AP Stylebook

AP Stylebook, also known by its full name The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, is an English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press to standardize mass communications. Although it is sold as a guide for reporters, it has become the leading reference for most forms of public-facing corporate communication over the last half-century. The Stylebook offers a basic reference to grammar, punctuation and principles of reporting, including many definitions and rules for usage as well as styles for capitalization, abbreviation, spelling and numerals.

The first publicly available edition of the book was published in 1953. The first modern edition was published in August 1977 by Lorenz Press. Afterwards, various paperback editions were published by different publishers including, among others, Turtleback Books, Penguin's Laurel Press, Pearson's Addison-Wesley, and Hachette's Perseus Books and Basic Books. Since 1985 the AP Stylebook has been updated annually, usually in May. Modern editions are released in several formats, including printed paperback and flat-lying spiral-bound editions, as well as electronic e-book edition and an online subscription version. Additionally, today the AP Stylebook also provides English grammar recommendation through its presence on social media, including Twitter,[2] Facebook,[3] and Pinterest.[4]

From 1977 to 2005 more than two million copies of the AP Stylebook have been sold worldwide, with that number climbing to 2.5 million by 2011.[5][6] Writers in broadcasting, magazine publishing, marketing departments and public relations firms traditionally adopt and apply AP grammar and punctuation styles.

AP Stylebook
AP stylebook cover
AP Stylebook, 2004 edition
  • AP Editors (1909-1952)
  • G. P. Winkler (1953–1970)
  • Howard Angione (1977)
  • Angione & E.A. Powell (1980)
  • An., Pow. & C.W. French (1984)
  • French (1986)
  • French & Norm Goldstein (1988)
  • Goldstein (1992-2007)
  • AP Editors (since 2008)
Original titleThe Associate Press Rules Regulations and General Orders
CountryUnited States
SeriesUpdated annually
SubjectStyle guide
GenreJournalism reference
PublisherLorenz Press
Publication date
1909 (1st internal ed.)
1953 (1st public ed.)
1977 (1st public modern ed.)
2019 (latest public modern ed.)
Pages656 (PB)
639 (SB)
ISBN978-1-541699-89-2 (PB)
978-0-917360-68-8 (SB)


The stylebook is organized into sections:

Business Guidelines

A reference section for reporters covering business and financial news including general knowledge of accounting, bankruptcy, mergers and international bureaus. For instance, it includes explanations of five different chapters of bankruptcy.

Sports Guidelines and Style

Includes terminology, statistics, organization rules and guidelines commonly referenced by sports reporters, such as the correct way to spell and use basketball terminology like half-court pass, field goal and goal-tending.

Guide to Punctuation

A specific guide on how to use punctuation in journalistic materials. This section includes rules regarding hyphens, commas, parentheses and quotations.

Briefing on Media Law

An overview of legal issues and ethical expectations for those working in journalism, including the difference between slander and libel. Slander is spoken; libel is written.

Photo Captions

The simple formula of what to include when writing a photo caption, usually called a cutline in newspapers.

Editing Marks

A key with editing symbols to assist the journalist with the proofreading process.


This provides second reference materials for information not included in the book. For example, it says to use Webster's New World College Dictionary, s first reference after the AP Stylebook for spelling, style, usage and foreign geographic names.


From 1909, when the first stylebook-like guide was released internally under the title: "The Associate Press Rules Regulations and General Orders", and until 1953 the stylebook was published under numerous different titles including, among others, Instructions for Correspondents of the Associate Press, The Associate Press. Regulations Traffic Department, A Guide for Filing Editors. The Associated Press, A Guide for Foreign Correspondents. The Associated Press, A Guide for Writers. The Associated Press, The AP Copy Book, and AP Writing Handbook.

The first publicly available edition of AP Stylebook was published in 1953 under the title "The Associated Press Style Book" (with a space between "Style" and "Book"). Since 1953 the stylebook has been published under different titles, including among others, Writing for The AP, AP Stylebook, and The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual.[7]

In 2000, the guide was renamed The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law and the paperback edition had been published under this title since then.[8][9] Some editions, such as the spiral-bound and e-book editions, use the shorter title The Associated Press Stylebook on their covers.


