AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is the style guide of the American Medical Association. It is written by the editors of JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) and the Archives journals and is most recently published by Oxford University Press. It specifies the writing and citation styles for use in the journals published by the American Medical Association. The manual was first published in 1962, and its current edition, the 10th, came out in 2007. It covers a breadth of topics for authors and editors in medicine and related health fields. The online edition also has updates (style points that have changed since the last print edition), a blog, monthly tips from the editors, quizzes, and an SI unit conversion calculator.
AMA style is widely used, either entirely or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals (including medical and other public health journals), in many textbooks, and in academia (for papers written in classes). Along with APA style and CSE style, it is one of the major style regimes for such work. Many publications have small local style guides that cascade over AMA, APA, or CSE style (for example, "follow AMA style unless otherwise specified herein" or "for issues not addressed herein, follow AMA style").
In general, AMA style strives for clarity and simplicity, and trusts the target readership to have a certain amount of knowledge and education. For example, AMA style dispenses with periods in abbreviations, on the grounds that they are unnecessary for meaning's or clarity's sake in all but very few contexts. AMA also requires expansion of most abbreviations at first use, for clarity's sake. The AMA Manual of Style sets standards for mechanical style, but does not insist on invariability for its own sake in contexts where a bit of limited variation is logical, especially in higher-level style.
ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers in the field of sociology. It specifies the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. Standards for ASA style are specified in the ASA Style Guide, which is published by the American Sociological Association, the main scholarly organization for academic sociologists in the United States. The ASA Style Guide, published by the American Sociological Association, is designed to aid authors preparing manuscripts for ASA journals and publications.Citing Medicine
Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is the style guide of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). Its main focus is citation style and bibliographic style. The citation style of Citing Medicine is the current incarnation of the Vancouver system, per the References > Style and Format section of the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly called the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals). Citing Medicine style is the style used by MEDLINE and PubMed.The introduction section of Citing Medicine explains that "three major sources are utilized in compiling Citing Medicine: the MEDLARS Indexing Manual of the National Library of Medicine (NLM); pertinent NISO standards, primarily ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 Bibliographic References; and relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), primarily ISO 690 Documentation - Bibliographic References."Decimal separator
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
Different countries officially designate different symbols for the decimal separator. The choice of symbol for the decimal separator also affects the choice of symbol for the thousands separator used in digit grouping, so the latter is also treated in this article.
Any such symbol can be called a decimal mark, decimal marker or decimal sign. But symbol-specific names are also used; decimal point and decimal comma refer to an (either baseline or middle) dot and comma respectively, when it is used as a decimal separator; these are the usual terms used in English, with the aforementioned generic terms reserved for abstract usage.In many contexts, when a number is spoken, the function of the separator is assumed by the spoken name of the symbol: comma or point in most cases. In some specialized contexts, the word decimal is instead used for this purpose (such as in ICAO-regulated air traffic control communications).
In mathematics the decimal separator is a type of radix point, a term that also applies to number systems with bases other than ten.Eponym
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic. For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era, and "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to Henry Ford. Recent usage, especially in the recorded-music industry, also allows eponymous to mean "named after its central character or creator".IEEE style
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers, commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. IEEE style is based on the Chicago Style. In IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.ISO 690
ISO 690 is an ISO standard for bibliographic referencing in different kind of documents. It includes electronic documents, and specifies the elements to be included in references to published documents, and the order in which the elements of the reference should be stated. Punctuation and style (output mask) are not part of the standard; it is a standard for content more than for presentation.
ISO 690 covers references to published material in both print and non-print form. The latest version was published in 2010 and covers all kinds of information resources, including monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images.Even though ISO 690:2010(E) generally suggests to place the date of publication after place and publisher (referred to as "production information") it also hints to the Harvard system style (name-date system) and provides also various examples of its way of citation in the annex of ISO 690:2010(E).In vivo
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism. This is not to be confused with experiments done in vitro ("within the glass"), i.e., in a laboratory environment using test tubes, Petri dishes, etc. Examples of investigations in vivo include: the pathogenesis of disease by comparing the effects of bacterial infection with the effects of purified bacterial toxins; the development of non-antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and new drugs generally; and new surgical procedures. Consequently, animal testing and clinical trials are major elements of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject. In drug discovery, for example, verification of efficacy in vivo is crucial, because in vitro assays can sometimes yield misleading results with drug candidate molecules that are irrelevant in vivo (e.g., because such molecules cannot reach their site of in vivo action, for example as a result of rapid catabolism in the liver).The English microbiologist Professor Harry Smith and his colleagues in the mid-1950s found that sterile filtrates of serum from animals infected with Bacillus anthracis were lethal for other animals, whereas extracts of culture fluid from the same organism grown in vitro were not. This discovery of anthrax toxin through the use of in vivo experiments had a major impact on studies of the pathogenesis of infectious disease.
