AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.[5] It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, and the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is also the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue.[6] As of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[7]

AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880. The Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which later rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's ("Ma Bell") subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs, or "Baby Bells"), resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation; the latter changed its name to SBC Communications Inc. in 1995. In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their formerly joint venture Cingular Wireless (which had acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004) wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility.

The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, and includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division.[8]

AT&T Inc.
  • Southwestern Bell Corporation (1983–1995)
  • SBC Communications Inc.[1] (1995–2005)
Traded as
FoundedOctober 5, 1983[2]
HeadquartersWhitacre Tower, ,
Area served
Key people
Randall L. Stephenson
(Chairman and CEO)
RevenueIncrease $170.756 billion (2018)
Increase $26.096 billion (2018)
Increase $19.953 billion (2018)
Total assetsIncrease $531 billion (2018)
Total equityIncrease $193.884 billion (2018)[3]
Number of employees
273,210 (2018)[4]


Origin and growth (1885–1981)

AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone.[9] One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), established in 1885,[10] which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century. This monopoly was known as the Bell System,[11] and during this period, AT&T was also known by the nickname Ma Bell.[12] For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company.

Breakup and reformation (1982–2004)

In 1982, U.S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells.[13] AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint.

Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp. The architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope. The company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the later half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business. During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, and by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (lasting through 2015).

Purchase of former parent and acquisitions (2005–2014)

In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history (dating to 1885) as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983.[14] It also retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, and all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp.

In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil.[15] In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications.[16]

Recent developments (2014–present)

AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014,[17] and two months later purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings,[18] merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.

In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt,[19] subject to certain conditions.[20][21] AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment.[22][23][24]

In an effort to increase its media holdings,[25][26][27] on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion.[28][29][30]

AT&T also owns approximately a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate.[31]

On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon.[32][33][34] In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019[35][36]

On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year.[37]

On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."[38][39] In order for AT&T to fully acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must divest either DirecTV or Turner Broadcasting System.[40]

As of 2017, AT&T is the world's largest telecommunications company.[41] AT&T is also the second largest provider of mobile telephone services and the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States.[42]

On March 7, 2018, the company prepared to sell a minority stake of DirecTV Latin America through an IPO, creating a new holding company for those assets named Vrio Corp.[43][44] However, on April 18, 2018, just a day before the public debut of Vrio, AT&T canceled the IPO due to market conditions.[45][46]

On June 12, 2018, AT&T was given permission by U.S. District Court Judge Richard J. Leon to go ahead with its $85 billion deal for Time Warner. The DOJ had attempted to stop the merger fearing it would harm competition.[47] The merger closed two days after, becoming a wholly owned subsidiary and division of AT&T with a new name, WarnerMedia, announced the next day.[48]

Three months after completing the acquisition, AT&T reorganized into four main units: Communications, including consumer and business wireline telephony, AT&T Mobility, and consumer entertainment video services; WarnerMedia, including Turner cable television networks, Warner Bros. film and television production, and HBO; AT&T Latin America, consisting of wireless service in Mexico and video in Latin America and the Caribbean under the Vrio brand; and Advertising and Analytics, since renamed Xandr.[49][50]

AT&T Latin America

AT&T Latin America, LLC
AT&T International, Inc. (2017-2018)
United States[51]
Area served
Key people
Lori Lee
Satellite television
RevenueDecrease US$7 billion (2018)[52]
SubsidiariesAT&T Mexico

AT&T Latin America (formerly AT&T International, Inc.) is a wholly owned division of AT&T which operates in Mexico and 11 countries in South America.[53]


In 2017, AT&T announced a new AT&T International corporate division housing AT&T Mexico, DirecTV Latin America and their stakes of SKY Brazil and Sky Mexico.[54]

In October 2016, AT&T announced a deal to acquire Time Warner worth $85.4 billion (including assumed Time Warner debt). The proposed deal would give AT&T significant holdings in the media industry; AT&T's competitor Comcast had previously acquired NBCUniversal in a similar bid to increase its media holdings, in concert with its ownership of television and internet providers. If approved by federal regulators, the merger would bring Time Warner's properties under the same umbrella as AT&T's telecommunication holdings, including satellite provider DirecTV.[55][56] [57]

