ANZUS

The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951 collective security non-binding agreement between Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide. It provides that an armed attack on any of the three parties would be dangerous to the others, and that each should act to meet the common threat. It set up a committee of foreign ministers that can meet for consultation.

The treaty was one of the series that the United States formed in the 1949–1955 era as part of its collective response to the threat of communism during the Cold War.[1] New Zealand was suspended from ANZUS in 1986 as it initiated a nuclear-free zone in its territorial waters; in late 2012 the United States lifted a ban on visits by New Zealand warships leading to a thawing in tensions. New Zealand maintains a nuclear-free zone as part of its foreign policy and is partially suspended from ANZUS, as the United States maintains an ambiguous policy whether or not the warships carry nuclear weapons and operates numerous nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and submarines; however New Zealand resumed key areas of the ANZUS treaty in 2007.[2][3]

Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty
ANZUS map
ANZUS member nations
AbbreviationANZUS
Formation1 September 1951
TypeMilitary alliance
PurposeCollective security
Region
Pacific Rim
Methods
Membership
Official language
English

Treaty structure

The treaty was previously a full three-way defence pact, but following a dispute between New Zealand and the United States in 1984 over visiting rights for ships and submarines capable of carrying nuclear arms[4] or nuclear-powered ships of the US Navy to New Zealand ports, the treaty became between Australia and New Zealand and between Australia and the United States, i.e. the treaty has lapsed between the United States and New Zealand, although it remains separately in force between both of those states and Australia.[5] In 2000, the United States opened its ports to the Royal New Zealand Navy once again, and under the presidency of Bill Clinton in the US and the government of Helen Clark in New Zealand, the countries have since reestablished bilateral cooperation on defence and security for world peace.[6]

While ANZUS is commonly recognised to have split in 1984, the Australia–US alliance remains in full force. Heads of defence of one or both states often have joined the annual ministerial meetings, which are supplemented by consultations between the US Combatant Commander Pacific and the Australian Chief of Defence Force. There are also regular civilian and military consultations between the two governments at lower levels.

Annual meetings to discuss ANZUS defence matters take place between the United States Secretaries of Defense and State and the Australian Ministers of Defence and Foreign Affairs are known by the acronym AUSMIN. The AUSMIN meeting for 2011 took place in San Francisco in September. The 2012 AUSMIN meeting was in Perth, Western Australia in November.[7]

Unlike the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), ANZUS has no integrated defence structure or dedicated forces. Nevertheless, Australia and the United States conduct a variety of joint activities. These include military exercises ranging from naval and landing exercises at the task-group level to battalion-level special forces training, assigning officers to each other's armed services, and standardising equipment and operational doctrine. The two countries also operate several joint-defence facilities in Australia, mainly ground stations for spy satellite, and signals intelligence espionage in Southeast and East Asia as part of the ECHELON network.

During the 2010s, New Zealand and the US resumed a close relationship, although it is unclear whether the revived partnership falls under the aegis of the 1951 trilateral treaty. The Wellington Declaration of 2010 defined a "strategic partnership" between New Zealand and the US, and New Zealand joined the biennial Rim of the Pacific military exercise off Hawaii in 2012, for the first time since 1984. The US prohibition on New Zealand ships making port at US bases was lifted after the 2012 exercise.[6]

History

P-3B RNZAF USN MirageIII RAAF 1983.jpeg
Australian, New Zealand, and United States aircraft during a military exercise in 1982

Origins

In the years following the Second World War, Australia and New Zealand began pressing the United States for a formal security guarantee. The two nations felt threatened by the possibility of a resurgent Japan and the spread of communism to their North.[8] Additionally, the fall of Singapore in 1942 had demonstrated that their traditional protector, the United Kingdom, no longer had power in the region. This added to their sense of vulnerability. The United States was initially reluctant, offering instead an informal guarantee of protection. But the need to strengthen the West against communism grew with the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 and the 1950-1953 Korean War. Additionally, the United States wanted to gain Australian and New Zealand approval for a 'soft peace' with Japan. The treaty allayed antipodean fears that such a peace would allow Japan to threaten them again.[9] [10]

The resulting treaty was concluded at San Francisco on 1 September 1951, and entered into force on 29 April 1952. The treaty bound the signatories to recognise that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety of the others. It stated 'The Parties will consult together whenever in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened in the Pacific'. The three nations also pledged to maintain and develop individual and collective capabilities to resist attack.[11]

Malaysia, Korea, Vietnam, and the War on Terror

The treaty itself was not a source of debate for 30 years, though in this period New Zealand and Australia committed forces to the Malayan Emergency and subsequently the ANZUS nations fought together in the Vietnam War.

As part of the United Nations deployment, New Zealand and Australia had earlier fought alongside the United States in the Korean War. New Zealand sent transport aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft, and frigates to the Persian Gulf, as well as a very small number of soldiers, SAS soldiers, medical and assorted and peace-keeping forces, to Afghanistan in 2001. Despite Prime Minister Helen Clark being openly critical of American justifications for the 2003 Iraq war, New Zealand did send engineer troops to Iraq following the 2003 invasion.[12] These troops were however officially engaged in reconstruction under UN Security Council Resolution 1483 and were non-combatant.

