ASTM International

ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. Some 12,575 ASTM voluntary consensus standards operate globally. The organization's headquarters is in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, about 5 mi (8.0 km) northwest of Philadelphia.

Founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials, ASTM International predates other standards organizations such as the BSI (1901), IEC (1906), DIN (1917), ANSI (1918), AFNOR (1926), and ISO (1947).

ASTM International
Logo of ASTM International, Oct 2015
MottoHelping Our World Work Better[1]
Formation1898
HeadquartersWest Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
Location
Coordinates40°04′09″N 75°18′32″W / 40.069208°N 75.308863°W
President
Katharine Morgan[2]
Volunteers
30,000
Websitewww.astm.org
Astm hq west conshohocken 019
ASTM HQ in West Conshohocken, PA, as seen from a nearby bridge

History

A group of scientists and engineers, led by Charles Dudley, formed ASTM in 1898 to address the frequent rail breaks affecting the fast-growing railroad industry. The group developed a standard for the steel used to fabricate rails. Originally called the "American Society for Testing Materials" in 1902, it became the "American Society for Testing and Materials" in 1961 before it changed its name to “ASTM International” in 2001 and added the tagline "Standards Worldwide". In 2014, it changed the tagline to "Helping our World Work better". Now, ASTM International has offices in Belgium, Canada, China, Peru, and Washington, D.C.[3]

Membership and organization

Membership in the organization is open to anyone with an interest in its activities.[4] Standards are developed within committees, and new committees are formed as needed, upon request of interested members. Membership in most committees is voluntary and is initiated by the member's own request, not by appointment nor by invitation. Members are classified as users, producers, consumers, and "general interest". The latter includes academics and consultants. Users include industry users, who may be producers in the context of other technical committees, and end-users such as consumers. In order to meet the requirements of antitrust laws, producers must constitute less than 50% of every committee or subcommittee, and votes are limited to one per producer company. Because of these restrictions, there can be a substantial waiting-list of producers seeking organizational memberships on the more popular committees. Members can, however, participate without a formal vote and their input will be fully considered.

As of 2015, ASTM has more than 30,000 members, including over 1,150 organizational members, from more than 140 countries.[5][6] The members serve on one or more of 140+ ASTM Technical Committees. ASTM International has several awards for contributions to standards authorship, including the ASTM International Award of Merit (the organization's highest award)[7] ASTM International is classified by the United States Internal Revenue Service as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.

Standards compliance

ASTM International has no role in requiring or enforcing compliance with its standards. The standards, however, may become mandatory when referenced by an external contract, corporation, or government.[5]

  • In the United States, ASTM standards have been adopted, by incorporation or by reference, in many federal, state, and municipal government regulations. The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act, passed in 1995, requires the federal government to use privately developed consensus standards whenever possible. The Act reflects what had long been recommended as best practice within the federal government.
  • Other governments (local and worldwide) also have referenced ASTM standards.[8]
  • Corporations doing international business may choose to reference an ASTM standard.
  • All toys sold in the United States must meet the safety requirements of ASTM F963, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Toy Safety, as part of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA). The law makes the ASTM F963 standard a mandatory requirement for toys while the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) studies the standard's effectiveness and issues final consumer guidelines for toy safety.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ "About ASTM International". ASTM International.
  2. ^ "ASTM International Board of Directors – ASTM President". ASTM International.
  3. ^ Gerard, Barbara (2015-04-08). "What is ASTM International?". Craftchind: Craftech Industries. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  4. ^ "Membership". ASTM International.
  5. ^ a b "Detailed Overview". ASTM International.
  6. ^ "ASTM International Board of Directors". ASTM International.
  7. ^ "Society Awards". ASTM International.
  8. ^ Transport Canada use of ASTM Archived November 19, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Safer Children's Toys – ASTM F963 Toy Safety Standard Required by U.S. Law". ASTM International.

External links

A36 steel

A36 steel is a common structural steel in the United States. The A36 standard was established by the ASTM International.

ASTM A325

ASTM A325 is an ASTM International standard for heavy hex structural bolts, titled Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength. It defines mechanical properties for bolts that range from 1⁄2 to 1 1⁄2 inches (13 to 38 mm) in diameter.The equivalent metric standard is ASTM A325M, which is titled Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated 830 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength. It defines mechanical properties for sizes M12–36.This is a standard set by the standards organization ASTM International, a voluntary standards development organizations that sets technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

In 2016, ASTM officially withdrew specification A325 and replaced it with ASTM F3125. To minimize confusion, bolt head markings are unchanged and the designation A325 is retained as a grade name within the new standard. In 1951, A325 bolts were recognized as equivalent to a hot driven ASTM A141 rivet.