By the end of July, the company announced that, effective August 1, a new structure was created before the acquisition would close. On September 15, 2017, Reuters reported, citing anonymous sources, that AT&T, the owner of DIRECTV's U.S. and Latin American divisions, had hired an advisor to consider offering AT&T Latin America on the public stock market. In November 2017, the U.S. Justice Department said it was moving to sue to block the AT&T-Time Warner merger.[58] On November 20, 2017, the Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit over the acquisition; Makan Delrahim stated that the deal would "greatly harm American consumers". AT&T asserts that this suit is a "radical and inexplicable departure from decades of antitrust precedent".[59] On December 22, 2017, the merger agreement deadline was extended to June 21, 2018.[60] On April 19, 2018, the IPO was cancelled. On June 12, 2018, the AT&T-Time Warner merger was approved by a federal judge.[61] Two days later, AT&T completed the acquisition of Time Warner, and a day later the company was renamed WarnerMedia.

On September 21, 2018, AT&T reclassified it four principal divisions which includes AT&T International which now have some assets moved out like the RSNs, an also merging Consumer Mobility, Technology and Business Mobility and renamed the company as AT&T Latin America.[49]

Landline operating companies

Of the eight companies that were part of the Breakup of the Bell System, these five are a part of the current AT&T:[62]

Chart of Baby Bells

AT&T Corporation
RBOCs grouped into "Baby Bells" split off in 1984
BellSouthAT&T Corp.
AmeritechPacific TelesisSouthwestern Bell Corp.
(later SBC Communications)
Bell AtlanticNYNEXUS West
GTE Corporation
Qwest (non-ILEC)
AT&T Inc.
(former SBC)
AT&T Inc.VerizonCenturyLink

Former operating companies

The following companies have become defunct or were sold under SBC/AT&T ownership:

Future of rural landlines

AT&T stated that it would declare the intentions for its rural landlines on November 7, 2012.[65] AT&T had previously announced that it was considering a sale of its rural landlines, which are not wired for AT&T's U-verse service; however, it has also stated that it may keep the business after all.

AT&T was not the first Baby Bell to sell off rural landlines. Ameritech sold some of its Wisconsin lines to CenturyTel in 1998; BellSouth sold some of its lines to MebTel in the 2000s; U S WEST sold many historically Bell landlines to Lynch Communications and Pacific Telecom in the 1990s; Verizon sold many of its New England lines to FairPoint in 2008 and its West Virginia operations to Frontier Communications in 2010.

On October 25, 2014, Frontier Communications took over control of the AT&T landline network in Connecticut after being approved by state utility regulators. The deal was worth about $2 billion, and included Frontier inheriting about 2,500 of AT&T's employees and many of AT&T's buildings.[66]

Corporate structure

AT&T office in San Antonio, Texas

Facilities and regions

The company is headquartered at Whitacre Tower in downtown Dallas, Texas.[5] On June 27, 2008, AT&T announced that it would move its corporate headquarters from downtown San Antonio to One AT&T Plaza in downtown Dallas.[5][67] The company said that it moved to gain better access to its customers and operations throughout the world, and to the key technology partners, suppliers, innovation and human resources needed as it continues to grow, domestically and internationally.[68] AT&T Inc. previously relocated its corporate headquarters to San Antonio from St. Louis, Missouri, in 1992, when it was then named Southwestern Bell Corporation. The company's Telecom Operations group, which serves residential and regional business customers in 22 U.S. states, remains in San Antonio. Atlanta, Georgia, continues to be the headquarters for AT&T Mobility, with significant offices in Redmond, Washington, the former home of AT&T Wireless. Bedminster, New Jersey, is the headquarters for the company's Global Business Services group and AT&T Labs. St. Louis continues as home to the company's Directory operations, AT&T Advertising Solutions.[69]

AT&T offers also services in many locations throughout the Asia Pacific; its regional headquarters is located in Hong Kong.[70] The company is also active in Mexico, and it was announced on November 7, 2014, that Mexican carrier Iusacell is being acquired by AT&T.[17] The acquisition was approved in January 2015.[71][72] On April 30, 2015, AT&T acquired wireless operations Nextel Mexico from NII Holdings (now AT&T Mexico).[73]

Corporate governance

AT&T's current board of directors as of March 2019:[74]

The current management as of March 2019 includes:[75]