Australian reservations about the MX missile

In 1983, the Reagan Administration approached Australia with proposals for testing the new generation of American intercontinental ballistic missiles, the MX missile. American test ranges in the Pacific were insufficient for testing the new long-range missiles and the United States military wished to use the Tasman Sea as a target area. Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser of the Liberal Party had agreed to provide monitoring sites near Sydney for this purpose.[13] However, in 1985, the newly elected Prime Minister Bob Hawke, of the Labor Party, withdrew Australia from the testing programme, sparking criticism from the Reagan Administration. Hawke had been pressured into doing so by the left-wing faction of the Labor Party, which opposed the proposed MX missile test in the Tasman Sea. The Labor left-wing faction also strongly sympathized with the New Zealand Fourth Labour Government's anti-nuclear policy and supported a South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone.[14][15][16]

To preserve its joint Australian-US military communications facilities, the Reagan Administration also had to assure the Hawke Government that those installations would not be used in the Strategic Defense Initiative project, which the Australian Labor Party strongly opposed. Despite these disagreements, the Hawke Labor Government still remained supportive of the ANZUS security treaty. It also did not support its New Zealand counterpart's ban on nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered ships. Following the ANZUS Split in February 1985, the Australian government also endorsed the Reagan Administration's plans to cancel trilateral military exercises and to postpone the ANZUS foreign ministers conference. However, it still continued to maintain bilateral military ties and continued to share intelligence information with New Zealand.[16] Unlike New Zealand, Australia continued to allow US warships to visit its ports and to participate in joint military exercises with the United States.[17][18]

New Zealand bans nuclear material

In 1985, the nature of the ANZUS alliance changed significantly. Due to a current of anti-nuclear sentiment within New Zealand, tension had long been present between ANZUS members as the United States is a declared nuclear power. France, a naval power and a declared nuclear power, had been conducting nuclear tests on South Pacific Islands. Following the victory of the New Zealand Labour Party in elections in 1984, Prime Minister David Lange barred nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships from using New Zealand ports or entering New Zealand waters. Reasons given were the dangers of nuclear weapons, continued French nuclear testing in the South Pacific, and opposition to US President Ronald Reagan's policy of aggressively confronting the Soviet Union.[19]

Given that the United States Navy had a policy of deliberate ambiguity during the Cold War and refused to confirm or deny the presence of nuclear weapons aboard its warships and support ships,[20] these laws essentially refused access to New Zealand ports for all United States Navy vessels. In February 1985, a port-visit request by the United States for the guided-missile destroyer USS Buchanan was refused by New Zealand, as the Buchanan was capable of launching nuclear depth bombs. As this occurred after the government unofficially invited the United States to send a ship, the refusal of access was interpreted by the United States as a deliberate slight.

According to opinion polls taken before the 1984 election, only 30 per cent of New Zealanders supported visits by US warships with a clear majority of 58 per cent opposed, and over 66 percent of the population lived in locally declared nuclear-free zones.[21] An opinion poll commissioned by the 1986 Defence Committee of Enquiry confirmed that 92 per cent now opposed nuclear weapons in New Zealand and 69 per cent opposed warship visits; 92 per cent wanted New Zealand to promote nuclear disarmament through the UN, while 88 per cent supported the promotion of nuclear-free zones.[22]

However other polls indicated that the majority of the population would support visits by American warships which might be nuclear armed or powered, if the alternative was that New Zealand would have to withdraw from ANZUS.

United States suspends obligations to New Zealand

After consultations with Australia and after negotiations with New Zealand broke down, the United States announced that it was suspending its treaty obligations to New Zealand until United States Navy ships were re-admitted to New Zealand ports, citing that New Zealand was "a friend, but not an ally".[23] The crisis made front-page headlines for weeks in many American newspapers,[24] while many American cabinet members were quoted as expressing a deep sense of betrayal.[25] However, David Lange did not withdraw New Zealand from ANZUS, although his government's policy led to the US's decision to suspend its treaty obligations to New Zealand.

An opinion poll in New Zealand in 1991,[26] showed 54% of those sampled preferred to let the treaty lapse rather than accept visits again by nuclear-armed or nuclear-powered vessels. The policy did not become law until 8 June 1987 with the passing of the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987, more than two years after the Buchanan was refused entry after the US refused to declare the presence or absence of nuclear weapons, and a year after the US suspended its treaty obligations to New Zealand. This law effectively made the entire country a nuclear-free zone.[27] Despite the ANZUS split, Secretary of State George P. Shultz maintained that the ANZUS structure was still in place, should NZ decide in the future to reverse its anti-nuclear policy and return to a fully operational defence relationship with the US. President Reagan also maintained in NSDD 193 (National Security Decision Directive) that New Zealand still remained a "friend, but not an ally".[28]

On 10 July 1985, agents of the French Directorate-General for External Security bombed the Greenpeace protest vessel Rainbow Warrior in Auckland, causing one death. The failure of Western leaders to condemn this violation of a friendly nation's sovereignty caused a great deal of change in New Zealand's foreign and defence policy,[29] and strengthened domestic opposition to the military application of nuclear technology in any form. New Zealand distanced itself from its traditional ally, the United States, and built relationships with small South Pacific nations, while retaining its good relations with Australia, and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom.[30]

The suspension of New Zealand in ANZUS has had significant effect on New Zealand–United States relations and on New Zealand domestic policy. The anti-nuclear policy has been a part of New Zealand political culture for years now. However, that has not stopped United States politicians from trying to change the policy.