The Associated Press organization was first created in 1846. The first internal AP "guide", which, however, did not deal with English words and grammar and was more of a brochure detailing on 24 pages various titles and corporate structures of the Associated Press organization, was published in 1900 under a title "The Associated Press". The first real stylebook-like guide dealing at least to a significant extent with English words and grammar was released in 1909, under the title: "The Associate Press Rules Regulations and General Orders".[a][10][11][12]

By the early 1950s the publication was formalized into the AP Stylebook and became the leading professional English grammar reference by most member and non-member news bureaus throughout the world. Due to growing demand by non-member journalists and writers working in public-facing corporate communications, the AP published their first official "stylebook" for the general public in 1953 under the title Associated Press Style Book; the first publication focused on "where the wire set a specific style".[13][14][15][16] For nearly a quarter century it assumed its reader had a "solid grounding in language and a good reference library" and thus omitted any guidelines in those broader areas.[16] In 1977, prompted by AP Executive News Editor Lou Boccardi's request for "more of a reference work", the organization started expanding the book and in 1977 produced a book that was different in a few fundamental regards.[16] Firstly, The structure was changed and entries were organized in alphabetical order so that users could find what they need in a timely manner.[17] Secondly, in 1977 the book was published for the first time by a 3rd party publisher - Lorenz Press.[18] Thirdly, in 1977, UPI and AP cooperated to produce stylebooks for each organization that are based on revisions and guidelines jointly agreed on by editors of both UPI Stylebook (Bobby Ray Miller) and AP Stylebook (Howard Angione).[19][20] In 1982, Eileen Alt Powell, a co-editor of AP Stylebook 1980 edition, stated that:

Howard Angione ... at times thought the task he and UPI counterpart Bobby Ray Miller had undertaken resembled the quest of Don Quixote. It was "an impossible dream", Angione said, to find style rules that pleased everyone, especially since even grammarians couldn't agree among themselves.[20]

In 1989, Norm Goldstein became the AP Stylebook lead editor, a job he held until the 2007 edition.[16] After publishing the final edition under his editorship, Goldstein commented on the future of the AP Stylebook's section on name references:

I think the difference...now is that there is more information available on the Internet, and I'm not sure, and at least our executive editor is not sure, how much of a reference book we ought to be any more. I think some of our historical background material like on previous hurricanes and earthquakes, that kind of encyclopedic material that's so easily available on the Internet now, might be cut back.[16]

After Norm Goldstein stepped down as lead editor in 2007, in bibliographical records for all subsequent editions starting from 2008 lead editors' names are usually not explicitly called out and the author is simply refereed to as Associated Press or AP Editors. In 2009 and 2011 the Stylebook was released as an app called AP Stylebook Mobile edition for iOS and BlackBerry, respectively,[21][22][23] however it was later discontinued in 2015 in favor of users simply accessing AP Stylebook Online edition through their desktop or mobile browsers.[24][25] In March 2019 AP created an Archived AP Stylebooks section on its apstylebook.com website where anyone can access previous versions of the AP Stylebook starting from 1900 "brochure on AP corporate structure" and all the way to 1977 edition.[13]

The most recent print edition is the 2019 AP Stylebook, available spiral-bound directly from AP, and as a perfect-bound paperback sold by Basic Books. Creation of AP Stylebook has been helmed by lead editor Paula Froke since 2016.[26][27]


Edition number: English edition

The first publicly available English edition of the book was released in 1953.[13] However, all editions prior to 1977 are not included in the editions count and the first modern edition is considered to be the August 1977 edition released for the first time by Lorenz Press. The latest, 2019 version, is the 54th edition.

Edition number: Spanish edition

Due to the rising influence of the Spanish language worldwide, in November 2012 Associated Press added, in addition to English, its first ever Spanish edition of its Stylebook.[28][29] The Spanish edition is separate from English edition and has a different website, as well as Twitter and Facebook accounts.[30][31] Unlike the English edition, which currently has both online and print versions, the Spanish edition only has an online edition. The Spanish edition does not have an 'edition number' since it only exists as an online service.

Revision process

From 1980-1984 the English edition was updated biennially. Since 1985 the English edition of the stylebook has been updated annually by Associated Press editors, usually in May, and at this time edits and new entries may be added. This is done to keep the stylebook up to date with technological and cultural changes.

