The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is an English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press over the last century to standardize mass communications. Although it is sold as a guide for reporters, it has become the leading reference for most forms of public-facing corporate communication over the last half-century. The Stylebook offers a basic reference to grammar, punctuation and principles of reporting, including many definitions and rules for usage as well as styles for capitalization, abbreviation, spelling and numerals.
The first publicly available edition of the book was published in 1953 and was updated biennially over the next 20 years. The first Basic Books edition was published in August 1977. Today, the AP Stylebook is updated annually (usually in June). Modern editions are released in several formats, including trade paperback, flat-lying spiral-bound, and an online subscription.
Writers in broadcasting, magazine publishing, marketing departments and public relations firms traditionally adopt and apply AP grammar and punctuation styles.
|The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law|
AP Stylebook, 2004 edition
|Author||Norm Goldstein (editor 1979–2007);|
AP Editors (since 2008)
|Original title||The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual|
|July 11, 2017|
|Pages||624 (2017 ed., trade paperback),|
619 (2017 ed., spiral-bound)
|ISBN||978-0-465-06294-2 (2015 trade paperback),|
978-0-917-36061-9 (2015 spiral-bound)
The stylebook is organized into sections:
A reference section for reporters covering business and financial news including general knowledge of accounting, bankruptcy, mergers and international bureaus. For instance, it includes explanations of five different chapters of bankruptcy.
Includes terminology, statistics, organization rules and guidelines commonly referenced by sports reporters, such as the correct way to spell and use basketball terminology like half-court pass, field goal and goaltending.
A specific guide on how to use punctuation in journalistic materials. This section includes rules regarding hyphens, commas, parentheses and quotations.
An overview of legal issues and ethical expectations for those working in journalism, including the difference between slander and libel. Slander is spoken; libel is written.
The simple formula of what to include when writing a photo caption, usually called a cutline in newspapers.
A key with editing symbols to assist the journalist with the proofreading process.
This provides second reference materials for information not included in the book. For example, it says to use Webster's New World College Dictionary, s first reference after the AP Stylebook for spelling, style, usage and foreign geographic names.
For many years the AP Stylebook was titled The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual. In 2000, the guide was renamed The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. Some editions, such as the 2004 copy, used the shorter title The Associated Press Stylebook on their covers.
The Associated Press organization was first created in 1846. Throughout much of its history, the AP maintained a style book for member reporters. By the early 1950s the publication was formalized into the AP Stylebook and became the leading professional English grammar reference by most member and non-member news bureaus throughout the world. Due to growing demand by non-member journalists and writers working in public-facing corporate communications, the AP published their style book for the general public in 1953. The first publication focused on "where the wire set a specific style". For nearly a quarter century it assumed its reader had a "solid grounding in language and a good reference library" and thus omitted any guidelines in those broader areas. In 1977, prompted by AP Executive News Editor Louis Boccardi's request for "more of a reference work", the organization started expanding the book. That year's book was produced jointly with competitor United Press International. In 1989, Norm Goldstein became the AP Stylebook editor, a job he held until the 2007 edition. After publishing the final edition under his editorship, Goldstein commented on the future of the AP Stylebook's section on name references:
I think the difference...now is that there is more information available on the Internet, and I'm not sure, and at least our executive editor is not sure, how much of a reference book we ought to be any more. I think some of our historical background material like on previous hurricanes and earthquakes, that kind of encyclopedic material that's so easily available on the Internet now, might be cut back.
AP Stylebook editors Paula Froke, Sally Jacobsen and David Minthorn now lead the Stylebook. In 2009 the Stylebook was released as an iPhone app which included regular updates and customized features. The most recent print edition is the 2017 AP Stylebook, available spiral-bound directly from AP, and as a perfect-bound paperback sold by Basic Books.
While nearly two million copies of the AP Stylebook have been distributed since 1977, today the AP Stylebook is developing an online presence with profiles on social media platforms like Twitter (@APStylebook)  and Facebook, and is available through an online subscription model as well as an iOS mobile app.
The stylebook is updated annually by Associated Press editors, usually in June, and at this time edits and new entries may be added. In 2008, 200 new entries were added, including words and phrases like "podcast", "text messaging", "social networking" and "high-definition". The 2009 edition added the entries "Twitter" and "texting". This is done to keep the stylebook up to date with technological and cultural changes.
ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers in the field of sociology. It specifies the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. Standards for ASA style are specified in the ASA Style Guide, which is published by the American Sociological Association, the main scholarly organization for academic sociologists in the United States. The ASA Style Guide, published by the American Sociological Association, is designed to aid authors preparing manuscripts for ASA journals and publications.Adviser
An adviser or advisor is normally a person with more and deeper knowledge in a specific area and usually also includes persons with cross-functional and multidisciplinary expertise. An adviser's role is that of a mentor or guide and differs categorically from that of a task-specific consultant. An adviser is typically part of the leadership, whereas consultants fulfill functional roles.The spellings adviser and advisor have both been in use since the sixteenth century. Adviser has always been the more usual spelling, though advisor has gained frequency in recent years and is a common alternative, especially in North America.Anti-Somali sentiment
Anti-Somali sentiment refers to the existence of hostility against Somalis, or their culture.Citing Medicine
Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is the style guide of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). Its main focus is citation style and bibliographic style. The citation style of Citing Medicine is the current incarnation of the Vancouver system, per the References > Style and Format section of the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly called the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals). Citing Medicine style is the style used by MEDLINE and PubMed.The introduction section of Citing Medicine explains that "three major sources are utilized in compiling Citing Medicine: the MEDLARS Indexing Manual of the National Library of Medicine (NLM); pertinent NISO standards, primarily ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 Bibliographic References; and relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), primarily ISO 690 Documentation - Bibliographic References."Comma
The comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe ( ' ) or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text. Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small, filled-in figure 9.
The comma is used in many contexts and languages, mainly for separating parts of a sentence such as clauses, and items in lists, particularly when there are three or more items listed. The word comma comes from the Greek κόμμα (kómma), which originally meant a cut-off piece; specifically, in grammar, a short clause.A comma-shaped mark is used as a diacritic in several writing systems, and is considered distinct from the cedilla. The rough and smooth breathings (ἁ, ἀ) appear above the letter in Ancient Greek, and the comma diacritic appears below the letter in Latvian, Romanian, and Livonian.Hopefully
Hopefully is an adverb which means "in a hopeful manner" or, when used as a disjunct, "it is hoped". Its use as a disjunct has prompted controversy among advocates of linguistic purism or linguistic prescription.IEEE style
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers, commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. IEEE style is based on the Chicago Style. In IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.Language-for-specific-purposes dictionary
A language-for-specific-purposes dictionary (LSP dictionary) is a reference work which defines the specialised vocabulary used by experts within a particular field, for example, architecture. The discipline that deals with these dictionaries is specialised lexicography. Medical dictionaries are well-known examples of the type.List of style guide abbreviations
This list of style guide abbreviations provides the meanings of the abbreviations that are commonly used as short ways to refer to major style guides. They are used especially by editors communicating with other editors in manuscript queries, proof queries, marginalia, emails, message boards, and so on.List of style guides
A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style". Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and industry.MHRA Style Guide
The MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States.
The 3rd edition (updated 2013) can be downloaded free from the MHRA's official website.Sally Jacobsen
Sally Jacobsen (June 12, 1946 – May 12, 2017) was an American journalist, foreign correspondent and editor whose career spanned 39-years at the Associated Press. In 1999, Jacobsen became the first woman to serve as the international editor for the AP, where she oversaw the news agency's overseas news bureaus. During her tenure as international editor, Jacobson supervised the AP's foreign coverage on the United States invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the 2003 war in Iraq. She was later promoted to AP deputy managing editor for operations and projects, where she edited the AP Stylebook.Jacobsen grew up in Gunnison, Colorado. She received her bachelor's degree from Iowa State University and a master's degree in economics from Cornell University.Jacobsen retired from the Associated Press in 2015 and resided in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. She died from cancer at Phelps Memorial Hospital in Sleepy Hollow, New York, on May 12, 2017, at the age of 70. Jacobsen was survived by her husband, Patrick Oster, a novelist and retired managing editor for Bloomberg News; their son, Alex; and two Airedale terriers, Tazz and Gemma.Slug (publishing)
In newspaper editing, a slug is a short name given to an article that is in production. The story is labeled with its slug as it makes its way from the reporter through the editorial process. The AP Stylebook prescribes its use by wire reporters (in a "keyword slugline") as follows: "The keyword or slug (sometimes more than one word) clearly indicates the content of the story." Sometimes a slug also contains code information that tells editors specific information about the story — for example, the letters "AM" at the beginning of a slug on a wire story tell editors that the story is meant for morning papers, while the letters "CX" indicate that the story is a correction to an earlier story.In the production process of print advertisements, a slug or slug line, refers to the "name" of a particular advertisement. Advertisements usually have several markers, ad numbers or job numbers and slug lines. Usually the slug references the offer or headline and is used to differentiate between different ad runs.Style guide
A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although that term may have other meanings. These standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field.