2001 invasion of Afghanistan

Bush-Howard 2001 review
Australian Prime Minister John Howard and US President George W. Bush on September 10th 2001. Howard was in Washington during the September 11 attacks.

Australia and New Zealand both provided military units, including special forces and naval ships, in support of the US-led "Operation Enduring Freedom" for support for anti-Taliban forces in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Providing 1,550 troops, Australia remains the largest non-NATO contributor of military personnel in Afghanistan. New Zealand committed 191 troops.

East Timor

Between 1999 and 2003, the armed forces of Australia and New Zealand deployed together in a large scale operation in East Timor, to prevent pro-Indonesian militia from overturning a vote for independence on the island. The United States provided only limited logistical support but USS Mobile Bay provided air defence for the initial entry operation. The operation was taken over by the United Nations.

Taiwan

One topic that became prominent in the 2000s was the implications in the case of a hypothetical attack by the People's Republic of China against Taiwan, who would likely receive American support. While Australia has strong cultural and economic ties with the United States, it also has an increasingly important trade relationship with China.

In August 2004, Foreign Minister Alexander Downer implied in Beijing that the treaty would likely not apply to that situation, but he was quickly corrected by Prime Minister John Howard. In March 2005, after an official of the People's Republic of China stated that it may be necessary for Australia to reassess the treaty and after China passed an Anti-Secession Law regarding Taiwan, Downer stated that in case of Chinese aggression on Taiwan, the treaty would come into force, but that the treaty would require only consultations with the United States and not necessarily commit Australia to war.

1985 to present

Annual bilateral meetings between the US Secretary of State and the Australian Foreign Minister replaced annual meetings of the ANZUS Council of Foreign Ministers. The first bilateral meeting was held in Canberra in 1985. At the second meeting, in San Francisco in 1986, the United States announced that it was suspending its treaty security obligations to New Zealand pending the restoration of port access. Subsequent bilateral Australia–US Ministerial (AUSMIN) meetings have alternated between Australia and the United States.

The alliance engenders some political controversy in Australia. Particularly after Australian involvement in the 2003 Iraq war, some quarters of Australian society have called for a re-evaluation of the relationship between the two nations. Nonetheless the alliance enjoyed broad support during the Cold War[31] and continues to enjoy broad support in Australia.[32] One commentator in Australia has argued that the treaty should be re-negotiated in the context of terrorism, the modern role of the United Nations and as a purely US–Australian alliance.[33]

Australia is also a contributor to the National Missile Defense system.[34][35]

In May 2006, US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, Christopher Hill, described the New Zealand anti-nuclear issue as "a bit of a relic", and signalled that the US wanted a closer defence relationship with New Zealand. He also praised New Zealand's involvement in Afghanistan and reconstruction in Iraq. "Rather than trying to change each other's minds on the nuclear issue, which is a bit of a relic, I think we should focus on things we can make work" he told an Australian newspaper.[36]

While there have been signs of the nuclear dispute between the US and NZ thawing out, pressure from the United States increased in 2006 with US trade officials linking the repeal of the ban of American nuclear ships from New Zealand's ports to a potential free trade agreement between the two countries.[25]

On 4 February 2008, US Trade Representative Susan Schwab announced that the United States will join negotiations with four Asia–Pacific countries: Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore to be known as the "P-4". These nations already have a FTA called the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership and the United States will be looking to become involved in the "vitally important emerging Asia-Pacific region" A number of US organisations support the negotiations including, but not limited to: the United States Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers, National Foreign Trade Council, Emergency Committee for American Trade and Coalition of Service Industries.[37][38]

In 2010, the United States and New Zealand signed the Wellington Declaration in Wellington, New Zealand, during a three-day visit by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The signing of the declaration ended the ANZUS dispute of the past 25 years, and it was later revealed the US and New Zealand had resumed military co-operation in eight areas in 2007.[39]

On 16 November 2011, US President Obama and Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard met in Canberra, Australia to announce plans for a sustained new American presence on Australian soil. 2,500 American troops are to be deployed to Darwin, Australia.