Political involvement

According to the Center for Responsive Politics, as of 2018, AT&T is the fifteenth-largest donor to United States political campaigns,[76] and was the top American corporate donor in 2011,[77] having contributed more than US$47.7 million since 1990, 56% of which went to Republicans and 44% of which went to Democrats.[78] As an example, in 2005, AT&T was among 53 entities that contributed the maximum of $250,000 to the second inauguration of President George W. Bush.[79][80][81] Bill Leahy, representing AT&T, sits on the Private Enterprise Board of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).[82] ALEC is a nonprofit organization of conservative state legislators and private sector representatives that drafts and shares model state-level legislation for distribution among state governments in the United States.[83][84][85]

During the period of 1998 to 2010, the company expended US$130 million on lobbying in the United States.[77] A key political issue for AT&T has been the question of which businesses win the right to profit by providing broadband internet access in the United States.[86] The company has also lobbied in support of several federal bills. AT&T supported the Federal Communications Commission Process Reform Act of 2013 (H.R. 3675; 113th Congress), a bill that would make a number of changes to procedures that the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) follows in its rulemaking processes.[87] The FCC would have to act in a more transparent way as a result of this bill, forced to accept public input about regulations.[88] AT&T's Executive Vice President of Federal Relations, Tim McKone, said that the bill's "much needed institutional reforms will help arm the agency with the tools to keep pace with the Internet speed of today's marketplace. It will also ensure that outmoded regulatory practices for today's competitive marketplace are properly placed in the dustbin of history."[89]

In May 2018, reports emerged that AT&T made 12 monthly payments between January and December 2017 to Essential Consultants, a company set up by President Donald Trump's lawyer Michael Cohen, totaling $600,000.[90] Although initial reports on May 8 mentioned only four monthly payments totaling $200,000,[91] documents obtained by The Washington Post on May 10 confirmed the figure of 12 payments, which had begun three days after the President was sworn into office.[92][93] AT&T confirmed the report the same day.[94] The report from The Washington Post, as well as additional reporting from Bloomberg, revealed the payments had been made for Cohen to "provide guidance" relating to the attempted $85 billion merger with Time Warner,[92][93] to gain information on the Trump administration's planned tax reforms, as well as about potential changes to net neutrality policies under the new FCC.[95] However, Chairman of the FCC Ajit Pai denied Cohen ever inquired about net neutrality on AT&T's behalf.[94][96] A spokesperson for AT&T said that the company had been contacted by the Special Counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller regarding the payments, and had provided all the information requested in November and December 2017.[97][98]

In early 2019 the Democratic House Judiciary requested records related to the AT&T-Time Warner merger from the White House.[99]

Historical financial performance

The financial performance of the company is reported to shareholders on an annual basis and a matter of public record. The unit (except where noted) is billions of US dollars. Where performance has been restated, the most recent statement of performance from an annual report is used.[100][101][102][103]

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Revenues 45.38 42.82 40.50 40.79 43.86 63.06 118.9 124.0 122.5 124.8 126.7 127.4 128.8 132.4 146.8 163.8
Net Income 7.008 5.653 8.505 5.887 4.768 7.356 11.95 12.87 12.12 19.09 3.944 7.264 18.25 6.224 13.69 13.33
Assets 96.42 95.17 102.0 110.3 145.6 270.6 275.6 265.2 268.3 268.5 270.3 272.3 277.8 292.8 402.7 403.8
Number of employees (thousands) 193.4 175.0 168.0 162.7 190.0 304.2 309.1 302.7 282.7 266.6 256.4 241.8 243.4 243.6 281.5 268.5

Criticism and controversies

Hemisphere database

The company maintains a database of call detail records of all telephone calls that have passed through its network since 1987. AT&T employees work at High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area offices (operated by the Office of National Drug Control Policy) in Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Houston so data can be quickly turned over to law enforcement agencies. Records are requested via administrative subpoena, without the involvement of a court or grand jury.


