  19. ^ Tribbey, Chris (March 7, 2016). "ATSC 3.0 Passes Key Test, But Is It Ready to Graduate?". Broadcasting & Cable: 16–17.
  20. ^ "First Element of ATSC 3.0 Approved for Standard". tvtechnology.com. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  21. ^ "WRAL Launches ATSC 3.0 Service". TVNewsCheck. Archived from the original on November 17, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 4, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Bahamas national TV to get multi-million dollar digital upgrade – video Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The Bahamas Investor. Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  24. ^ "CRTC allows CBC to continue broadcasting analog television signals in 22 markets until August 2012". News Releases. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. August 16, 2011. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  25. ^ "Analog TV users will soon see fewer stations | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  26. ^ Advanced Television Systems Committee, Dominican Republic Adopts ATSC Digital Television Standard Archived August 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, August 12, 2010
  27. ^ Hester, Lisa (July 6, 2004). "Mexico To Adopt The ATSC DTV Standard". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2013. On July 2 the Government of Mexico formally adopted the ATSC Digital Television (DTV) Standard for digital terrestrial television broadcasting.
  28. ^ Dibble, Sandra (May 30, 2013). "New turn for Tijuana's transition to digital broadcasting". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  29. ^ a b "Low Power Television (LPTV) Service", CDBS Database, Federal Communications Commission, archived from the original on April 1, 2013, retrieved April 3, 2013
  30. ^ FCC Public Notice: "THE INCENTIVE AUCTION TASK FORCE AND MEDIA BUREAU ANNOUNCE PROCEDURES FOR LOW POWER TELEVISION, TELEVISION TRANSLATOR AND REPLACEMENT TRANSLATOR STATIONSDURING THE POST-INCENTIVE AUCTION TRANSITION", May 17, 2017
  31. ^ "N. Korea in the process of introducing digital TV broadcasting". Yonhap News Agency. March 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  32. ^ "North Korean television sets still receive South Korean signals". News Focus International. Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015.

Further reading

External links

1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

ATSC (disambiguation)

ATSC is the Advanced Television Systems Committee standards.

ATSC may also refer to:

Advanced Television Systems Committee, the committee that wrote the ATSC Standards

Acetone thiosemicarbazone, a chemical compound

Air Technical Service Command, one of the many predecessors of the Air Force Material Command

Army Training Support Center, a United States Army facility at Fort Eustis

ATSC (UK) Ltd, the manufacturer of the fake ADE 651 bomb detection device

ATSC 3.0

ATSC 3.0 is a major version of the ATSC standards for television broadcasting created by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). ATSC 3.0 comprises around 20 standards covering different aspects of the system and in total will have over 1,000 pages of documentation.The standards are designed to offer support for newer technologies, including HEVC for video channels of up to 2160p 4K resolution at 120 frames per second, wide color gamut, high dynamic range, Dolby AC-4 and MPEG-H 3D Audio, datacasting capabilities, and more robust mobile television support. The capabilities have also been foreseen as a way to enable targeted advertising and finer public alerting.

The first major deployments of ATSC 3.0 occurred in South Korea, with the country's major television networks launching terrestrial ATSC 3.0 services in May 2017 in preparation for the 2018 Winter Olympics. In November 2017, the United States' Federal Communications Commission approved regulations allowing broadcast stations to voluntarily offer ATSC 3.0 services (Next Gen TV); however, they must be offered alongside a standard ATSC digital signal, and there will not be a mandatory transition as was done with the transition from analog NTSC to ATSC.

ATSC tuner

An ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) tuner, often called an ATSC receiver or HDTV tuner is a type of television tuner that allows reception of digital television (DTV) television channels transmitted by television stations in North America, parts of Central America and South Korea that use ATSC standards. Such tuners may be integrated into a television set, VCR, digital video recorder (DVR), or set-top box that provides audio/video output connectors of various types.

Another type of television tuner is a digital television adapter (DTA) with an analog passthrough.

Advanced Television Systems Committee

The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is the group, established in 1982, that developed the eponymous ATSC standards for digital television in the United States. These standards have also been adopted by Canada, Mexico, South Korea and recently Honduras, and are being considered by other countries.

DVB-C

DVB-C stands for "Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable" and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable. This system transmits an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 family digital audio/digital video stream, using a QAM modulation with channel coding. The standard was first published by the ETSI in 1994, and subsequently became the most widely used transmission system for digital cable television in Europe, Asia and South America. It is deployed worldwide in systems ranging from the larger cable television networks (CATV) down to smaller satellite master antenna TV (SMATV) systems.

DVB-S

Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997. The first commercial application was by Galaxy in Australia, enabling digitally broadcast, satellite-delivered Television to the public.