New Zealand and the United States signed the Washington Declaration on 19 June 2012 "to promote and strengthen closer bilateral defense and security cooperation".[40] On 20 September 2012, while on a visit to New Zealand, US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta announced that the United States was lifting the 26-year-old ban on visits by New Zealand warships to US Department of Defense and US Coast Guard bases around the world[41]; US Marines had trained in New Zealand and New Zealand's navy took part in the RIMPAC maritime exercises alongside the US earlier that year.[42]

The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) invited the United States Navy to send a vessel to participate in the RNZN's 75th Birthday Celebrations in Auckland over the weekend of 19-21 November 2016. The guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson became the first US warship to visit New Zealand in 33 years. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key granted approval for the ship's visit under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987, which requires that the Prime Minister has to be satisfied that any visiting ship is not nuclear armed or powered.[43] Following the 7.8 magnitude Kaikoura earthquake on 14 November 2016 the Sampson and other naval ships from Australia, Canada, Japan and Singapore were diverted to proceed directly to Kaikoura to provide humanitarian assistance.[44]

See also

References

  1. ^ Joseph Gabriel Starke, The ANZUS Treaty Alliance (Melbourne University Press, 1965)
  2. ^ "U.S. lifts ban on New Zealand warships, New Zealand keeps nuclear-free stance". tribunedigital-chicagotribune.
  3. ^ "In Warming US-NZ Relations, Outdated Nuclear Policy Remains Unnecessary Irritant". Federation Of American Scientists.
  4. ^ The test for ship access was decided as nuclear capability not actual proof of nuclear armament by a NZLP 1984 committee of President Margaret Wilson, Chair of the Defence and Foreign Affairs Committee and MP and former President Jim Anderton and MP Fran Wilde ,
  5. ^ King M: 2003, The Penguin History of New Zealand, Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd, Auckland 1310, New Zealand. p426 and pp495-6
  6. ^ a b "New Zealand: U.S. Security Cooperation and the U.S. Rebalancing to Asia Strategy, government report, 8 March 2013, Congressional Research Service" (PDF). FAS.org. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  7. ^ "AUSMIN 2011, media release, 14 September 2011, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs". Foreignminister.gov.au. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  8. ^ "Milestones: 1945–1952 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  9. ^ David McLean, "Anzus Origins: A Reassessment," Australian Historical Studies 24#94 (1990), pp. 64-82.
  10. ^ "ANZUS treaty comes into force | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  11. ^ William David McIntyre, , Background to the Anzus Pact: Policy-Making, Strategy and Diplomacy, 1945-55 (1994)
  12. ^ "NZ PM backs Blair's Iraq conduct". BBC News. 11 July 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  13. ^ Samantha Maiden (1 January 2012). "US planned to fire missile at Australia, secret Cabinet papers from the 1980s reveal". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  14. ^ "US rocket plan became Hawke's first setback". Sydney Morning Herald. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Hawke Government events: 1985". The Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Library. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  16. ^ a b Carpenter, Ted (1986). "Pursuing a Strategic Divorce: The U.S. and the Anzus Alliance". Cato Institute Policy Analysis. Cato Institute (67): 4–5. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  17. ^ "US Ships to Visit Sydney", The Southland Times, 22 February 1985, p.1
  18. ^ "US Ships to Visit Australian Ports", New Zealand Herald, 22 February 1985, p.1
  19. ^ Amy L. Catalinac, "Why New Zealand took itself out of ANZUS: observing “opposition for autonomy” in asymmetric alliances." Foreign Policy Analysis 6.4 (2010): 317-338.
  20. ^ "The Operations Coordinating Board (part of President Eisenhower's National Security Council) established the US policy in 1958 of neither confirming nor denying (NCND) the presence or absence of nuclear weapons at any general or specific location, including aboard any US military station, ship, vehicle, or aircraft."Morgan, J.G., Jr. (3 February 2006). "Release of Information on Nuclear Weapons and on Nuclear Capabilities of U.S. Forces (OPNAVINST 5721.1F N5GP)" (PDF). Washington, DC: Department of the Navy – Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  21. ^ Disarmament and Security Centre: Publications – Papers Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Disarmament and Security Centre: Publications – Papers Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way: Books: David Lange, Michael Gifkins". Amazon.com. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  24. ^ "The Australian National University". Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  25. ^ a b "New Zealand: US links free trade to repeal of NZ nuclear ships ban – November 2, 2002". Newsweekly.com.au. 2 November 2002. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
  26. ^ Name: * (12 June 1991). "NZ Nationals move closer to US". Green Left. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  27. ^ "Nuclear-free legislation – nuclear-free New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  28. ^ 'U.S. Policy on the New Zealand Port Access Issue', National Security Decision Directive 193, 21 October 1985, Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Program, accessed 22 October 2012, https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-193.htm
  29. ^ Keith Sinclair, A History of New Zealand Penguin Books, New Zealand, 1991
  30. ^ Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way, The Right Honourable David Lange, Penguin Books, New Zealand,1990
  31. ^ ASSDA – Opinion Poll – M0004: Morgan Gallup Poll, May 1984 (Computer Reports) Archived 6 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Destined to stay with the USA – OpinionGerardHenderson". www.smh.com.au. 30 March 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  33. ^ "It's time to trade in, and trade up, the outdated ANZUS treaty – On Line Opinion – 15/4/2004". On Line Opinion. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  34. ^ U.S. and Australia Sign Missile Defense Agreement – AUSMIN 2004 Archived 14 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Australia to Join US Missile Defence Program". Foreignminister.gov.au. 4 December 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  36. ^ Geoff Elliott (22 March 2007). "Better relations on the menu as Kiwi PM dines with Bush". The Australian. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2008.
  37. ^ Office of the United States Trade Representative Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Recent Events Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "What the WikiLeaks cables say about NZ". Television New Zealand. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  40. ^ "Washington Declaration". United States-New Zealand Council. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  41. ^ "US lifts ban on New Zealand naval ships". The Telegraph. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  42. ^ Alexander, David (20 September 2012). "U.S. lifts 26-year-old ban on New Zealand warship visits to U.S. bases". Chicago Tribune. Auckland. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  43. ^ "US warship USS Sampson heads to New Zealand". 18 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via New Zealand Herald.
  44. ^ "US Warship may help rescue stranded Kaikoura tourists". Fairfax Media. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016 – via Stuff.co.nz.