In 2005, dozens of new or revised entries were added, including among others words and phrases for "Sept. 11", "e.g." and "i.e.", "FedEx" and "Midwest region".[6]

In 2008, more than 200 new or revised entries were added, including among others words and phrases for "iPhone", "anti-virus", "outsourcing", "podcast", "text messaging", "social networking", "high-definition" and "Wikipedia".[32]

In 2009, more than 60 new or revised entries were added, including among others words for "Twitter", "baba ghanoush" and "texting".[33]

In 2013, more than 90 new or revised entries were added, including among others words for "Benedictine", "Grand Marnier", "madeleine" and "upside-down cake", "chichi" and "froufrou".[14]

In 2019, more than 200 new or revised entries were added, including among others words for "budtender", "deepfake" and "cryptocurrency".[34]

The latest 2020 edition is expected in May 2020.[35]


  1. ^ The title page has a full title Hand Book and Manual of Resolutions of the Board of Directors/General Orders and Instructions to Employees of The Associated Press


  1. ^ There's also a Spanish online-only edition of AP Stylebook
  2. ^ "AP Stylebook (APStylebook) on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  3. ^ "AP Stylebook". Facebook. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  4. ^ "AP Stylebook". Pinterest. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  5. ^ The AP Stylebook as journalistic tool and sociolingustic resource // Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2014). Mediatization and Sociolinguistic Change. Munich: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. 564 p.: pp. 377-381
  6. ^ a b "2005 Edition of AP Stylebook now available". AP.org. Associated Press. April 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  7. ^ Library of Congress Catalog Record for The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual
  8. ^ Mark S. Luckie (4 February 2008). "= The history of the AP Stylebook". 10,000 Words. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  9. ^ Library of Congress Catalog Record for The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law
  10. ^ AP Stylebooks through the ages. cjr.org, 2018
  11. ^ Style guide superjam. aceseditors.org, 2018
  12. ^ The Associate Press Rules Regulations and General Orders (1909). AP Editors, 1909
  13. ^ a b c You can now search really old AP Stylebooks and guides online. poynter.org, 2019
  14. ^ a b AP Stylebook marks 60th anniversary with new print edition. ap.org, May 2013
  15. ^ The history of AP ‘s guidance on language. cjr.org, 2018
  16. ^ a b c d e abridged version: "Norm Goldstein, keeper of AP style". Common Sense Journalism magazine. July 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-21.;
    full version: Norm Goldstein. Common Sense Journalism blog, 2007
  17. ^ AP Style // Heath, Robert L. (2013). Encyclopedia of Public Relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. 1152 p.: pp. 35-36. ISBN 9781452276229
  18. ^ The Associated Press stylebook and libel manual (1977). openlibrary.org, 2019
  19. ^ United Press International (2009). "Introduction to the UPI Stylebook". UPIU.
  20. ^ a b Eileen Alt Powell - Media (is) (are) getting new 'bible': Stylebook publication under way (2 words) // Dorfman, Ron; Fuller Jr., Harry. Reporting/writing/editing: the Quill guides to journalism. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1982. 147 p.: pp. 131-138. ISBN 9780840328328
  21. ^ Has your inkwell run dry? The AP Stylebook for BlackBerry gives you a refill. crackberry.com, 2011
  22. ^ AP Stylebook iPhone App Launches Today, a Hybrid of Print & Online Versions. poynter.org/, 2009
  23. ^ AP Stylebook Mobile. legacy.apstylebook.com, 2014
  24. ^ 2015 AP Stylebook adds more than 300 new or revised entries. ap.org, May 2015
  25. ^ APStylebook.com Help Center topics: Can I continue to use my old Stylebook Mobile app?. AP Stylebook Help, 2019
  26. ^ "Guard Changes on 'AP Stylebook' Team of Editors". Archived from the original on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
  27. ^ Froke named APME executive director and AP Stylebook editor. ap.org, 2017
  28. ^ AP launches its first Spanish-language stylebook. ap.org, Nov. 9, 2012
  29. ^ La AP lanza su primer Manual de Estilo en español. ap.org, Nov. 9, 2012 (in Spanish)
  30. ^ AP Stylebook creates a Spanish version of the Stylebook to address changes in language. poynter.org, 11/12/2012
  31. ^ AP launches Spanish stylebook in Latin America. ap.org, 2012
  32. ^ Print edition of 2008 AP Stylebook now on sale. ap.org, June 2008
  33. ^ New edition of AP Stylebook adds entries and helpful features. ap.org, June 2009
  34. ^ Health and science chapter debuts in 2019 AP Stylebook. ap.org, May 2019
  35. ^ APStylebook.com Help Center topics: When is the AP Stylebook published?. AP Stylebook Help, 2019