In September 2007, AT&T changed its legal policy to state that "AT&T may immediately terminate or suspend all or a portion of your Service,[104] any Member ID, electronic mail address, IP address, Universal Resource Locator or domain name used by you, without notice for conduct that AT&T believes ... (c) tends to damage the name or reputation of AT&T, or its parents, affiliates and subsidiaries."[105] By October 10, 2007, AT&T had altered the terms and conditions for its Internet service to explicitly support freedom of expression by its subscribers, after an outcry claiming the company had given itself the right to censor its subscribers' transmissions.[106] Section 5.1 of AT&T's new terms of service now reads "AT&T respects freedom of expression and believes it is a foundation of our free society to express differing points of view. AT&T will not terminate, disconnect or suspend service because of the views you or we express on public policy matters, political issues or political campaigns."[107]

Privacy controversy

Page9-SER klein exhibits
Diagram of how alleged wiretapping worked. From EFF court filings[108]

In 2006, the Electronic Frontier Foundation lodged a class action lawsuit, Hepting v. AT&T, which alleged that AT&T had allowed agents of the National Security Agency (NSA) to monitor phone and Internet communications of AT&T customers without warrants. If true, this would violate the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 and the First and Fourth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. AT&T has yet to confirm or deny that monitoring by the NSA is occurring. In April 2006, a retired former AT&T technician, Mark Klein, lodged an affidavit supporting this allegation.[109][110] The Department of Justice has stated it will intervene in this lawsuit by means of State Secrets Privilege.[111]

In July 2006, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California – in which the suit was filed – rejected a federal government motion to dismiss the case. The motion to dismiss, which invoked the State Secrets Privilege, had argued that any court review of the alleged partnership between the federal government and AT&T would harm national security. The case was immediately appealed to the Ninth Circuit. It was dismissed on June 3, 2009, citing retroactive legislation in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. [112]

In May 2006, USA Today reported that all international and domestic calling records had been handed over to the National Security Agency by AT&T, Verizon, SBC, and BellSouth for the purpose of creating a massive calling database.[113] The portions of the new AT&T that had been part of SBC Communications before November 18, 2005, were not mentioned.

On June 21, 2006, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that AT&T had rewritten rules on its privacy policy. The policy, which took effect June 23, 2006, says that "AT&T – not customers – owns customers' confidential info and can use it 'to protect its legitimate business interests, safeguard others, or respond to legal process.'"[114]

On August 22, 2007, National Intelligence Director Mike McConnell confirmed that AT&T was one of the telecommunications companies that assisted with the government's warrantless wire-tapping program on calls between foreign and domestic sources.[115]

On November 8, 2007, Mark Klein, a former AT&T technician, told Keith Olbermann of MSNBC that all Internet traffic passing over AT&T lines was copied into a locked room at the company's San Francisco office – to which only employees with National Security Agency clearance had access.[116]

AT&T keeps for five to seven years a record of who text messages whom and the date and time, but not the content of the messages.[117]

AT&T has a one star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[118]

Intellectual property filtering

In January 2008, the company reported plans to begin filtering all Internet traffic which passes through its network for intellectual property violations.[119] Commentators in the media have speculated that if this plan is implemented, it would lead to a mass exodus of subscribers leaving AT&T,[120] although this is misleading as Internet traffic may go through the company's network anyway.[119] Internet freedom proponents used these developments as justification for government-mandated network neutrality.

Discrimination against local Public-access television channels

AT&T is accused by community media groups of discriminating against local Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV channels, by "impictions that will severely restrict the audience".[121]

According to Barbara Popovic, Executive Director of the Chicago public-access service CAN-TV, the new AT&T U-verse system forces all Public-access television into a special menu system, denying normal functionality such as channel numbers, access to the standard program guide, and DVR recording.[121] The Ratepayer Advocates division of the California Public Utilities Commission reported: "Instead of putting the stations on individual channels, AT&T has bundled community stations into a generic channel that can only be navigated through a complex and lengthy process."[121]

Sue Buske (president of telecommunications consulting firm the Buske Group and a former head of the National Federation of Local Cable Programmers/Alliance for Community Media) argue that this is "an overall attack [...] on public access across the [United States], the place in the dial around cities and communities where people can make their own media in their own communities".[121]

Information security

In June 2010, a hacker group known as Goatse Security discovered a vulnerability within AT&T that could allow anyone to uncover email addresses belonging to customers of AT&T 3G service for the Apple iPad.[122] These email addresses could be accessed without a protective password.[123] Using a script, Goatse Security collected thousands of email addresses from AT&T.[122] Goatse Security informed AT&T about the security flaw through a third party.[124] Goatse Security then disclosed around 114,000 of these emails to Gawker Media, which published an article about the security flaw and disclosure in Valleywag.[122][124] Praetorian Security Group criticized the web application that Goatse Security exploited as "poorly designed".[122]

In April 2015, AT&T was fined $25 million over data security breaches, marking the largest ever fine issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for breaking data privacy laws. The investigation revealed the theft of details of approximately 280,000 people from call centres in Mexico, Colombia and the Philippines.[125][126]