Further reading

  • Brands, Jr., Henry W. "From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy towards Australia and New Zealand, 1952-1954" International History Review 9#2 (1987), pp. 250-270 online
  • Catalinac, Amy L. "Why New Zealand Took Itself out of ANZUS: Observing ‘Opposition for Autonomy’ in Asymmetric Alliances," Foreign Policy Analysis 6#3 (2010), pp. 317-338.
  • Dorling, Philip. The Origins of the Anzus Treaty: A Reconsideration (Flinders UP, 1989)
  • Green, Michael J., et al. The ANZUS alliance in an ascending Asia (ANU Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 2015) online.
  • McIntyre, William David, Background to the Anzus Pact: Policy-Making, Strategy and Diplomacy, 1945-55 (1994)
  • McLean, David. "Anzus Origins: A Reassessment," Australian Historical Studies 24#94 (1990), pp. 64-82
  • Miller, Charles. "Public Support for ANZUS: Evidence of a Generational Shift?" Australian Journal of Political Science, 50#1 (2015), pp.1–20.
  • Robb, Thomas K., and David James Gill. "The ANZUS Treaty during the Cold War: a reinterpretation of US diplomacy in the Southwest Pacific." Journal of Cold War Studies 17.4 (2015): 109-157. online
  • Siracusa, Joseph M and Glen St John Barclay. "Australia, the United States, and the Cold War, 1945–51: From V-J Day to ANZUS", Diplomatic History 5#1 (1981) pp 39-52
  • Siracusa, Joseph M., and Glen St J. Barclay. "The historical influence of the United States on Australian strategic thinking." Australian Journal of International Affairs 38.3 (1984): 153-158.

External links

1951 in New Zealand

The following lists events that happened during 1951 in New Zealand.

The year was dominated by the 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute.

New Zealand entered a mutual defence pact with the United States and Australia - ANZUS.

1952 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Economic Conference

The 1952 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Economic Conference was an emergency Meeting of the Heads of Government of the British Commonwealth. It was called by the British government of Sir Winston Churchill and held in the United Kingdom in December 1952 as a follow-up to a Commonwealth Finance Minister's conference held in January 1952. The conference was held in the context of British economic and military decline and the United States' surging role in the world.The principal topic of the conference was the convertibility and liquidity of Pound sterling into American dollars and British concerns that non-sterling Commonwealth countries were building up sterling balances for the purpose of conversion into American dollars, the future of the Pound sterling area, and the alleviation of Commonwealth trade restrictions and imperial preference, particularly in the light of the surging American economy and the desire of Commonwealth countries such as Australia for American investment in order for economic development to occur against British concerns that American economic dominance threatened Britain's economic position. This discussion was necessary as the Commonwealth, with the exception of Canada, had a common pool of gold and dollar reserves. Little was accomplished in the economic discussion with the final communique being described as an "agreement in platitudes".British concerns at being excluded from the ANZUS military treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States were also a topic and were addressed by a communique issued by the prime ministers supporting Britain's demand for a voice in ANZUS.In addition, Commonwealth prime ministers, after months of discussion on whether the newly ascended Queen Elizabeth II should have a uniform Royal Styles and Titles throughout the Commonwealth or whether realms should adopt their own styles and titles, it was agreed that each member of the Commonwealth "should use for its own purposes a form of the Royal Style and Titles which suits its own particular circumstances but retains a substantial element which is common to all" and agreed to pass appropriate legislation in their respective parliaments. The prime ministers also agreed to proclaim the new Queen, Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth in succession of her late father, George VI.

AUSMIN

AUSMIN, the Australia-United States Ministerial Consultation, is the main annual forum for consultations between Australia and the United States.

It has been held most years since 1985, with the meetings alternating between locations in the Australia and the United States. It involves the Australian Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Defence as well as the US Secretaries of State and Defense, with senior officials from both portfolios.The events are important in the relationship between Australia and the United States, and they enable discussion on major global and regional political issues, as well as deepening bilateral foreign security and defence cooperation.

Australia in the Korean War 1950–53

Australia in the Korean War 1950–53 is the official history of Australia's involvement in the Korean War. The series consists of two volumes covering Australia's strategy and diplomacy in the war and the Australian military's combat operations respectively. Both volumes were written by Robert O'Neill, and they were published in 1981 and 1985.

Australia–United States relations

Australia–United States relations are the international relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America. At the governmental level, Australia–United States relations are formalised by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.