It is used via satellites serving every continent of the world. DVB-S is used in both Multiple Channel Per Carrier (MCPC) and Single channel per carrier modes for Broadcast Network feeds as well as for direct-broadcast satellite services like Sky (UK & Ireland) via Astra in Europe, Dish Network and Globecast in the U.S. and Bell TV in Canada.

While the actual DVB-S standard only specifies physical link characteristics and framing, the overlaid transport stream delivered by DVB-S is mandated as MPEG-2, known as MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS).

Some amateur television repeaters also use this mode in the 1.2 GHz amateur band.

Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast

DTMB (Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast) is the TV standard for mobile and fixed terminals used in the Mainland China, Cuba, Hong Kong and Macau.

Digital broadcasting

Digital broadcasting is the practice of using digital signals rather than analogue signals for broadcasting over radio frequency bands. Digital television broadcasting (especially satellite television) is widespread. Digital audio broadcasting is being adopted more slowly for radio broadcasting where it is mainly used in Satellite radio.

Digital links, thanks to the use of data compression, generally have greater spectral efficiency than analog links. Content providers can provide more services or a higher-quality signal than was previously available.

It is estimated that the share of digital broadcasting increased from 7% of the total amount of broadcast information in 2000, to 25% in 2007. Some countries have completed a Digital television transition.

Digital television in Canada

Digital terrestrial television in Canada (often shortened to DTT) is transmitted using the ATSC standard. Because Canada and the U.S. use the same standard and frequencies for channels, people near the Canada–United States border can watch digital television programming from television stations in either country where available. The ATSC standards are also used in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Suriname and South Korea.

Jurisdiction over terrestrial broadcasting in Canada is primarily regulated by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada has jurisdiction over the allotment of the terrestrial spectrum and the CRTC has jurisdiction over the allotment of broadcast licences.

The CRTC imposed in 28 mandatory markets a digital transition deadline for full power transmitters of August 31, 2011, with the exception of some CBC transmitters. Two weeks before the deadline, the CBC transmitters were given a temporary one-year extension to remain in analogue. No digital transition deadline has been set for low-power analogue transmitters and analogue transmitters outside the 28 mandatory markets.

In January 2007, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada stopped issuing licences within Canada for new television transmitters broadcasting in analogue.All remaining analogue terrestrial television signals across Canada are scheduled to be shut down no later than 2022.

Digital television in the United States

See digital television for more technical details, or DTV transition in the United States for specific information related to the analog-to-digital switchoverIn the United States, digital television broadcasts, or DTV, can be received via cable, via internet, via satellite, or via digital terrestrial television - much like analog television broadcasts have been. Full-power analog television broadcasts, however, were required by U.S. federal law to cease by June 12, 2009. Low-power, Class A, and TV Translator stations are not currently required to cease analog broadcasts. Also by law, digital broadcasts - when transmitted as OTA signals - must conform to ATSC standards.; it is unclear whether satellite operators are free to use their own proprietary standards; and many standards exist for Internet television (most are proprietary).

E-VSB

E-VSB or Enhanced VSB is an optional enhancement to the original ATSC Standards that use the 8VSB modulation system used for transmission of digital television. It is intended for improving reception where signals are weaker, including fringe reception areas, and on portable devices such as handheld televisions or mobile phones. It does not cause problems to older receivers, but they cannot take advantage of its features. E-VSB was approved by the ATSC committee in 2004. However, it has been implemented by few stations or manufacturers.For mobile applications, ATSC suffers significant signal degradation caused by the Doppler effect. Additionally, low-power handheld receivers are usually equipped with smaller antennas. These have a poor signal-to-noise ratio, which is disruptive to digital signals. The E-VSB standard provides for Reed-Solomon forward error correction to alleviate the data corruption caused by these issues.

Additionally, the standard can use either the MPEG-4 AVC or VC-1 video codecs. As these codecs have higher video compression than the original MPEG-2, they require less bandwidth.

As 8VSB lacks both link adaptation and hierarchical modulation of DVB, which would allow the SDTV part of an HDTV signal (or the LDTV part of SDTV) to be received even in fringe reception areas where signal strength is low, E-VSB yields a similar benefit. However, E-VSB places a significant processing overhead on the receiver, as well as a significant transmission overhead on the broadcaster's total bitrate. These are not a problem with DVB-H.

A-VSB is a different and, as of July 2008, unapproved addition to ATSC, which is also designed to send programming to mobile devices, and to allow for single-frequency networks. It is one of several proposals for ATSC-M/H, the as-yet undecided standard for mobile broadcasting via ATSC.