The maxim in vivo veritas ("in a living thing [there is] truth") is used to describe this type of testing and is a play on in vino veritas, ("in wine [there is] truth"), a well-known proverb.List of American Medical Association journals
There are thirteen medical journals published by the American Medical Association (AMA). The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), along with JAMA Network Open and eleven specialty journals, compose the JAMA Network family of journals. The journals share a common website, archives and other means of access (such as RSS feeds), have common policies on publishing and public relations, and pool their editorial resources in producing the AMA Manual of Style.They also operate a common webpage, For The Media, that provides free access to news releases about the latest research published in AMA journals to credentialed journalists prior to official publication dates (pre-embargo content), as well as access to all related pre-embargo (pre-publication) news releases and video news release scripts.
Before they were rebranded as the JAMA Network in 2013, the AMA's stable of journals were referred to as JAMA and the Archives journals (for example, this is how the AMA Manual of Style formerly referred to them), because the specialty journals used to have titles on the pattern of Archives of [Specialty].
JAMA Network recently created three new journals: JAMA Oncology in 2015, JAMA Cardiology in 2016, and JAMA Network Open in 2018.List of style guide abbreviations
This list of style guide abbreviations provides the meanings of the abbreviations that are commonly used as short ways to refer to major style guides. They are used especially by editors communicating with other editors in manuscript queries, proof queries, marginalia, emails, message boards, and so on.MHRA Style Guide
The MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States.
The 3rd edition (updated 2013) can be downloaded free from the MHRA's official website.MLA Style Manual
The MLA Style Manual, titled the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing in its second (1998) and third edition (2008), was an academic style guide by the United States-based Modern Language Association of America (MLA) first published in 1985. MLA announced in April 2016 that the publication would be discontinued: the third edition would be the last and was to be “taken out of print”. The announcement also said that what began as an abridged version for students, the MLA Handbook, was to be thenceforth “the authoritative source for MLA style", and that the organization was "in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars."Microsoft Manual of Style
The Microsoft Manual of Style: Your Everyday Guide to Usage, Terminology, and Style for Professional Technical Communications (MSTP), in former editions the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications, is a style guide published by Microsoft. The fourth edition, ISBN 0-7356-4871-9, was published on January 15, 2012. Microsoft employees and partners can also access a Microsoft Compressed HTML Help (CHM) version of the MSTP.
In 2018, the book was replaced by a website, the Microsoft Writing Style Guide, joining other online guides like the Apple Style Guide and Google Developer Documentation Style Guide.Millimeter of mercury
A millimetre of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high, and currently defined as exactly 133.322387415 pascals. It is denoted by the symbol mmHg or mm Hg.Although not an SI unit, the millimetre of mercury is still routinely used in medicine, meteorology, aviation, and many other scientific fields.
One millimetre of mercury is approximately 1 Torr, which is 1/760 of standard atmospheric pressure (101325/760 ≈ 133.322368421053 pascals). The two units are not exactly equal; however, the relative difference (less than 0.000015%) is negligible for most practical uses.People-first language
People-first language (PFL), also called person-first language (PFL), is a type of linguistic prescription which puts a person before a diagnosis, describing what a person ‘’has’’ rather than asserting what a person ‘’is’’. It is intended to avoid marginalization or dehumanization (either consciously or subconsciously ) when discussing people with a chronic illness or disability. It can be seen as a type of disability etiquette but person-first language can also be more generallly applied to any group that would otherwise be defined or mentally categorized by a condition or trait (for example, race, age, or appearance)
Person-first language avoids using labels or adjectives to define someone, utilising terms such as "a person with diabetes" or "a person with alcoholism", instead of "a diabetic" or "an alcoholic". The intention is that a person is seen foremost as a person and only secondly as a person with some trait. Advocates of person-first language point to the failure to mentally separate the person from the trait as reinforcing a sense that both the trait and the person are inherently bad or inferior, leading to discrimination whilst also implicitly reinforcing a sense of permanency even regarding issues that are likely to be temporary. For example, a person with a substance use disorder has a fair chance of achieving long-term remission—many years in which he is healthy and productive—but calling him a "substance abuser" reinforces an unspoken sense that he is inherently and permanently tainted and casts doubt on maintenance of remission.Proper noun
A proper noun is a noun directly associated with an entity and primarily used to refer to that entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sharon, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which is a noun directly associated with a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation) and primarily used to refer to instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).Some proper nouns occur in plural form (optionally or exclusively), and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique (the Hendersons, the Everglades, the Azores, the Pleiades). Proper nouns can also occur in secondary applications, for example modifying nouns (the Mozart experience; his Azores adventure), or in the role of common nouns (he's no Pavarotti; a few would-be Napoleons). The detailed definition of the term is problematic and to an extent governed by convention.A distinction is normally made in current linguistics between proper nouns and proper names. By this strict distinction, because the term noun is used for a class of single words (tree, beauty), only single-word proper names are proper nouns: Peter and Africa are both proper names and proper nouns; but Peter the Great and South Africa, while they are proper names, are not proper nouns. The term common name is not much used to contrast with proper name, but some linguists have used the term for that purpose. Sometimes proper names are called simply names; but that term is often used more broadly. Words derived from proper names are sometimes called proper adjectives (or proper adverbs, and so on), but not in mainstream linguistic theory. Not every noun or noun phrase that refers to a unique entity is a proper name. Blackness and chastity are common nouns, even if blackness and chastity are considered unique abstract entities.
