ASEAN Declaration

The ASEAN Declaration[1] or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was signed in Bangkok on 8 August 1967 by the five ASEAN founding members, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and communist insurgency within their own borders. It states the basic principles of ASEAN: co-operation, amity, and non-interference.[2] The date is now celebrated as ASEAN Day.[3]

ASEAN Declaration
Typemultilateral treaty
Signed8 August 1967
LocationBangkok, Thailand
Original
signatories
 Indonesia
 Malaysia
 Philippines
 Singapore
 Thailand

Surrounding issues

Communism

Prior to the declaration, the five Southeast Asian states struggled to contain communist influence. At the time, the Filipino government struggled to give amnesty to former Hukbalahap militants, who staged an armed conflict in Luzon during the 1950s that almost led to the collapse of the central government. Conflict between the Indonesian military and the increasingly influential Indonesian Communist Party ended in late-1965 with the subsequent transition to Suharto's "New Order" that was staunchly anti-communist in contrast to previous president, Sukarno's increasingly communist-aligned administration. The Malaya was busy fighting communists during the Malayan Emergency.

Communism also led to the idea of merging the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak, Singapore, and North Borneo into one entity, which had the intention of eliminating the possibility of Singapore falling into communism. This was achieved with the creation of modern Federation of Malaysia. Singapore left the federation in 1965 due to ideological differences, as to how the federation should be governed, but remained a capitalist democratic society with close ties with its new neighbors.

Tensions between neighbours

A related matter was the formation of Malaysia. In 1961, Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman announced a proposal to create a new federation called Malaysia. This was opposed by Indonesia and the Philippines because Indonesia believed the new formation was a form of neo-colonialism while the Philippines claimed eastern North Borneo (Sabah) as part of its territory.

To defuse tension, a non-political confederation called Maphilindo was formed. This, however, was not successful due to the perception that Maphilindo was formed to delay or prevent the formation of Malaysia.

Despite opposition, Malaysia was formed in 1963. This led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation. The Philippines withdrew diplomatic ties, causing relations to remain sour until the formation of ASEAN.

It is believed by scholars that the formation of ASEAN has prevented hostilities between Southeast Asian states.[4][5]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Asean Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Bangkok, 8 August 1967". ASEAN. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  2. ^ Bernard Eccleston; Michael Dawson; Deborah J. McNamara (1998). The Asia-Pacific Profile. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-17279-9.
  3. ^ "ASEAN Day". ASEAN. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  4. ^ Globalisation: encyclopaedia of trade, labour, and politics by Ashish K. Vaidya
  5. ^ The Genesis of Konfrontasi: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia 1945-1965, Greg Poulgrain
2017 ASEAN Summits

The 2017 ASEAN Summits or the 30th and 31st ASEAN Summits are diplomatic conferences centering on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which were held in the Philippines from 28–29 April and 10–14 November 2017. This marks the third and fourth time the ASEAN Summit was held in the Philippines.

ASEAN Heritage Parks

The Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Heritage Parks are representative of efforts to conserve areas of particular biodiversity importance or exceptional uniqueness throughout ASEAN member states. The ASEAN Ministers of Environment cooperatively signed the ASEAN Declaration on Heritage Parks on 18 December 2003. The ASEAN Member Countries agreed that "common cooperation is necessary to conserve and manage the AHP for the development and implementation of regional conservation and management action plans as well as regional mechanisms complementary to national efforts to implement conservation measures."

The ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) serves as the secretariat of the ASEAN Heritage Parks Programme and is responsible for reviewing the following principles:

Maintenance of the essential ecological processes and life-support systems;

Preservation of genetic diversity;

Maintenance of species diversity of plants and animals within their natural habitat;

Ensure sustainable utilization of resources; and

Provision of opportunities for outdoor recreation, tourism, education and research to make people recognize the importance of natural resources.37 ASEAN Heritage Parks have been designated since the last inscription in November 2015. 4 sites are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Kinabalu National Park of Malaysia, Lorentz National Park of West Papua, Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park of the Philippines, and Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary of the Philippines.