According to a 2014 BBC World Service poll, 44 percent of Australians had a "mainly positive" view of the United States and 46 percent had a "mainly negative" view, for a net rating of −2 points. No similar survey was conducted to ascertain American perceptions of Australia. According to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership Report, 55% of Australians approve of U.S. leadership, with 21% disapproving and 24% uncertain. In a more recent 2016 Pew Research poll, 60% of Australians approve of U.S. leadership. In 2017, a major poll conducted in Australia by the Lowy Institute showed that 77% believed an alliance with the US was important for security. However, the survey showed that 60% of Australians had developed an unfavorable view of the US as a result of President Donald Trump. The survey also showed that the US was no longer considered Australia's "best friend", a title now held by New Zealand. A 2017 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed only 29% of Australians had confidence in current US leader President Donald Trump, in contrast to the 87% who had confidence in former US president, Barack Obama. It also showed 70% of Australians had no confidence in the current US president. The annual Lowy Institute survey revealed that in 2018 only 55% of Australians believed that the US could act responsibly in the world. This was a drop from 83% in 2011 and a record low. The survey also revealed that 70% of Australians don't think that Donald Trump could act responsibly with only 30% believing he could do so.

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (NZ)

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND(NZ)) was co-founded in Christchurch New Zealand in 1959 with the help of Elsie Locke and Mary Woodward. Mabel Hetherington, who belonged to an earlier generation of peace activists from England, was largely responsible for setting up CND(NZ) in Auckland when she moved to New Zealand after World War II. With Alison Duff and Pat Denby, Hetherington carried CND(NZ) in Auckland through the 1960s. It was largely from CND(NZ) and the Peace Media that Greenpeace New Zealand evolved.

In 1959, responding to rising public concern following the British H-Bomb tests in Australia, New Zealand voted in the UN to condemn nuclear testing while the United Kingdom, United States and France voted against, and Australia abstained. In the early 1960s CND(NZ) New Zealand organised marches and speeches throughout the country to highlight the concerns about French atmospheric nuclear tests at Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia. In 1961, CND(NZ) with the support of other peace groups urged the New Zealand government to declare it ‘will not acquire or use nuclear weapons' and to withdraw from nuclear alliances such as ANZUS. In 1963 CND(NZ) Auckland presented the ‘No Bombs South of the Line' petition with 80,238 signatures to the New Zealand Parliament calling on the government to sponsor an international conference to discuss establishing a nuclear-free-zone in the southern hemisphere. It was the biggest New Zealand petition since the one in 1893 demanding votes for women.In 1972, in a joint Greenpeace and CND(NZ) campaign, the yacht Vega was re-named "Greenpeace III", and it sailed in a defiant protest into the atomic exclusion zone at Mururoa Atoll. The Vega was rammed by a French military warship and David McTaggart (co-founder of Greenpeace International) was severely beaten by French military police in a second voyage in 1973. The international publicity which surrounded the incident marked the beginning of a 3 decade protest against nuclear testing at Mururoa with an eventual test ban implemented by the French in 1996. In 1987 the New Zealand parliament adopted the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987 declaring the country and its territorial waters a nuclear-free zone.

Two leaders of CND NZ in the 1970s went on to parliamentary careers. CND President Richard Northey ONZM was MP for Eden from 1984 to 1990 and MP for Onehunga from, 1993 to 1996. His Vice President Mike Rann CNZM was Premier of South Australia from 2002 to 2011.

First National Government of New Zealand

The First National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1949 to 1957. It was a conservative government best remembered for its role in the 1951 waterfront dispute. It also began the repositioning of New Zealand in the cold war environment. Although New Zealand continued to assist Britain in situations such as the Malayan Emergency, it now became connected to Australia and the United States through the ANZUS agreement.

Domestically, the First National Government presided over a steady rise in the average standard of living, and by 1957 New Zealand was, in the words of the historian Keith Sinclair, "a materialist's paradise." In 1957, the National Party published a book entitled "A Record of Achievement: The Work of the National Government, 1949–1957,” detailing its accomplishments in office. Under National's leadership, according to the publication, people now had more money, pensions, cattle, sheep, university scholarships, overseas trips, radios, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, electric toasters, houses, motor vehicles, and telephones. As summed up by Sidney Holland in a foreword, 'New Zealand is a happier, healthier and more prosperous nation'.

Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand

The Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand governed New Zealand from 26 July 1984 to 2 November 1990. It was the first Labour government to win a second consecutive term since the First Labour Government of 1935 to 1949. The policy agenda of the Fourth Labour Government differed significantly from that of previous Labour governments: it enacted major social reforms (such as legalising homosexual relations) and economic reforms (including corporatisation of state services and reform of the tax system).

The economic reforms became known as "Rogernomics", after Finance Minister Roger Douglas. According to one political scientist:

The Labour government also enacted nuclear-free legislation, which led to the United States suspending it's treaty obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS alliance. David Lange led the government for most of its two three-year terms in office. Lange and Douglas had a falling out that divided the party. The government suffered a defeat at the 1990 general election, but the incoming National government retained most of the reforms.

Gerald Hensley

Gerald Hensley CNZM (born 4 December 1935, in Christchurch), is a former New Zealand diplomat and public servant.

He was educated at St Bede's College, Christchurch and Canterbury University where he took an MA with first class honours in History.