Few proper names have only one possible referent: there are many places named New Haven; Jupiter may refer to a planet, a god, a ship, or a symphony; at least one person has been named Mata Hari, but so have a horse, a song, and three films; there are towns and people named Toyota, as well as the company.
In English, proper names in their primary application cannot normally be modified by an article or other determiner (such as any or another), although some may be taken to include the article the, as in the Netherlands, the Roaring Forties, or the Rolling Stones. A proper name may appear to refer by having a descriptive meaning, even though it does not (the Rolling Stones are not stones and do not roll; a woman named Rose is not a flower). Or if it had once been descriptive (and then perhaps not even a proper name at all), it may no longer be so (a location previously referred to as "the new town" may now have the proper name Newtown, though it is no longer new, and is now a city rather than a town).
In English and many other languages, proper names and words derived from them are associated with capitalization; but the details are complex, and vary from language to language (French lundi, Canada, canadien; English Monday, Canada, Canadian).
The study of proper names is sometimes called onomastics or onomatology while a rigorous analysis of the semantics of proper names is a matter for philosophy of language.Style guide
A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although that term may have other meanings. These standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field.
A style guide establishes standard style requirements to improve communication by ensuring consistency both within a document, and across multiple documents. Because practices vary, a style guide may set out standards to be used in areas such as punctuation, capitalization, citing sources, formatting of numbers and dates, table appearance and other areas. The style guide may require certain best practices in usage, language composition, visual composition, orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and compliance (technical and regulatory).
Style guides are specialized in a variey of ways, from the general use of a broad public audience, to a wide variety of specialized uses, such as for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business in general, and specific industries. The term house style refers to the individual style manual of a particular publisher or organization.Synesis
Synesis is a traditional grammatical/rhetorical term derived from Greek σύνεσις (originally meaning "unification, meeting, sense, conscience, insight, realization, mind, reason").
A constructio kata synesin (or constructio ad sensum in Latin) is a grammatical construction in which a word takes the gender or number not of the word with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied in that word. It is effectively an agreement of words with the sense, instead of the morphosyntactic form.Example:
If the band are popular, they will play next month.Here, the plural pronoun they and the plural verb form are co-refer with the singular noun band. One can think of the antecedent of they as an implied plural noun such as musicians.
Such use in English grammar is often called notional agreement (or notional concord), because the agreement is with the notion of what the noun means, rather than the strict grammatical form of the noun (the normative formal agreement). The term situational agreement is also found, since the same word may take a singular or plural verb depending on the interpretation and intended emphasis of the speaker or writer:
The government is united. (Implication: it is a single cohesive body, with a single agreed policy).
The government are divided. (Implication: it is made up of different individuals or factions, with their own different policy views).Other examples of notional agreement for collective nouns involve some uses of the words team and none.
Although notional agreement is more commonly used in British English than in American English, some amount is natural in any variety of English. American style guides give advice, for example, on notional agreement for phrases such as a number of, a lot of, and a total of. The AMA Manual of Style says, "The number is singular and a number of is plural" (thus the number of mosquitoes is increasing but a number of brands of mosquito repellent are available) and "The same is true for the total and a total of" (thus the total was growing but a total of 28 volunteers have submitted applications [not *has submitted]). This is the same concept that is covered by Chicago style (16th ed) at "5.9 Mass noun followed by a prepositional phrase", but not all of the relevant nouns (including "number") are mass nouns.The Cambridge Guide to English Usage
The Cambridge Guide to English Usage by Pam Peters is a usage dictionary, giving an up-to-date account of the debatable issues of English usage and written style. It is based on extensive, up-to-date corpus data rather than on the author's personal intuition or prejudice, and differentiates among US, UK, Canadian and Australian usages. British lexicographer Sidney Landau remarked:
The Cambridge Guide to English Usage is unique in the extent of its coverage of all the major varieties of English and in the degree to which it is based on corpus evidence, that is, on the analysis of vast collections of actual written and spoken language in each of the varieties under study.The Elements of Typographic Style
The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer, poet and translator Robert Bringhurst. Originally published in 1992 by Hartley & Marks Publishers, it was revised in 1996, 2001 (v2.4), 2002 (v2.5), 2004 (v3.0), 2005 (v3.1), 2008 (v3.2), and 2012 (v4.0). A history and guide to typography, it has been praised by Hermann Zapf, who said “I wish to see this book become the Typographers’ Bible.” Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones consider it "the finest book ever written about typography," according to the FAQ section of their type foundry's website. Because of its status as a respected and frequently cited resource, typographers and designers often refer to it simply as Bringhurst.
The title alludes to The Elements of Style, the classic guide to writing by Strunk and White.