ARM11

ARM11 is a group of older 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings.[1] The ARM11 core family consists of ARM1136J(F)-S, ARM1156T2(F)-S, ARM1176JZ(F)-S, and ARM11MPCore. Since ARM11 cores were released from 2002 to 2005, they are no longer recommended for new IC designs, instead ARM Cortex-A and ARM Cortex-R cores are preferred.[1]

ARM11
Designed byARM Holdings
Instruction setARM (32-bit),
Thumb (16-bit),
Thumb-2 (32-bit)
MicroarchitectureARMv6, ARMv6T2, ARMv6Z, ARMv6K

Overview

Announced
Year Core
2002 ARM1136J(F)-S
2003 ARM1156T2(F)-S
2003 ARM1176JZ(F)-S
2005 ARM11MPCore

The ARM11 microarchitecture (announced 29 April 2002) introduced the ARMv6 architectural additions which had been announced in October 2001. These include SIMD media instructions, multiprocessor support and a new cache architecture. The implementation included a significantly improved instruction processing pipeline, compared to previous ARM9 or ARM10 families, and is used in smartphones from Apple, Nokia, and others. The initial ARM11 core (ARM1136) was released to licensees in October 2002.

The ARM11 family are currently the only ARMv6-architecture cores. There are, however, ARMv6-M cores (Cortex-M0 and Cortex-M1), addressing microcontroller applications;[2] ARM11 cores target more demanding applications.

Differences from ARM9

In terms of instruction set, ARM11 builds on the preceding ARM9 generation. It incorporates all ARM926EJ-S features and adds the ARMv6 instructions for media support (SIMD) and accelerating IRQ response.

Microarchitecture improvements in ARM11 cores[3] include:

  • SIMD instructions which can double MPEG-4 and audio digital signal processing algorithm speed
  • Cache is physically addressed, solving many cache aliasing problems and reducing context switch overhead.
  • Unaligned and mixed-endian data access is supported.
  • Reduced heat production and lower overheating risk
  • Redesigned pipeline, supporting faster clock speeds (target up to 1 GHz)
    • Longer: 8 (vs 5) stages
    • Out-of-order completion for some operations (e.g., stores)
    • Dynamic branch prediction/folding (like XScale)
    • Cache misses don't block execution of non-dependent instructions.
    • Load/store parallelism
    • ALU parallelism
  • 64-bit data paths

JTAG debug support (for halting, stepping, breakpoints, and watchpoints) was simplified. The EmbeddedICE module was replaced with an interface which became part of the ARMv7 architecture. The hardware tracing modules (ETM and ETB) are compatible, but updated, versions of those used in the ARM9. In particular, trace semantics were updated to address parallel instruction execution and data transfers.

ARM makes an effort to promote good Verilog coding styles and techniques. This ensures semantically rigorous designs, preserving identical semantics throughout the chip design flow, which included extensive use of formal verification techniques. Without such attention, integrating an ARM11 with third-party designs could risk exposing hard-to-find latent bugs. Due to ARM cores being integrated into many different designs, using a variety of logic synthesis tools and chip manufacturing processes, the impact of its register-transfer level (RTL) quality is magnified many times.[4] The ARM11 generation focused more on synthesis than previous generations, making such concerns more of an issue.

Cores

There are four ARM11 cores:

  • ARM1136[5]
  • ARM1156, introduced Thumb2 instructions
  • ARM1176, introduced security extensions[6]
  • ARM11MPcore, introduced multicore support

Chips

Raspberry Pi B+ top
Raspberry Pi B+ with a Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)[7]
KraftCom CoaxLine Adapter CN-KE502M - Atheros AR7400-AG2C-9835
Atheros AR7400