He joined the Department of External Affairs (now the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade) in 1958 and served in Samoa, at the New Zealand Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, and in 1965 was appointed Special Assistant to the Commonwealth Secretary-General when the Commonwealth Secretariat was established in London. He then served as Counsellor at the New Zealand Embassy in Washington. While in Washington, in April 1973, the Black September group painted slogans on the wall of his house and fired several shots through the windows. This was thought to have been the first Islamist-based terrorist attack in the United States. From 1976 until 1980 he was New Zealand’s High Commissioner in Singapore.

In 1980 he returned to Wellington to become Head of the Prime Minister’s Department, where he served under both Rob Muldoon and David Lange's administrations.

From 1987 to 1989 he was Co-ordinator of Domestic and External Security. He was then invited to become a Fellow at the Centre for International Affairs at Harvard University. While there he lectured on events in New Zealand’s recent history

In 1991 he became Secretary of Defence and served in that role until September 1999 when he retired and was honoured with the CNZM. In 2000 he chaired the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group which advised the Papua New Guinea Government on the reconstruction of its armed forces.

From 2001 until 2007 he was President of the Asthma Foundation, and since 2011 has been Co-Chair of the Centenary History Programme commemorating the First World War.

He has published numerous articles on Asian and Pacific Affairs, including "Palm and Pine" a history of New Zealand’s relations with Singapore, in "New Zealand and South East Asia"; and "A Crisis of Expectations – UN Peacekeeping in the 1990's: A Participants Point of View", edited by Ramesh Thakur and Carlyle A. Thayer.

A memoir about his time in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Prime Minister’s Department. "Final Approaches" was published by the Auckland University Press in 2006. Three years later his book "Beyond the Battlefield" on New Zealand and its allies in World War II was published by Penguin and was a finalist in the 2010 New Zealand Post Book Awards.

In May 2013, "Friendly Fire: Nuclear Politics and the Collapse of ANZUS, 1984–1987", was published by the Auckland University Press. "Friendly Fire" examines how New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy damaged ANZUS ties with the United States during the 1980s. This book uses recently declassified government documents from archives in New Zealand, Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

He was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Literature by Massey University in May 2015.

Gerald Hensley lives on a vineyard in Martinborough, New Zealand. His wife Juliet died in May 2013.

International organization membership of the United States

The following is a list of international organizations in which the United States of America officially participates.

Asian Development Bank (ADB) (nonregional member)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (dialogue partner)

Australia Group

Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC) (observer)

Colombo Plan (CP)

Council of Europe (CE) (observer)

Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) (observer)

Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) (observer)

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Group of Seven (G7)

Group of Eight (G8)

Group of Ten (G10)

Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20)

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

International Development Association (IDA)

International Energy Agency (IEA)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

International Grains Council (IGC)

International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)

International Labour Organization (ILO)

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)

International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Organization of American States (OAS)

Pacific Community (SPC)

Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) (partner)

Paris Club

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) (observer)

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) (observer)

United Nations (UN)

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH)

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)

United Nations Security Council (UNSC) (permanent member)

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

World Bank Group (WBG)

World Customs Organization (WCO)

World Health Organization (WHO)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Veterans Federation (WVF)

Zangger Committee (ZC)

List of ambassadors of the United States to Australia

The position of United States Ambassador to Australia has existed since 1940. U.S.–Australian relations have been close throughout the history of Australia. Before World War II, Australia was closely aligned with the United Kingdom, but it has strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia has declined and the United States' influence has increased. At the governmental level, United States–Australia relationships are formalised by the ANZUS treaty and Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

The embassy in Canberra has always been regarded as a desirable posting and hence has become a patronage position. U.S. Ambassadors to Australia have traditionally been friends, political allies, or former business associates of the President of the day. Some have been major donors to the President's election campaign or political party. Few have been career diplomats (Marshall Green was a conspicuous exception). The two ambassadors during the Bush Administration, for example, were Tom Schieffer, a former business associate of President Bush, and Robert McCallum Jr., a Bush college friend. The actor Fess Parker was offered the post in 1985 by Ronald Reagan, after representing Reagan at an event in Australia. Parker considered it, but turned it down.This arrangement has suited Australian governments, which welcome the ability of such Ambassadors to gain direct access to the President, bypassing the State Department. The United States was without an ambassador to Australia from September 2016 until February 2019.

New Zealand in the Vietnam War

New Zealand's involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial, sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts. This conflict was also the first in which New Zealand did not fight alongside the United Kingdom, instead following the loyalties of the ANZUS Pact.

New Zealand decided to send troops to Vietnam in 1964 because of Cold War concerns and alliance considerations. The potential adverse effect on the ANZUS alliance of not supporting the United States (and Australia) in Vietnam was key. It also upheld New Zealand's national interests of countering communism in South-East Asia.

The government wanted to maintain solidarity with the United States, but was unsure about the likely outcome of external military intervention in Vietnam. Prime Minister Keith Holyoake decided to keep New Zealand involvement in Vietnam at the minimum level deemed necessary to meet allied expectations. New Zealand could not do much more—its meagre military resources were already stretched in Malaya and conscription was out of the question.