ASTM A354

ASTM A354 is an ASTM International standard that defines chemical and mechanical properties for alloy steel bolts, screws, studs, and other externally threaded fasteners. It is officially titled: Standard Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners.This is a standard set by the standards organization ASTM International, a voluntary standards development organizations that sets technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

ASTM E 2395

ASTM E 2395 is a Standard Specification for Voluntary Security Performance of Window and Door Assemblies with and without Glazing Impact. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. Through this standard is specified voluntary performance test (both requirement and methods) for the resistance to forced entry of window and door assemblies. This standards deal with the capability of window and door assemblies to prevent entry about intruders. These requirements are only limited to window and door assemblies

The main keywords to present this standard are: forced entry; glass; glazing; impact; security, security doors, and security windows.

ASTM F568M

ASTM F568M is an ASTM International standard for metric bolts, screws and studs that are used in general engineering applications. It is titled: Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Externally Threaded Metric Fasteners. It defines mechanical properties for fasteners that range from M1.6 to 100 in diameter. The standard was withdrawn in 2012. and has been replaced by ISO 898-1This standard defines property classes, the metric equivalent of a screw grade, that are almost identical to those defined by ISO 898-1, except for the addition of the 8.8.3 and 10.9.3 classes. These two additional standards are fasteners that have the same mechanical properties as their base property class (i.e. 8.8 and 10.9), but are made from weathering steel.This is a standard set by the standards organization ASTM International, a voluntary standards development organization that sets technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

ASTM F 1577

ASTM F1577 is a Standard Test Method for Detention Locks for Swinging Doors. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. This standard was published by ASTM F33 which is a committee specializes about detention and correctional facilities. FM 33 has published 14 standards in this area. This standard deals with the equipment, procedures, and acceptance conditions for determining the normal operational performance and the performance characteristics under several conditions of locks used in swinging door assemblies into several organizations including detention and correctional institutions. Several features are not considered such as both installation and maintenance conditions.

The main keywords to present this standard are correctional facility; detention facility; detention security; fire test; hardware; impact test; locks; and swinging door assemblies.

ASTM F 1643

ASTM F 1643 is a Standard Test Methods for Detention Sliding Door Locking Device Assembly. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. This standard was published by ASTM F33 which is a committee specializes about detention and correctional facilities. FM 33 has published 14 standards in this area. The test enables to give information about the performance feature regarding devices in services against assault, smoke, and fire conditions into several organizations including detention and correctional institutions. Several features are not considered such as both installation and maintenance conditions. This test enables to help ensure that detention sliding devices perform against intrusion, avoid that intruders penetrate in unauthorized access and to resist common types of vandalism into an organization.

The main keywords to present this standard are correctional facility; detention facility; detention security; fire test; hardware; impact test; locks; and smoke test.

ASTM F 1712

ASTM is a standard specification for steel chain-link fencing materials used for high security applications. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. This was published by ASTM F14 which is a committee specializes about high security fences and perimeter barriers.

The main keywords to present this standard are detention; chain-link fencing; and correctional facility.

ASTM F 2248

ASTM F 2248 is a standard practice for specifying an equivalent 3-Second Duration design loading for blast resistant glazing fabricated with laminated glass. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. This standard was published by ASTM F14 which is a committee specializes about on systems products and services. The standard explain different methods to check the thickness and type of blast resistant glazing fabricated with laminated glass to glaze a fenestration

The main keywords to present this standard are air blast pressure, blast resistant glazing, explosion, insulating glass, and laminated glass.

ASTM F 2348

ASTM F 2348 is a standard test performance specification for privacy padlocks. This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. This standard was published by ASTM F12.50 which is a committee specializes about locking devices. The standards deal with requirement regarding security for padlocks. This standard involves descriptions, operational tests, forcing tests, and surreptitious entry tests.

The main keywords to present this standard are padlocks; privacy padlocks; and security padlocks.

ASTM F 626

ASTM F626 is a standard specification for fence fittings.

This standard was created by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International which was funded in 1898, is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

This standard was published by ASTM F14.40 which is a committee specializes about on chain link fence and Wire Accessories. This standard deals with the materials, coating requirements, and also inspection of fence accessories for chain-link fence.

These accessories are the following:

Post and line caps,

Rail and brace ends,

Top rail sleeves,

Tie wires, clips, and fasteners,

Tension and brace bands,

Tension bars,

Truss rod assembly,

Barbed wire arms,

Color coating of fittings, and

Fitting size terminology.The main keywords to present this standard are fittings, fence; and high security.