Accusations of enabling fraud

In March 2012, the United States federal government announced a lawsuit against AT&T. The specific accusations state that AT&T "violated the False Claims Act by facilitating and seeking federal payment for IP Relay calls by international callers who were ineligible for the service and sought to use it for fraudulent purposes. The complaint alleges that, out of fears that fraudulent call volume would drop after the registration deadline, AT&T knowingly adopted a non-compliant registration system that did not verify whether the user was located within the United States. The complaint further contends that AT&T continued to employ this system even with the knowledge that it facilitated use of IP Relay by fraudulent foreign callers, which accounted for up to 95 percent of AT&T's call volume. The government's complaint alleges that AT&T improperly billed the TRS Fund for reimbursement of these calls and received millions of dollars in federal payments as a result."[127]


On April 28, 2015, AT&T announced that it had fired Aaron Slator, President of Content and Advertising Sales, for sending racist text messages.[128] Slator was also hit with a $100 million discrimination lawsuit, filed by African-American employee Knoyme King.[129] The day before that, protesters arrived at AT&T's headquarters in Dallas and its satellite offices in Los Angeles as well as at the home of CEO Randall Stephenson to protest alleged systemic racial policies. According to accounts, the protesters are demanding AT&T begin working with 100% black-owned media companies.[130]

Trademark violation

In June 2016, Citigroup sued AT&T for trademark infringement, false designation of origin, and unfair competition. The company had recently established a loyalty program under the brand AT&T Thanks, which Citigroup claims would cause consumer confusion as an infringement of its "ThankYou" and "Citi ThankYou" marks due to similar wording and visual design. Citi, which also provides a co-branded credit card for AT&T that links with its ThankYou rewards program, sought unspecified damages and the expungement of AT&T's trademark registration.[131][132]

The suit was dismissed in August 2016, with a judge ruling that there was a low likelihood of confusion between the two marks because the companies fall within different industries, and that consumers who use loyalty programs would be able to "clearly take into account the attributes associated with the products they purchase" and, thus, be able to distinguish them.[133]

Naming rights and sponsorships





See also


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External links

Corporate information
At bat

In baseball, an at bat (AB) or time at bat is a batter's turn batting against a pitcher. An at bat is different from a plate appearance. A batter is credited with a plate appearance regardless of what happens during his turn at bat, but a batter is credited with an at bat only if that plate appearance does not have one of the results enumerated below. While at bats are used to calculate certain statistics, including batting average and slugging percentage, a player can qualify for the season-ending rankings in these categories only if he accumulates 502 plate appearances during the season.

A batter will not receive credit for an at bat if his plate appearance ends under the following circumstances:

He receives a base on balls (BB).

He is hit by a pitch (HBP).

He hits a sacrifice fly or a sacrifice bunt (also known as sacrifice hit).

He is awarded first base due to interference or obstruction, usually by the catcher.

He is replaced by another hitter before his at bat is completed, in which case the plate appearance and any related statistics go to the pinch hitter (unless he is replaced with two strikes and his replacement completes a strikeout, in which case the at bat and strikeout are still charged to the first batter).In addition, if the inning ends while he is still at bat (due to the third out being made by a runner caught stealing, for example), no at bat or plate appearance will result. In this case, the batter will come to bat again in the next inning, though the count will be reset to no balls and no strikes.

Rule 9.02(a)(1) of the official rules of Major League Baseball defines an at bat as: "Number of times batted, except that no time at bat shall be charged when a player: (A) hits a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly; (B) is awarded first base on four called balls; (C) is hit by a pitched ball; or (D) is awarded first base because of interference or obstruction[.]"

At sign

The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at" or "at symbol":; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at. It is used as an accounting and invoice abbreviation meaning "at a rate of" (e.g. 7 widgets @ £2 per widget = £14), but it is now most commonly used in email addresses and social media platform "handles".

The absence of a single English word for the symbol has prompted some writers to use the French arobase or Spanish and Portuguese arroba, or to coin new words such as ampersat, asperand, and strudel, but none of these has achieved wide use. The term alphasand is sometimes used, especially in East Asia.Although not included on the keyboard of the earliest commercially successful typewriters, it was on at least one 1889 model and the very successful Underwood models from the "Underwood No. 5" in 1900 onward. It started to be used in email addresses in the 1970s, and is now universally included on computer keyboards.