ASEAN Summit

The ASEAN Summit is a biennial meeting held by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in relation to economic, political, security, and socio-cultural development of Southeast Asian countries. In addition, it serves as a prominent regional (Asia) and international (worldwide) conference, with world leaders attending its related summits and meetings to discuss various problems and global issues, strengthening cooperation, and making decisions. The summit has been praised by world leaders for its success and ability to produce results on a global level.The league of ASEAN is currently connected with other countries who aim to participate on the missions and visions of the league. The league conducts annual meetings with other countries in an organization collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners. ASEAN +3 adds China, Japan, and South Korea.

The formal summits are held in three days. The usual itinerary are as follows:

ASEAN leaders hold an internal organization meeting.

ASEAN leaders hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.

Leaders of three ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN +3), namely China, Japan, and South Korea, hold a meeting with the ASEAN leaders.

And a separate meeting is set for leaders of two ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN +CER), namely Australia and New Zealand.

Arms race

An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces. Each party competes to produce more weapons, larger military, superior military technology, etc. in a technological escalation.

International conflict specialist Theresa Clair Smith, defines the term as "the participation of two or more nation-states in apparently competitive or interactive increases in quantity or quality of war material and/or persons under arms."The term is also used to describe any long-term escalating competitive situation where each competitor focuses on out-doing the others.

Bangkok Declaration

Bangkok Declaration may refer to

the 1967 ASEAN Declaration

the 1993 Bangkok Declaration on human rights

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.

Jamaican political conflict

The Jamaican political conflict is a long standing feud between right-wing and left-wing elements in the country, often exploding into violence. The Jamaican Labor Party and the People's National Party have fought for control of the island for years and the rivalry has encouraged urban warfare in Kingston. Each side believes the other to be controlled by foreign elements, the JLP is said to be backed by the American Central Intelligence Agency and the PNP is said to been backed by the Soviet Union and Fidel Castro.

Johnson Doctrine

The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson after the United States' intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.

Kota Gelanggi

Kota Gelanggi is an archaeological site reported in 2005 as potentially the first capital of the ancient Empire of Srivijaya and dating to around 650–900 and one of the oldest Kingdoms on South East Asia's Malay Peninsula. The site's existence was announced as a 'discovery' by the Malaysian press on 3 February 2005.

List of riots in Singapore

The list of riots in Singapore is a list of riots which happened in Singapore.

Singapore, Straits Settlements (1826-1946)

February 15-20, 1851 - Anti-Catholic riots (1851)|Anti-Catholic riots]] (500 dead)

May 5-17, 1854 - Hokkien-Teochew riots (480 dead, 222 injured) Crown Colony of Singapore (1946-1963)

December 11, 1950 - Maria Hertogh riots (18 dead, 173 injured)

May 13, 1954 - 1954 National Service Riots (26 injured)

May 12, 1955 - Hock Lee Bus Riots (4 dead, 31 injured)

October 26, 1956 - Chinese middle schools riots (13 dead, more than 100 injured)

April 22, 1963 - City Hall riot Negeri Singapura, Malaysia (1963-1965)

July 12, 1963 - Pulau Senang prison riots (4 dead, 5 injured)

July 21, 1964 - 1964 Race Riots (36 dead, 556 injured) Republic of Singapore (1965-)

1969 - 1969 Race Riots of Singapore (4 dead, 80 injured)

December 8, 2013 - 2013 Little India riot (62 injured)

Malayan Union

The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Pan Pan (kingdom)

Pan Pan or Panpan is a lost small Hindu Kingdom believed to have existed around the 3rd to 7th Century CE. It is believed to have been located on the east coast of the Malay peninsula, with opinion varying from somewhere in Kelantan or Terengganu, Malaysia to the vicinity of Surat Thani, Thailand. It is speculated to be related to Pan tan i (the Pattani Kingdom), which occupied the same area many centuries later, and has some differences in culture and language to other Malay regions nearby.