ASTM International Award of Merit

The ASTM International Award of Merit is an award that was established in the industrial era following World War II as a response to the growing need to recognize outstanding contributions to the leadership and authorship of consensus standards for manufacturing specifications and analysis. The Award, established in 1949 by the ASTM International Board of Directors, is the highest society award granted to an individual ASTM member. It is given for distinguished service and outstanding leadership participation in consensus standards activities sponsored by ASTM International committees. Recipients of the Award of Merit also receive the honorary title of Fellow of ASTM International (FASTM).The ASTM International Award of Merit is presented at various technical conferences throughout the United States and is given on the basis of merit. The various ASTM Committees do not award this every year and some committees average one award every 4–5 years.

ASTM Subcommittee E20.02 on Radiation Thermometry

ASTM Subcommittee E20.02 on Radiation Thermometry is a subcommittee of the ASTM Committee E20 on Temperature Measurement, a committee of ASTM International. The subcommittee is responsible for standards relating to radiation or infrared (IR) temperature measurement. E20.02's standards are published along with the rest of the E20's standards in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 14.03.

Engineered bamboo

Engineered bamboo is a low cost product manufactured from bamboo. It is designed to be a replacement for wood or engineered wood, but is used only when high load bearing strength is not required because building standards for this type of use have not been agreed by regulatory bodies. Engineered bamboo comes in several different forms, including bamboo scrimber and laminated bamboo, which has three times the structural capacity as normal timber and is defined and regulated by the ASTM International Standards.Engineered bamboo has been used as paneling, vehicle beds, concrete formworks, lightweight building construction and even for shelters after the 2004 tsunami. In comparison to the woods that have been traditionally used, a number of benefits and drawbacks have been identified. Lower cost, especially when replacing wood that would otherwise have been imported, is a key advantage. Further benefits include greater hardness and shape retention, especially in high temperatures.However, bamboo is not as resilient as most woods and will decay more rapidly than other woods if not treated with preservatives.New building methods have had to be developed for engineered bamboo as its properties are sufficiently different, and make normal wood-working methods used with (non-engineered) bamboo unsuitable.In order to overcome the typical loss of strength bamboo incurs when bending takes place post-harvest, an alternative method to overcome this has been developed.

Pre-harvest bending of the bamboo stems in zig-zags, allows the bamboo to later form a Warren truss.Alexander Vittouris has proposed a much simpler 2D S-bend shape, which — after harvesting, and in sufficient quantities — could be assembled into a variety of 3D shapes. The arboriculture technique used to make both shapes is similar to tree shaping, and result in parts similar to knee (construction).

Plastic film

Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material. Thicker plastic material is often called a “sheet”. These thin plastic membranes are used to separate areas or volumes, to hold items, to act as barriers, or as printable surfaces.

Plastic films are used in a wide variety of applications. These include: packaging, plastic bags, labels, building construction, landscaping, electrical fabrication, photographic film, film stock for movies, video tape, etc.

Pump dispenser

A pump dispenser is used on containers of liquids to help dispensing. They might be used on bottles, jars, or tubes. Often the contents are viscous liquids such as creams and lotions. Some are metered to provide uniform usage. Some mix contents from two or more sources prior to dispensing.

Resin identification code

The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made. It was developed in 1988 by the Society of the Plastics Industry (now the Plastics Industry Association) in the United States, but since 2008 it has been administered by ASTM International, an international standards organization.

Rosendale cement

Rosendale cement is a natural hydraulic cement that was produced in and around Rosendale, New York, beginning in 1825. From 1818 to 1970 natural cements were produced in over 70 locations in the United States and Canada. More than half of the 35 million tons of natural cement produced in the United States originated with cement rock mined in Ulster County, New York, in and around the Town of Rosendale in the Hudson River Valley. The Rosendale region of southeastern New York State is widely recognized as the source of the highest quality natural cement in North America. The Rosendale region was also coveted by geologist, such as, W. W. Mather, a geologist working for the State of New York, for its unusual exposed bedrock.` Because of its reputation, Rosendale cement was used as both a trade name and as a generic term referring to any natural hydraulic cement in the US. It was used in the construction of many of the United States' most important landmarks, including the Brooklyn Bridge, the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty, Federal Hall National Memorial, and the west wing of the United States Capitol building.

Spray bottle

A spray bottle is a bottle that can squirt, spray or mist fluids. A common use for spray bottles is dispensing cool cleaners, cosmetics, and chemical specialties. Another wide use of spray bottles is mixing down concentrates such as pine oil with water.

ASTM Standards
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