In unicode, the at sign is encoded as U+0040 @ COMMERCIAL AT (HTML @), or @ in HTML5.

Basketball at the Summer Olympics

Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936. Prior to its inclusion as a medal sport, basketball was held as a demonstration event in 1904. Women's basketball made its debut in the Summer Olympics in 1976.

The United States is by far the most successful country in Olympic basketball, with United States men's teams having won 15 of 18 tournaments in which they participated, including seven consecutive titles from 1936 through 1968. United States women's teams have won 8 titles out of the 10 tournaments in which they competed, including six in a row from 1996 to 2016. Besides the United States, Argentina is the only nation still in existence who has won either the men's or women's tournament. The Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and the Unified Team are the countries no longer in existence who have won the tournament. The United States are the defending champions in both men's and women's tournaments.

On June 9, 2017, the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee announced that 3x3 basketball would become an official Olympic sport as of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, for both men and women.

Five Nights at Freddy's

Five Nights at Freddy's (often abbreviated to FNaF) is a media franchise based around an indie video game series created, designed, developed, and published by Scott Cawthon for Microsoft Windows, iOS, and Android.

The series is centered on the story of a fictional restaurant named Freddy Fazbear's Pizza, a pastiche of restaurants such as Chuck E. Cheese's and ShowBiz Pizza Place. The first three games involve the player working as a nighttime security guard: they must utilize several tools, such as checking security cameras, to survive against animatronic characters, which become mobile and homicidal after hours. The fourth game, which uses different gameplay mechanics from its predecessors, takes place in the house of a child who must defend against nightmarish versions of the animatronics by closing doors and fleeing on foot. The fifth game takes place in a maintenance facility owned by a sister company of Freddy Fazbear's Pizza. The player character is a technician instead of a night guard, who must do different tasks each night as told by an AI voice heard in the game. In the sixth game, the player acts as the owner of a pizzeria which they must decorate with payable items, and must also work the night shift for their pizzeria, which plays similarly to previous games.

The series has gained widespread popularity since its release. Three novel adaptations, Five Nights at Freddy's: The Silver Eyes, Five Nights at Freddy's: The Twisted Ones, and Five Nights at Freddy's: The Fourth Closet, were released in 2015, 2017, and 2018, respectively. A guidebook for the series, Five Nights at Freddy's: The Freddy Files, was released on August 29, 2017, with an activity book titled Five Nights at Freddy's: Survival Logbook being released on December 26, 2017. A film adaptation is currently in the works.

A horror attraction based on the series was featured in the Adventuredome in Halloween of 2016. Additionally, the series appeared in the Guinness Book of Records: Gamer's Edition, breaking the record for the largest number of sequels released in a year.

Football at the Summer Olympics

Association football has been included in every Summer Olympic Games as a men's competition sport, except 1896 and 1932. Women's football was added to the official program in Atlanta 1996.

North American T-6 Texan

The North American Aviation T-6 Texan is an American single-engined advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), United States Navy, Royal Air Force, and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II and into the 1970s. Designed by North American Aviation, the T-6 is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) and USAAF designated it as the AT-6, the United States Navy the SNJ, and British Commonwealth air forces the Harvard, the name by which it is best known outside the US. Starting in 1948, the new United States Air Force (USAF) designated it the T-6, with the USN following in 1962. It remains a popular warbird aircraft used for airshow demonstrations and static displays. It has also been used many times to simulate various Japanese aircraft, including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, in movies depicting World War II in the Pacific. A total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built.

Panic! at the Disco

Panic! at the Disco is an American rock band from Las Vegas, Nevada, formed in 2004 by childhood friends Brendon Urie, Ryan Ross, Spencer Smith and Brent Wilson. Since 2015, vocalist Urie has been the only official member of the band, with drummer Dan Pawlovich, bassist Nicole Row, and guitarist Mike Naran accompanying him on tour. Panic! at the Disco recorded their first demos while they were in high school. Shortly after, the band recorded and released their debut studio album, A Fever You Can't Sweat Out (2005). Popularized by the second single, "I Write Sins Not Tragedies", the album was certified double platinum in the US. In 2006, founding bassist Brent Wilson was fired from the band during an extensive world tour and subsequently replaced by Jon Walker.