External links


An adviser or advisor is normally a person with more and deeper knowledge in a specific area and usually also includes persons with cross-functional and multidisciplinary expertise. An adviser's role is that of a mentor or guide and differs categorically from that of a task-specific consultant. An adviser is typically part of the leadership, whereas consultants fulfill functional roles.The spellings adviser and advisor have both been in use since the 16th century. Adviser has always been the more usual spelling, though advisor has gained frequency in recent years and is a common alternative, especially in North America.

Anti-Somali sentiment

Anti-Somali sentiment or Somalophobia refers to the existence of fear and hostility against Somalis, or their culture.

Citing Medicine

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is the style guide of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). Its main focus is citation style and bibliographic style. The citation style of Citing Medicine is the current incarnation of the Vancouver system, per the References > Style and Format section of the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly called the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals). Citing Medicine style is the style used by MEDLINE and PubMed.The introduction section of Citing Medicine explains that "three major sources are utilized in compiling Citing Medicine: the MEDLARS Indexing Manual of the National Library of Medicine (NLM); pertinent NISO standards, primarily ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 Bibliographic References; and relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), primarily ISO 690 Documentation - Bibliographic References."


The comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe ( ' ) or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text. Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small, filled-in figure 9.

The comma is used in many contexts and languages, mainly to separate parts of a sentence such as clauses, and items in lists, particularly when there are three or more items listed. The word comma comes from the Greek κόμμα (kómma), which originally meant a cut-off piece; specifically, in grammar, a short clause.A comma-shaped mark is used as a diacritic in several writing systems, and is considered distinct from the cedilla. The rough and smooth breathings (ἁ, ἀ) appear above the letter in Ancient Greek, and the comma diacritic appears below the letter in Latvian, Romanian, and Livonian.

Farmers' market

A farmers' market (or "farmers market" according the AP stylebook) is a physical retail marketplace intended to sell foods directly by farmers to consumers. Farmers' markets may be indoors or outdoors and typically consist of booths, tables or stands where farmers sell their homegrown produce, live animals and plants, and sometimes prepared foods and beverages. Farmers' markets exist in many countries worldwide and reflect the local culture and economy. The size of the market may be just a few stalls or it may be as large as several city blocks. Due to their nature, they tend to be less rigidly regulated than retail produce shops.They are distinguished from public markets, which are generally housed in permanent structures, open year-round, and offer a variety of non-farmer/non-producer vendors, packaged foods and non-food products.


Hopefully is an adverb which means "in a hopeful manner" or, when used as a disjunct, "it is hoped". Its use as a disjunct has prompted controversy among advocates of linguistic purism or linguistic prescription.

IEEE style

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers, commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. IEEE style is based on the Chicago Style. In IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.

ISO 690

ISO 690 is an ISO standard governing bibliographic references in different kinds of documents, including electronic documents. This international standard specifies the bibliographic elements that need to be included in references to published documents, and the order in which these elements should be stated.

Language-for-specific-purposes dictionary

A language-for-specific-purposes dictionary (LSP dictionary) is a reference work which defines the specialised vocabulary used by experts within a particular field, for example, architecture. The discipline that deals with these dictionaries is specialised lexicography. Medical dictionaries are well-known examples of the type.

List of style guide abbreviations

This list of style guide abbreviations provides the meanings of the abbreviations that are commonly used as short ways to refer to major style guides. They are used especially by editors communicating with other editors in manuscript queries, proof queries, marginalia, emails, message boards, and so on.

List of style guides

A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style". Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and industry.

MHRA Style Guide

The MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States.

The 3rd edition (updated 2013) can be downloaded free from the MHRA's official website.