Saranrom Palace

Saranrom Royal Palace (Thai: พระราชวังสราญรมย์), is a former palace in Bangkok, Thailand, located between Grand Palace and Wat Ratchapradit. It served as temporary residence for some princes and as lodging for royal guests. It is now the site of the Museum of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Saranrom Park.

Singapore in Malaysia

Singapore was one of the 14 states of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965. Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963 as a new political entity from the merger of the Federation of Malaya with former British colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. This marked the end of a 144-year period of British rule in Singapore, beginning with the founding of modern Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819.

The union, however, was unstable due to distrust and ideological differences between leaders of the State of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia. Such issues resulted in frequent disagreements relating to economics, finance and politics. The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), which was the political party in power in the federal government, saw the participation of the Singapore-based People's Action Party (PAP) in the Malaysian general election of 1964 as a threat to its Malay-based political system. There were also major racial riots that year involving the majority Chinese community and the Malay community in Singapore. During a 1965 Singaporean by-election, UMNO threw its support behind the opposition Barisan Sosialis candidate. In 1965, Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided upon the expulsion of Singapore from the Federation, leading to the independence of Singapore on 9 August 1965. This led to Singapore and Malaysia to segregate and become which of two independent counties by 1966. Till this date trading of Singapore and Malaysia are not seperate.

Spratly Islands dispute

The Spratly Islands dispute is an ongoing territorial dispute between China, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, concerning "ownership" of the Spratly Islands, a group of islands and associated "maritime features" (reefs, banks, cays, etc.) located in the South China Sea. The dispute is characterised by diplomatic stalemate and the employment of military pressure techniques (such as military occupation of disputed territory) in the advancement of national territorial claims. All except Brunei occupy some of the maritime features.

There has been a sharp rise in media coverage owing mainly to China's increasingly vocal objection to the presence of American naval vessels transiting the area in order to assert the right to freedom of navigation within international waters.

Most of the "maritime features" in this area have at least six names: The "International name", usually in English; the "Chinese name", sometimes different for PRC and ROC (and also in different character-sets); the Vietnamese, Philippine and Malaysian names, and also, there are alternate names (e.g. Spratly Island is also known as Storm Island), and sometimes names with colonial origins (French, Portuguese, Spanish, British, etc.).The Spratly Islands are important for economic and strategic reasons. The Spratly area holds potentially significant, but largely unexplored, reserves of oil and natural gas, it is a productive area for world fishing, it is one of the busiest areas of commercial shipping traffic, and surrounding countries would get an extended continental shelf if their claims were recognised. In addition to economic incentives, the Spratlys sit astride major maritime trade routes to Northeast Asia, giving them added significance as positions from which to monitor maritime activity in the South China Sea and to potentially base and project military force from. In 2014, China drew increased international attention due to its dredging activities within the Spratlys, amidst speculation it is planning to further develop its military presence in the area. In 2015 satellite imagery revealed that China was rapidly constructing an airfield on Fiery Cross Reef within the Spratlys whilst continuing its land reclamation activities at other sites. Only China (PRC), Taiwan (ROC), and Vietnam have made claims based on historical sovereignty of the islands. The Philippines, however, claims part of the area as its territory under UNCLOS, an agreement parts of which have been ratified by the countries involved in the Spratly islands dispute.

Straits Settlements

The Straits Settlements (Malay: Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت; Chinese: 叻嶼呷 / 海峽殖民地) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia. Originally established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867. The colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its Southeast Asian dependencies following the end of the Second World War.

The Straits Settlements originally consisted of the four individual settlements of Malacca, Dinding, Penang and Singapore. The Penang territory included Penang Island, formerly known as the 'Prince of Wales Island', and Seberang Perai on the mainland, formerly known as 'Province Wellesley'. Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were also included. The island of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, was also incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907, becoming a separate settlement within it in 1912. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore separated in 1965. The Cocos (or Keeling) Islands were transferred to Australian control in 1955. Christmas Island was transferred in 1958. Their administration was combined in 1996 to form the Australian Indian Ocean Territories.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Unfederated Malay States

The term Unfederated Malay States (Malay: Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates.

In 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang and Malacca remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

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