EIT

EIT may refer to:

Research institutes:European Institute of Innovation and Technology, research and development organization of the European Union

Eastern Institute of Technology, a public Tertiary Education Institution in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand

Eritrea Institute of Technology, university located in the town of Abardae near the town Himbrti, Mai Nefhi, EritreaPolitics, UN system, international politics:Economies in transition, used to describe countries of the former Soviet bloc which are transitioning to a market economy

Environmental Integrity Group, a negotiation group within the UNFCCC, that comprises 6 parties to the UNFCCC

Enhanced interrogation techniques, U.S. government's program of systematic torturePhysics:Electrical impedance tomography, a medical imaging technology

Electromagnetically induced transparency, an optical phenomenonEngineering and TechnologyElectronic Information Technology, a broad subject concerned with aspects of managing, editing and processing information

Engineer in Training, professional certification level

Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, an instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft

Event Information Table, an information table for broadcast events used in Digital Video Broadcasting and ATSC standardsArts:Everything in Transit, an album by Jack's Mannequin

Everything is Terrible!, a video blog

Integrated digital television

An integrated digital television (IDTV or iDTV) set is a television set with a built in digital Tuner, be it for DVB-T2, DVB-S2, DVB-C, DMB-T/H, ATSC standards or ISDB. Most of them also allow reception of analogue signals (PAL, SÉCAM or NTSC). They do away with the need for a set-top box for converting those signals for reception on a television.

Most iDTVs do not inherently support for pay TV, and as a result many are fitted with common interface slots to allow the use of a conditional-access module. They may also include support for other features of a digital television "platform", such as an interactive television engine and support for some form of return channel. A small number of iDTVs include a digital video recorder, which removes the need for an external PVR, possibly requiring its own digital set-top box.

The particular tuner vary by country. For example, in many European countries such as Germany and Sweden, DVB-C (cable) is the most common digital TV tuner in televisions, whereas in the UK, most televisions have a DVB-T (terrestrial) tuner instead.

List of ATSC standards

Below are the published ATSC standards for ATSC digital television service, issued by the Advanced Television Systems Committee.

A/49: Ghost Canceling Reference Signal for NTSC (for adjacent-channel interference or co-channel interference with analog NTSC stations nearby)

A/52B: audio data compression (Dolby AC-3 and E-AC-3)

A/53E: "ATSC Digital Television Standard" (the primary document governing the standard)

A/55: "Program Guide for Digital Television" (now deprecated in favor of A/65 PSIP)

A/57A: "Content Identification and Labeling for ATSC Transport" (for assigning a unique digital number to each episode of each TV show, to assist DVRs)

A/63: "Standard for Coding 25/50 Hz Video" (for use with PAL and SECAM-originated programming)

A/64A "Transmission Measurement and Compliance for Digital Television"

A/65C: "Program and System Information Protocol for Terrestrial Broadcast and Cable" (PSIP includes virtual channels, electronic program guides, and content ratings)

A/68: "PSIP Standard for Taiwan" (defines use of Chinese characters via Unicode 3.0)

A/69: recommended practices for implementing PSIP at a TV station

A/70A: "Conditional Access System for Terrestrial Broadcast"

A/71: "ATSC Parameterized Services Standard"

A/72: "Video System Characteristics of AVC in the ATSC Digital Television System" (implementing H.264/MPEG-4 as well as MVC for 3D television)

A/76: "Programming Metadata Communication Protocol" (XML-based PMCP maintains PSIP metadata though a TV station's airchain)

A/79: "Conversion of ATSC Signals for Distribution to NTSC Viewers" (recommended practice, issued February 2009)

A/80: "Modulation and Coding Requirements for Digital TV (DTV) Applications Over Satellite" (ATSC-S)

A/81: "Direct-to-Home Satellite Broadcast Standard" (not yet implemented by any services)

A/82: "Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) Data Return Link (DRL) Standard"

A/85: "Techniques for Establishing and Maintaining Audio Loudness for Digital Television"

A/90: "Data Broadcast Standard" (for datacasting)

A/92: "Delivery of IP Multicast Sessions over Data Broadcast Standard" (for IP multicasting)

A/93: "Synchronized/Asynchronous Trigger Standard"

A/94: "ATSC Data Application Reference Model"

A/95: "Transport Stream File System Standard" (TSFS is a special file system for downloading computer files)

A/96: "ATSC Interaction Channel Protocols" (interactive TV)

A/97: "Software Data Download Service" (used by UpdateTV for upgrades and software patches in ATSC tuners)

A/98: "System Renewability Message Transport"

A/99: "Carriage Of Legacy TV Data Services" (for former analog supplemental services that used the vertical blanking interval lines, such as closed captioning and teletext)

A/100: "DTV Application Software Environment - Level 1" (DASE-1)

A/101: "Advanced Common Application Platform" (ACAP)

A/103:2014: "Non-Real-Time Delivery"

A/104: "ATSC 3D-TV Terrestrial Broadcasting"

A/105:2015: "Interactive Services Standard"

A/106:2015: "ATSC Security and Service Protection Standard"

A/107:2015: "ATSC 2.0 Standard"

A/110A: "Synchronization Standard for Distributed Transmission" (single-frequency networks)

A/112: E-VSB (Enhanced Vestigal Sideband)

A/153: ATSC-M/HIn 2004, the main ATSC standard was amended to support Enhanced ATSC (A/112); this transmission mode is backwardly compatible with the original 8-Bit Vestigal Sideband modulation scheme, but provides much better error correction.