Sally Jacobsen

Sally Jacobsen (June 12, 1946 – May 12, 2017) was an American journalist, foreign correspondent and editor whose career spanned 39-years at the Associated Press. In 1999, Jacobsen became the first woman to serve as the international editor for the AP, where she oversaw the news agency's overseas news bureaus. During her tenure as international editor, Jacobson supervised the AP's foreign coverage on the United States invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the 2003 war in Iraq. She was later promoted to AP deputy managing editor for operations and projects, where she edited the AP Stylebook.Jacobsen grew up in Gunnison, Colorado. She received her bachelor's degree from Iowa State University and a master's degree in economics from Cornell University.Jacobsen retired from the Associated Press in 2015 and resided in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. She died from cancer at Phelps Memorial Hospital in Sleepy Hollow, New York, on May 12, 2017, at the age of 70. Jacobsen was survived by her husband, Patrick Oster, a novelist and retired managing editor for Bloomberg News; their son, Alex; and two Airedale terriers, Tazz and Gemma.

Slug (publishing)

In newspaper editing, a slug is a short name given to an article that is in production. The story is labeled with its slug as it makes its way from the reporter through the editorial process. The AP Stylebook prescribes its use by wire reporters (in a "keyword slugline") as follows: "The keyword or slug (sometimes more than one word) clearly indicates the content of the story." Sometimes a slug also contains code information that tells editors specific information about the story — for example, the letters "AM" at the beginning of a slug on a wire story tell editors that the story is meant for morning papers, while the letters "CX" indicate that the story is a correction to an earlier story.In the production process of print advertisements, a slug or slug line, refers to the "name" of a particular advertisement. Advertisements usually have several markers, ad numbers or job numbers and slug lines. Usually the slug references the offer or headline and is used to differentiate between different ad runs.

Style guide

A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although that term also has other meanings. The standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field.

A style guide establishes standard style requirements to improve communication by ensuring consistency both within a document, and across multiple documents. Because practices vary, a style guide may set out standards to be used in areas such as punctuation, capitalization, citing sources, formatting of numbers and dates, table appearance and other areas. The style guide may require certain best practices in usage, language composition, visual composition, orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and compliance (technical and regulatory).

Style guides are specialized in a variety of ways, from the general use of a broad public audience, to a wide variety of specialized uses, such as for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business in general, and specific industries. The term house style refers to the individual style manual of a particular publisher or organization.

The Elements of Typographic Style

The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer, poet and translator Robert Bringhurst. Originally published in 1992 by Hartley & Marks Publishers, it was revised in 1996, 2001 (v2.4), 2002 (v2.5), 2004 (v3.0), 2005 (v3.1), 2008 (v3.2), and 2012 (v4.0). A history and guide to typography, it has been praised by Hermann Zapf, who said “I wish to see this book become the Typographers’ Bible.” Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones consider it "the finest book ever written about typography," according to the FAQ section of their type foundry's website. Because of its status as a respected and frequently cited resource, typographers and designers often refer to it simply as Bringhurst.

The title alludes to The Elements of Style, the classic guide to writing by Strunk and White.

The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage

The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage: The Official Style Guide Used by the Writers and Editors of the World's Most Authoritative Newspaper is a style guide created in 1950 by editors at the newspaper and revised in 1974, 1999, and 2002 by Allan M. Siegal and William G. Connolly. A revised and expanded paperback edition was published in 2002. According to the Times Deputy News Editor Philip B. Corbett (in charge of revising the manual) in 2007, the newspaper maintains an updated, intranet version of the manual that is used by NYT staff, but this online version was not available to the general public. Instead, an epub version was issued in February 2015 for sale to the public. In September 2015, however, this fifth public edition of the book was also released in paperback form (Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-1101905449).

The New York Times Manual has various differences from the more influential, annual Associated Press Stylebook. As some examples, the NYT Manual:

Uses 's for possessives even for a word/name ending in s

Gives rationales for many practices for which AP simply states a rule

Is strictly alphabetical and thus self-indexed, while AP has separate sections for sports and weather entries, and combines many entries under such terms as "weapons"

Has some whimsical entries – such as one for how to spell shh – in contrast to AP's drier, more utilitarian format (though the NYT book is not alone in its tone among journalistic style guides)

Requires that the surnames of subjects (sports figures being the most notable exceptions) be prefixed with a courtesy title (such as Dr., Mr., Ms., or Mrs.)The style guides of Dow Jones & Company and The Wall Street Journal are similar to The Times's counterpart (WSJ also adheres to the AP Stylebook), but they have those differences given above.


A website or web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.

Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.

Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically part of an intranet.

Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.

Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, smartphones and smart TVs.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.