See also

References

  1. ^ a b ARM11 Family Webpage; ARM Holdings.
  2. ^ not supported by Linux as of version 3.3
  3. ^ "The ARM11 Microarchitecture", ARM Ltd, 2002
  4. ^ The Dangers of Living with an X (bugs hidden in your Verilog), Version 1.1 (14 October 2003).
  5. ^ ARM1136JF-S and ARM1136J-S Technical Reference Manual Revision: r1p5; ARM DDI 0211K
  6. ^ ARM1176JZF-6 Technical Reference Manual Revision: r0p7; accessed on 4 October 2012.
  7. ^ "BCM2835 - Raspberry Pi Documentation". www.raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  8. ^ "Cavium Networks Introduces ECONA Family of Super Energy Efficient ARM®-Based System-on-Chip (SoC) Processors for the Digital Home that break the 1 Watt Barrier" (Press release). Cavium. September 8, 2009.

External links

ARM11 official documents
Quick Reference Cards
  • Instructions: Thumb (1), ARM and Thumb-2 (2), Vector Floating Point (3)
  • Opcodes: Thumb (1, 2), ARM (3, 4), GNU Assembler Directives 5.
Other
ARM Cortex-A8

The ARM Cortex-A8 is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture.

Compared to the ARM11, the Cortex-A8 is a dual-issue superscalar design, achieving roughly twice the instructions per cycle. The Cortex-A8 was the first Cortex design to be adopted on a large scale in consumer devices.

Apple-designed processors

Apple Inc. has developed a range of "System on Chip" (SoC) as well as "System in Package" (SiP) processors for powering their mobile consumer devices and other tasks. To meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these chips combine a central processing unit (CPU) with other components into a single compact physical package. Johny Srouji is the executive in charge of Apple's silicon design.

CoreAVC

CoreAVC was a proprietary codec for decoding the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video format.

As of 2010, the decoder is one of the fastest software decoders, but is slower than hardware-based ones. CoreAVC supports all H.264 Profiles except for 4:2:2 and 4:4:4.

CoreAVC now supports two forms of GPU hardware acceleration for H.264 decoding on Windows: Nvidia with CUDA and DXVA for both ATI and Nvidia hardware.

CoreAVC is included as a part of the CorePlayer Multimedia Framework and was being used in the now defunct desktop client by Joost a system that was distributing videos over the Internet using peer-to-peer TV technology.

Gigabyte GSmart G1305 Boston

The Gigabyte GSmart G1305 Boston is a smartphone from Gigabyte Technology corporation.

The phone includes the MSM7227 SoC from Qualcomm which is equipped with an ARM11 processor running at 600 MHz.

This ARM11 processor has the following CPU Instruction Set: ARMv6.Note: The MSM7227 previously belonged to Qualcomm MSM7000 Series but MSM7227 and MSM7627 were later included in the Snapdragon S1 family from Qualcomm, see Snapdragon S1 family from Qualcomm.

Hardware performance counter

In computers, hardware performance counters, or hardware counters are a set of special-purpose registers built into modern microprocessors to store the counts of hardware-related activities within computer systems. Advanced users often rely on those counters to conduct low-level performance analysis or tuning.

InfoTM

InfoTM is a Chinese technology company that was founded in 2008 as InfoTM Microelectronics Co., Ltd.

JTAG

JTAG (named after the Joint Test Action Group which codified it) is an industry standard for verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture.

JTAG implements standards for on-chip instrumentation in electronic design automation (EDA) as a complementary tool to digital simulation. It specifies the use of a dedicated debug port implementing a serial communications interface for low-overhead access without requiring direct external access to the system address and data buses. The interface connects to an on-chip test access port (TAP) that implements a stateful protocol to access a set of test registers that present chip logic levels and device capabilities of various parts.

The Joint Test Action Group formed in 1985 to develop a method of verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture. In 1990 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers codified the results of the effort in IEEE Standard 1149.1-1990, entitled Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture.

The JTAG standards have been extended by many semiconductor chip manufacturers with specialized variants to provide vendor-specific features.

LG T385

The T385, also known as LG Cookie Smart is a touchscreen mobile phone, single sim version of LG T375. LG continues to be targeted at the entry-level touchscreen markets keeping the cost of the T385 as low as possible by omitting some of the features found on high-end products, such as GPS and 3G.It is using ARM11 CPU at 208 MHz.