A style guide establishes standard style requirements to improve communication by ensuring consistency both within a document, and across multiple documents. Because practices vary, a style guide may set out standards to be used in areas such as punctuation, capitalization, citing sources, formatting of numbers and dates, table appearance and other areas. The style guide may require certain best practices in usage, language composition, visual composition, orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and compliance (technical and regulatory).
Style guides are specialized in a variey of ways, from the general use of a broad public audience, to a wide variety of specialized uses, such as for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business in general, and specific industries. The term house style refers to the individual style manual of a particular publisher or organization.The Elements of Typographic Style
The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer, poet and translator Robert Bringhurst. Originally published in 1992 by Hartley & Marks Publishers, it was revised in 1996, 2001 (v2.4), 2002 (v2.5), 2004 (v3.0), 2005 (v3.1), 2008 (v3.2), and 2012 (v4.0). A history and guide to typography, it has been praised by Hermann Zapf, who said “I wish to see this book become the Typographers’ Bible.” Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones consider it "the finest book ever written about typography," according to the FAQ section of their type foundry's website. Because of its status as a respected and frequently cited resource, typographers and designers often refer to it simply as Bringhurst.
The title alludes to The Elements of Style, the classic guide to writing by Strunk and White.The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage
The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage: The Official Style Guide Used by the Writers and Editors of the World's Most Authoritative Newspaper is a style guide created in 1950 by editors at the newspaper and revised in 1974, 1999, and 2002 by Allan M. Siegal and William G. Connolly. A revised and expanded paperback edition was published in 2002. According to the Times Deputy News Editor Philip B. Corbett (in charge of revising the manual) in 2007, the newspaper maintains an updated, intranet version of the manual that is used by NYT staff, but this online version was not available to the general public. Instead, an epub version was issued in February 2015 for sale to the public. In September 2015, however, this fifth public edition of the book was also released in paperback form (Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-1101905449).
The New York Times Manual has various differences from the more influential, annual Associated Press Stylebook. As some examples, the NYT Manual:
Uses 's for possessives even for a word/name ending in s
Gives rationales for many practices for which AP simply states a rule
Is strictly alphabetical and thus self-indexed, while AP has separate sections for sports and weather entries, and combines many entries under such terms as "weapons"
Has some whimsical entries – such as one for how to spell shh – in contrast to AP's drier, more utilitarian format (though the NYT book is not alone in its tone among journalistic style guides)
Requires that the surnames of subjects (sports figures being the most notable exceptions) be prefixed with a courtesy title (such as Dr., Mr., Ms., or Mrs.)The style guides of Dow Jones & Company and The Wall Street Journal are similar to The Times's counterpart (WSJ also adheres to the AP Stylebook), but they have those differences given above.Website
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.
Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.
Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically part of an intranet.
Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.
Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, smartphones and smart TVs.Winter storm naming in the United States
Winter storm naming in the United States has been used since the mid 1700s in various ways to describe historical winter storms. These names have been coined from days of the year that the storm impacted, to noteworthy structures such as a theatre the storm had destroyed. In the 2010s, winter storm naming has become controversial with The Weather Channel, and various media coming up with their own names for winter storms. It has been argued by meteorologists that winter storms can reform more than once, making the process of naming them both difficult and redundant. On the other side of the argument those in favor of naming storms argue that the names help people with preparation. Entities from the United States government which includes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Weather Service (NWS) have also weighed in stating that they would not be naming winter storms, and have asked others to refrain from doing so.