ATSC-M/H for mobile TV has been approved and added to some stations, though it is known that it uses MPEG-4 instead of MPEG-2 for encoding, and behaves as an MPEG-4-encoded subchannel, inheriting 8VSB from the remainder of the channel.

S-DMB

S-DMB (Satellite-DMB) is a hybrid version of the Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. The S-DMB uses the S band (2170-2200 MHz) of IMT-2000. and delivers around 18 channels at 128 kbit/s in 15 MHz. It incorporates a high power geostationary satellite, the MBSat 1. For outdoor and light indoor coverage is integrated with a terrestrial repeater (low power gap-filler) network for indoor coverage in urban areas.

A similar architecture is also used in XM Satellite Radio, Sirius Satellite Radio, DVB-SH and ETSI Satellite Digital Radio (SDR).

Television in Honduras

Television in Honduras consists of both local channels and foreign television, normally distributed through cable.

Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center (WMC) is a discontinued digital video recorder and media player created by Microsoft. Media Center was first introduced to Windows in 2002 on Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE). It was included in Home Premium and Ultimate editions of Windows Vista, as well as all editions of Windows 7 except Starter and Home Basic. It was also available on Windows 8 Pro and Windows 8.1 Pro as a paid add-on, before being discontinued in Windows 10, although it can be reinstalled unofficially through a command script installer.

Media Center can play slideshows, videos and music from local hard drives, optical drives and network locations. Users can stream television programs and films through selected services such as Netflix. Content can be played back on computer monitors or on television sets through the use of devices called Windows Media Center Extenders. It is also possible to watch and pause live TV. Up to six TV tuners on a tuner card are supported simultaneously. Both standard- and high-definition unencrypted video are supported through DVB-T and ATSC standards. It is possible to view encrypted cable television channels by using an internal or external tuner that supported CableCARD.

Shortly after Windows 7's 2009 release, Microsoft disbanded the Media Center development team, thus abandoning any further software developments. Consequently, the Media Center interface remained unchanged for Windows 8 and 8.1 users. In May 2015 Microsoft announced that Windows Media Center would be discontinued on Windows 10, and that it would be removed when upgrading; but stated that those upgrading from a version of Windows that included the Media Center application would receive the paid Windows DVD Player app for free to maintain DVD playback functionality.

Zoran Corporation

Zoran Corporation was a multinational digital technology company, founded in 1983 and headquartered in Silicon Valley, that was predominantly focused on designing and selling SoC (System on a Chip) integrated circuits for consumer electronics applications. The name Zoran is derived from the Hebrew word for silicon. Zoran was incorporated in the state of Delaware and had offices in Canada, China, England, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the US. Zoran had strong ties with Israel, with a strong R&D presence and being the beneficiary of incentives from organizations such as Israel's Ministry of Industry and Trade.After an early focus on filter and signal processors for military, industrial and medical applications, Zoran started focusing on data compression products for emerging multimedia applications and became better known in the late 1990s as a supplier of Motion JPEG codec chips used on PC add-in cards for video capture and video editing applications. After the turn of the millennium, sales increased substantially as Zoran became a leading provider of chips for DVD players, which it continued to be until about 2007, covering a period during which the production volume of DVD players increased strongly and the semiconductor value in this segment reached its peak. Starting from 2005, Zoran also supplied chips for a substantial portion of the worldwide production of digital cameras. Around 2008 and 2009, Zoran was successful as a supplier of cost-effective integrated chips for LCD TVs supporting the ATSC standards used for HDTV broadcast in the US.

In 2011, Zoran merged with UK-based CSR and is now represented by the CSR brand and stock. After the merger, CSR executed substantial layoffs of former Zoran employees.

Designation
Low,
MP@LL
Standard,
MP@ML
Enhanced,
HMP@HML
High,
MP@HL
Ultra-high
High-definition (HD)
Concepts
Analog broadcast
(All defunct)
Digital broadcast
Audio
Filming and storage
HD media and
compression
Connectors
Deployments
Digital television in North America
Terrestrial
Cable
Satellite TV
IPTV
Technical issues
History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
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