Influenced by 1960s rock bands the Beatles, the Zombies and the Beach Boys, and preceded by the single "Nine in the Afternoon", the band's second studio album, Pretty. Odd. (2008), marked a significant departure from the sound of the band's debut. Ross and Walker, who favored the band's new direction, departed because Urie and Smith wanted to make further changes to the band's style. The duo subsequently formed a new band, the Young Veins, leaving Urie and Smith as the sole remaining members of Panic! at the Disco.

Continuing as a duo, Urie and Smith released a new single, "New Perspective", for the movie Jennifer's Body, and recruited bassist Dallon Weekes and guitarist Ian Crawford as touring musicians for live performances. Weekes was later inducted into the band's lineup as a full-time member in 2010. The band's third studio album, Vices & Virtues (2011), was recorded solely by Urie and Smith in 2010, produced by John Feldmann and Butch Walker. Crawford departed once the tour cycle for Vices & Virtues ended in 2012.

As a three-piece, Urie, Smith, and Weekes recorded and released the band's fourth studio album, Too Weird to Live, Too Rare to Die!, in 2013. Prior to the release of the album, Smith unofficially left the band due to health and drug-related issues, leaving Urie and Weekes as the remaining members. The duo recruited guitarist Kenneth Harris and drummer Dan Pawlovich as touring musicians for live performances.

In 2015, Smith officially left the band after not performing live with the band since his departure in 2013. Shortly thereafter, Weekes reverted to being a touring member once again, leaving Urie as the only member of the official lineup. In April 2015, "Hallelujah" was released as the first single from Panic! at the Disco's fifth studio album, Death of a Bachelor (2016).

In December 2017, Weekes officially announced his departure from the band. He was replaced in March 2018 by Nicole Row. Later that same month, the band released "Say Amen (Saturday Night)", the lead single from their sixth studio album, Pray for the Wicked (2018), which was released in June. In September 2018, Harris was dismissed following multiple allegations of sexual misconduct, and was replaced in October by Mike Naran.

Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives

The Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives is an officer of the House with law enforcement, protocol, and administrative responsibilities. The Sergeant at Arms is elected at the beginning of each Congress by the membership of the House.

United Nations Office at Geneva

The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) is the second-largest of the four major office sites of the United Nations (second to the United Nations Headquarters in New York City). It is located in the Palais des Nations building constructed for the League of Nations between 1929 and 1938 at Geneva in Switzerland, and expanded in the early 1950s and late 1960s.

Besides United Nations administration, it also hosts the offices for a number of programmes and funds such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE).

The United Nations and its specialized agencies, programmes and funds may have other offices or functions hosted outside the Palais des Nations, normally in office spaces provided by the Swiss Government.

UN specialized agencies and other UN entities with offices in Geneva hold bi-weekly briefings at the Palais des Nations, organized by the United Nations Information Service at Geneva.

University at Buffalo

The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. It is commonly referred to as the University at Buffalo (UB) was formerly known as the University of Buffalo. It is the de facto flagship campus of the State University of New York (SUNY) system, with the largest enrollment, largest endowment and research funding as a comprehensive university center in the SUNY system. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college, but in 1962 merged with the SUNY system.

As of Fall 2018, the university enrolls 31,508 students in 13 colleges, making it the largest public university in New York. In addition to the College of Arts and Sciences, the university houses the largest state-operated medical school, dental school, education school, business school, engineering school, pharmacy school, and also features the only state law school, architecture and urban planning school in the state of New York. The university offers over 100 bachelor's, 205 master's, 84 doctoral, and 10 professional areas of study.

According to the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the University at Buffalo is a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity (R1). In 1989, UB was elected to the Association of American Universities. UB's alumni and faculty have included a prime minister, astronauts, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners, three billionaires, Academy Award winners, Emmy Award winners, Fulbright Scholars, and Rhodes Scholars. U.S. President Millard Fillmore was one of the school's principal founders and served as the school's first chancellor.

In the Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education 2017 inaugural ranking, UB was ranked as the No. 1 public university in New York and No. 28 in the United States. Buffalo has consistently placed in the top cluster of U.S. public research universities and among the overall top 30 research universities according to the Center for Measuring University Performance and was ranked as the 38th best value for in-state students and the 27th best value for out-of-state students in the 2012 Kiplinger rankings of best value of national universities. U.S. News and World Report's 2019 edition of America's Best Colleges ranked UB 89th on their list of best national universities and 38th among public universities.

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