Its main feature is a 3.2-inch, 240 x 320 pixel touchscreen. The T385 also has support for auto-rotating display. It has a 2.0 MP Camera with MPEG-4 video capture at 15 frame/s. There is support for video playback up to 29 frames per second. The T385 has a stereo FM radio with RDS. Other software include a document viewer for DOC, XLS, and PDF formats, and a Java MIDP 2.0 games player. Standby time is up to 696 hours and talk time is up to 14 hours.

A nearly-identical model, the LG T580 has exactly same specifications as LG T385, except it uses MTK-based CPU, has silver battery cover and a 32 MB more RAM than in LG T385 of which has only 64 MB of RAM and black or red battery cover.

List of Samsung system-on-a-chips

Samsung has a long history of designing and producing systems on chip (SoCs) and has been manufacturing SoCs for its own devices as well as for sale to other manufacturers. The first Samsung SoC, the S3C44B0, was built around an ARM7 CPU which operated at 66 MHz clock frequency. Later, several SoCs (S3C2xxx) containing an ARM9 CPU were produced. For more information on Samsung's current SoCs see Exynos.

NeuroMatrix

NeuroMatrix is a digital signal processor (DSP) series developed by NTC Module. The DSP has a VLIW/SIMD architecture. It consists of a 32-bit RISC core and a 64-bit vector co-processor. The vector co-processor supports vector operations with elements of variable bit length (US Pat. 6539368 B1) and is optimized to support the implementation of artificial neural networks. From this derives the name NeuroMatrix Core (NMC). Newer devices contain multiple DSP cores and additional ARM11 or PowerPC 470 cores.

Nokia Asha 302

The Nokia Asha 302 is a QWERTY messenger feature phone powered by Nokia's Series 40 operating system. It was announced at Mobile World Congress 2012 in Barcelona (on 27 February) along with other Asha phones - the Nokia Asha 202, and 203. The 302 is considered to be among the flagship of the Asha family. Its main features are the QWERTY keyboard, the pentaband 3G radio, SIP VoIP over 3G and Wi-Fi. Its design looks a lot like the older Nokia E6 with chrome slidings, giving it a somewhat premium look. A software update adds Mail for Exchange support.

Nokia C5-03

The Nokia C5-03 is a budget resistive touchscreen smartphone with WLAN from the Cseries that was released in December 2010. The phone has Shazam music identification software and social networking software included or available for download.

It has Assisted GPS, and Ovi Maps 3.0 integrated.

Nokia C6-01

The Nokia C6-01 is a Symbian^3 smartphone from the Nokia Cseries. The C6-01 display features comes with a 3.2in AMOLED (640 × 360-pixels) display with capacitive touchscreen capabilities and Nokia's ClearBlack technology for improved outdoor visibility. The smartphone was released on November 4, 2010 for €260, excluding taxes and subsidies.

Nokia N79

Nokia N79 is a Symbian OS v9.3 smartphone and a member of the Nokia Nseries multimedia smartphone family running on S60 3rd Edition Feature Pack 2. It was officially announced by Nokia on 26 August 2008. The N79 is an advanced device with a 5 megapixel camera, dual LED flash, and GPS, with many improvements over the Nokia N78. It retailed for 350 euros upon release in October 2008.The N79 has a somewhat more vibrant style compared to usual Nseries devices, with a rotated NOKIA logo (this would later appear on the Nokia N97). Nokia advertised the N79's bold-coloured Xpress-on covers which change the software's colour theme to the cover's. It was also slim by Nseries standards and considered to be attractive. Other features include a 2.4-inch display, 369 MHz ARM11 processor, physical keylock switch, FM transmitter and the Navi wheel.On 14 January 2009 Nokia announced it would ship a sports edition, dubbed the N79 Active, that included a Bluetooth heart rate monitor, an armband and a new version of the Nokia Sports Tracker application.