New Zealand nuclear-free zone

In 1984, Prime Minister David Lange barred nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships from using New Zealand ports or entering New Zealand waters. Under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987, territorial sea, land and airspace of New Zealand became nuclear-free zones. This has since remained a part of New Zealand's foreign policy.The Act prohibits "entry into the internal waters of New Zealand 12 nautical miles (22.2 km, 13 ​13⁄16 statute miles) radius by any ship whose propulsion is wholly or partly dependent on nuclear power" and bans the dumping of radioactive waste into the sea within the nuclear-free zone, as well as prohibiting any New Zealand citizen or resident "to manufacture, acquire, possess, or have any control over any nuclear explosive device." The nuclear-free zone Act does not prohibit nuclear power plants, nuclear research facilities, the use of radioactive isotopes, or other land-based nuclear activities.After the Disarmament and Arms Control Act was passed by the Lange-led Labour government, the United States government suspended its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand. The legislation was a milestone in New Zealand's development as a nation and seen as an important act of sovereignty, self-determination and cultural identity. New Zealand's three decade anti-nuclear campaign is the only successful movement of its type in the world which resulted in the nation's nuclear-weapon-free zone status being enshrined in legislation.

New Zealand–United States relations

New Zealand–United States relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the United States of America. According to the U.S. State Department, relations as of August 2011 are "the best they have been in decades." New Zealand is a major non-NATO ally of the United States.Both the United States and New Zealand share some common ancestry and history (having both been British colonies). Both countries had native peoples who were at times dispossessed of their land by the process of colonization. Both states have also been part of a Western alliance of states in various wars. Together with three other Anglophone countries, they comprise the Five Eyes espionage and intelligence alliance.

Non-aggression pact

A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a treaty between two or more states/countries that includes a promise by the signatories not to engage in military action against each other. Such treaties may be described by other names, such as a treaty of friendship or non-belligerency, etc.

Leeds, Ritter, Mitchell, & Long (2002) distinguish between a non-aggression pact and a neutrality pact. They posit that a non-aggression pact includes the promise not to attack the other pact signatories, whereas a neutrality pact includes a promise to avoid support of any entity that acts against the interests of any of the pact signatories. The most readily recognized example of the aforementioned entity is another country, nation-state, or sovereign organization that represents a negative consequence towards the advantages held by one or more of the signatory parties.In the 19th century neutrality pacts have historically been used to give permission for one signatory of the pact to attack or attempt to negatively influence an entity not protected by the neutrality pact. The participants of the neutrality pact agree not to attempt to counteract an act of aggression waged by a pact signatory towards an entity not protected under the terms of the pact. Possible motivations for such acts by one or more of the pacts' signatories include a desire to take, or expand, control of, economic resources, militarily important locations, etc.Such pacts were a popular form of international agreement in the 1920s and 1930s, but have largely fallen out of use after the Second World War. Since the implementation of a non-aggression pact necessarily depends on the good faith of the parties, the international community, following the Second World War, adopted the norm of multilateral collective security agreements, such as the treaties establishing NATO, ANZUS, SEATO and Warsaw Pact.An example of non-aggression pact is the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. The Pact lasted until the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. However, such pacts may be a device for neutralising a potential military threat, enabling at least one of the signatories to free up its military resources for other purposes. For example, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact freed German resources from the Russian front and was the trigger for the Second World War. On the other hand, the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, signed on April 13, 1941, removed the threat from Japan in the east enabling the Soviets to move large forces from Siberia to the fight against the Germans, which had a direct bearing on the Battle of Moscow.

It has been found that major powers are more likely to start military conflicts against their partners in non-aggression pacts than against states that do not have any sort of alliance with them.

Nuclear umbrella

Nuclear umbrella refers to a guarantee by a nuclear weapons state to defend a non-nuclear allied state. The phrase is usually used in reference to the security alliances of the United States with Japan, South Korea, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (much of Europe, Turkey, Canada), and Australia, originating with the Cold War with the Soviet Union. For some countries, it was an alternative to acquiring nuclear weapons themselves; other alternatives include regional Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones or Nuclear Sharing.

Sidney Holland

Sir Sidney George Holland (18 October 1893 – 5 August 1961) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 13 December 1949 to 20 September 1957. He was instrumental in the creation and consolidation of the New Zealand National Party, which was to dominate New Zealand politics for much of the second half of the 20th century.

In 1940, Holland became the second Leader of the National Party, and Leader of the Opposition. He served briefly (1942) in a war cabinet but thereafter attacked the Labour government for its interventionist economic policies. Holland led the National Party to its first election victory in 1949. His National government implemented moderate economic reforms, dismantling many state controls. Holland's government also undertook constitutional change in 1950, by abolishing the Legislative Council, the upper house of parliament, on the grounds that it was ineffectual.

In 1951, Holland, having confronted striking dockers and coal miners intent on what he called "industrial anarchy", called a snap election and was re-elected Prime Minister. In its second term, the National government signed the ANZUS defence agreement with Australia and the United States. Holland led his party to a third consecutive victory in 1954. Following ill health in 1957, Holland stepped down as Prime Minister to be replaced by Keith Holyoake.

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization's headquarters were also in Bangkok. Eight members joined the organization.

Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

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