Nokia N81

The Nokia N81 is a Symbian OS smartphone announced by Nokia on 29 August 2007 and released the next month. It runs S60 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 1.

The N81 was marketed as an entertainment device focused on music and gaming. It was the first device that came preloaded with the N-Gage 2.0 gaming service in 2008 (albeit in public beta), and it features two dedicated gaming keys that can be used for N-Gage games (this would later also appear on the N96, N85 and 5730 XpressMusic). During the launch of N-Gage 2.0, the N81 was specifically chosen by Nokia in advertisements. It was also much marketed as a music-centric smartphone and was one of the first to support the Nokia Music Store service. It has stereo speakers that are considered to be very loud. Several reviewers have claimed that the N81 has, much like the older Nokia N91, a very high sound output quality and therefore highly suitable for audiophiles.The four-way silver-coloured D-pad below the display also contains a new capacitive sensor called the Navi wheel, which allows scrolling in the S60 gallery and music player applications by 'stroking' the key, in a similar manner to the iPod click wheel. It is a unique feature that rarely appears on mobile handsets. The Navi wheel would later also appear on other Nokia Nseries handsets: N78, N85 and N79.

Other than these the N81 has more modest specifications compared to the Nokia N95, with a 2-megapixel camera, lacking both GPS and HSDPA, and weighing 20 grams heavier. However the N81 did have an ARM11 369 MHz processor, the fastest on a Nokia device at the time. The Nokia N81 notably features a sliding spring-loaded physical keylock on the top of the device, located next to the 3.5 mm jack. It is the first Nseries device that swapped the miniUSB port in favour of microUSB.

A variant called N81 8GB with 8-gigabytes of internal flash memory was also announced at the same time. This version retailed for 430 euros before taxes, 70 euros more than the standard version which requires a microSD memory card to expand its 12 megabytes of storage. N81 would be succeeded by the N85.

Nomadik

Nomadik is a family of microprocessors for multimedia applications from STMicroelectronics. It is based on ARM9 ARM architecture and was designed specifically for mobile devices.

On December 12, 2002, STMicroelectronics and Texas Instruments jointly announced an initiative for Open Mobile Application Processor Interfaces (OMAPI) intended to be used with 2.5 and 3G mobile phones, that were going to be produced during 2003. (This was later merged into a larger initiative and renamed the MIPI alliance.) The Nomadik was STMicroelectronics' implementation of this standard.

Nomadik was first presented on October 7, 2003 in the CEATEC show in Tokyo, and later that year the Nomadik won the Microprocessor Report Analysts' Choice Award for application processors.The family was aimed at 2.5G/3G mobile phones, personal digital assistants and other portable wireless products with multimedia capability. In addition it was suitable for automotive multimedia applications. The most known device using the Nomadik processor was the Nokia N96 which used the STn8815 version of the chip. When the N96 debuted in 2008, the absence of a GPU was noticed.

Samsung B7300 Omnia Lite

Samsung B7300 (marketed as OmniaLITE) is an entry-level Windows Mobile 6.5 smartphone from Samsung and is a part of their Omnia series of mobile phones. Announced in June 2009, the Omnia Lite was launched in June 2009. It is based on the original Omnia and the Tocco Ultra.

Samsung i627 Propel Pro

The Samsung SGH-i627 is a smartphone manufactured by Samsung, and sold in the United States as the Propel Pro by AT&T wireless. The SGH-i627 is based on the Qualcomm MSM7201A ARM11 CPU, running the Windows Mobile 6.1 Standard operating system.

Designed with a slider form factor, the SGH-i627 includes a full QWERTY keyboard with center joystick control.

It was designed out of efforts to combine the form factor of the popular original Propel with the features of the also very popular Blackjack II smartphone. Compared to original Propel being available in several colors, the SGH-i627 is only available in chrome, which was chosen to make it more appealing to business users.

SmartQ 5

The SmartQ 5 is a budget mobile Internet device manufactured by the Chinese company Smart Devices. It was officially announced 11 February 2009.

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